- Cadastral divisions of Australia
Cadastral divisions of Australia (also called Land administrative divisions) refers to the parts of
legend|#ff8040|No counties, parishes or hundredslegend|#38e3a9|Counties, subdivided into parishes, and formerly with hundreds also (Cumberland only)
Australiawhich are divided into the cadastral units of counties, parishes, hundreds, and other divisions for the purposes of land ownership. Many property titles in Australia are listed as being in the parish and county.
The whole of the eastern states of
Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmaniawere divided into counties and parishes in the 19th century, although the Tasmanian counties were renamed land districts in the twentieth century. Parts of South Australia(south-east) and Western Australia(south-west) were similarly divided into counties, and there were also five counties in a small part of the Northern Territory. However South Australia has subdivisions of hundreds instead of parishes, along with the Northern Territory, which was part of South Australia when the hundreds were proclaimed. There were also formerly hundreds in Tasmania. There have been at least 600 counties, 544 hundreds and at least 15,692 parishes in Australia, but there are none of these units for most of the sparsely inhabited central and western parts of the country.
Counties in Australia have no administrative or political function, unlike those in England and the United States. Australia instead uses Local Government Areas, including
shires, districts, councilsand municipalities according to the state, as the second level subdivision.
Some other states were also divided into Land divisions and land districts; in the nineteenth century land districts sometimes served as the region name the parts of the state where counties had not been proclaimed yet. Below these are groups of land parcels known as Deposited Plans, Registered Plans or Title Plans (depending on the state). Queensland has Registered Plans; New South Wales and Western Australia have Deposited Plans; while Victoria has Certified Plans. Land can be identified using the number of this plan of subdivision held with the lands department, rather than with a named unit such as a parish (or both can be used); it is becoming increasingly common to use only the plan number. Within these are individual land parcels such as lots; in total there are estimated to be about 10.2 million of these in Australia. [ [http://eprints.unimelb.edu.au/archive/00001248/01/AustralianCadastralSystems%20_AustSurv03_.pdf Cadastral systems within Australia] ] The various cadastral units appear on Certificate of Titles, which are given Volume and Folio numbers; these numbers by themselves are sometimes used to identify land parcels, or in combination with the other units. Detailed maps of these divisions have been required since the introduction of the
Torrens titlesystem of a central register of land holdings in South Australia in 1858, which spread to the other colonies. While cadastral data since the 1980s has been digitalised, there remain many old maps showing these divisions held in collections of Australian libraries such as the National Library of Australia[ [http://www.nla.gov.au/map/cadastral.html National Library of Australia, Cadastral maps] ] , as well as in state libraries. [ [http://parishmaps.lands.nsw.gov.au/pmap.html New South Wales Parish map preservation project] ]
Counties were used since the earliest British settlement in Australia, with the County of Cumberland proclaimed by Captain Phillip on June 4, 1788. In 1804 Governor King divided
Van Diemen's Landinto two counties; Buckingham in the south and Cornwall in the north. [ [http://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?dID=69 Founding Documents] , National Archives of Australia, Colonel Collins' Commission 14 January 1803] The parishes date to the surveys conducted after 1825, with the instructions given to Governor Brisbane on 23 Jun 1825 to divide the colony into counties, hundreds and parishes. At this time there were five counties already proclaimed in New South Wales: Cumberland, Westmoreland, Camden, Argyle and Northumberland. [ [http://investigator.records.nsw.gov.au/Details/Agency_Detail.asp?Id=3427 State Records NSW, Archives Investigator, Commissioners for Apportioning the Territory] ] The Nineteen Countiesin south eastern New South Wales were the limits of location of the colony in a period after 1829, with the area outside them originally divided into districts, and later also into counties and parishes. Counties were established soon after the foundation of other Australian colonies.
Many of the counties have English names, often the names of counties in England, such as Devon, Dorset, Cornwall and Kent Counties in Tasmania. Less frequently, some have Aboriginal names such as the County of Yungnulgra in New South Wales, and
County of Croajingolongin Victoria.
The use of counties, hundreds and parishes was popular in Australia in the 19th century, with many maps of Australian colonies showing these divisions, [ [http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-rm1975 New country and rail road map of New South Wales [cartographic material] : showing rail roads, coach roads, cities, towns &c.1887. MAP RM 1975.] ] and towns and cities often listed in their county. Legal cases referenced counties [http://www.law.mq.edu.au/scnsw/Cases1831-32/html/r_v_webber__1831.htm] , and many genealogical records for Australia in the 19th century list the county and parish for location of birth, deaths and marriages [http://www.une.edu.au/archives/maps1-100.html] [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~yewenyi/23693.htm] [http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=yewenyi&id=I329] . The 1911 Britannica also describes Australian towns and cities as being in their respective county, including most of the capital cities:
Melbourne, County of Bourke[http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Melbourne,_Australia] ; Sydney, County of Cumberland [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Sydney,_Australia] ; Brisbane, County of Stanley [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Brisbane] ; Adelaide, County of Adelaide; and Hobart, County of Buckingham [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Hobart] . However it is not mentioned that Perth was located in the County of Perth [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Perth,_Australia] , as even by this time county names were infrequently used in Western Australia, where they did not cover all of the settled areas, unlike the other states. Instead the system of land divisions and land districts was used, with most of Perth located in the land districts of Swan, Canning and Cockburn Sound, all in the South West Division of Western Australia.
Counties and parishes are also still referenced in
property law, and in industrial relations instruments, for example in a New South Wales [http://www.industrialrelations.nsw.gov.au/Scripts/isyswebext.dll?op=get&uri=/isysquery/irl8c40/10/doc award] which excludes people from the County of Yancowinna. Similar award examples exist in the other states and territories that have been subdivided into counties. The County of Yancowinna is also the only part of New South Wales which is in a different time zone to the rest of the state, as mentioned in the Australian Standard Time Act of 1987 [http://www.aph.gov.au/LIBRARY/pubs/rn/2006-07/07rn13.htm] . Counties are also used on paperwork for mortgage securities in banks. Parishes and counties are also mentioned in definitions of electoral districts. [ [http://www.elections.nsw.gov.au/state_government_elections/electoral_districts/all_districts_/burrinjuck Burrinjuck Electoral District Profile] ]
Counties have since gone out of use in Australia, and are rarely used or even known by most of the population today. Part of the reason is that counties are based on the size of land, rather than population, so in a large country where most of the population live in cities on the coast while the countryside has a very low
population density, they have little relevance. The counties which contain the capital cities have millions of people, while those in remote areas have a very small population. The County of Cumberland, which contains Sydney, for instance, has a larger population than all the other counties in New South Wales combined. Another reason is that many of the counties' borders follow rivers, having been proclaimed before settlements developed, which means that towns which typically grow up on rivers often find themself in more than one county. Wangaratta, for instance, is located at the junction of the Ovens and King rivers, and is thus in three counties; Moira, Delatite and Bogong.
Some of the county names live on by being the same name of present-day local government areas, general region names, towns or establishments in the area. For instance, the current
Shire of Plantagenetand Shire of Victoria Plainsin Western Australia are in the similar area to the County of Plantagenet and County of Victoria, respectively. The modern city of Devonport in Tasmania is located in the County of Devon. Some regions do promote the county name, such as [http://www.argylecounty.com.au/ Argyle County] , while the County of Cadell (roughly in the Murray Shire area) is still the name for a [http://cadellvineyard.tripod.com/ vineyard] and [http://hotelkey.com/hotel-hh-21772-en/hotel-cadell-county-motor-lodge.html motor lodge] in the same area.
Australian Capital Territory
The land which became the
Australian Capital Territorywas made from land in the New South Wales counties of Murray and Cowley. This includes four former parishes of Canberra, Yarrolumla, Narrabundah and Gigerline in Murray and 15 former parishes in Cowley, while land in parts of other parishes of these counties also became part of the ACT. Also, in 1915, part of the Parish of Bherwerre in the County of St. Vincent was transferred to the federal government to become the Jervis Bay Territory, which was part of the ACT until self-government in 1989. Murray lies east of the Murrumbidgee River, with all of what is now Canberrawithin it, with Cowley to the west of the river. Parishes and counties are not currently used in ACT titles. Instead, the [http://www.legislation.act.gov.au/a/1966-5/20021011-3084/pdf/1966-5.pdf Districts Act 1966] divided the ACT into 18 districts [ [http://www.actmapi.act.gov.au/ ACT map, ACT Planning and Land Authority] ] : Canberra Central(which includes Inner North and Inner South Canberra), Woden Valley, Belconnen, Jerrabomberra, Majura, Tuggeranong, Weston Creek, Gungahlin, Stromlo, Kowen, Hall, Coree, Paddys River, Cotter River, Tennent, Rendezvous Creek, Boothand Mount Clear. The parts of these located in Canberra itself are divided into divisions (i.e. suburbs), sections and blocks. For example, the National Library of Australiais located in Section 27, Blocks 4, 5 and 8, Division of Parkes, District of Central Canberra[ [http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/heritage/act_heritage_register/act_heritage_register_suburbs/p ACT Heritage Register Suburbs] , ACT Department of Territory and Municipal Services]
New South Wales
There are 141 counties and 7,459 parishes within New South Wales. The County of Cumberland, in which
Sydneyis located, has the largest population. The original Nineteen Countieswere the limits of settlement in the early part of the 19th century. Legal documents describe the Lot number, Deposited Plan number, Parish and County. For example the Sydney Opera Houseis described as being in Lot 5 in Deposited Plan 775888 at Bennelong Point, Parish of St. James, Countyof Cumberland, city of Sydney [ [http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/worldheritage/sites/opera/pubs/sydopera-part1.pdf Australia's World Heritage] , Sydney Opera House, Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts] Note that the land administration counties are not the same as the county councilsthat have been used to administer water and electricity, such as the Goldenfields Water County Council. [ [http://www.gwcc.nsw.gov.au/ Goldenfields Water County Council] ] or Central Tablelands County Council [ [http://www.waterdirectorate.asn.au/centralwest_members/central_tableland_council.html Central Tablelands County Council] ] which do not correspond with a land administration county. However, there have been some land administration counties which did have county councils: Cumberland (1945-63), Northumberland (1948-63) and Rous (1940-pres., with trading name of Rous Water [ [http://www.rouswater.nsw.gov.au/content/uploads/TheSource_6Dec04.pdf Lismore Source newsletter] , Dec. 2004 "Who is Rous Water?")]
There were only five counties in the Northern Territory, which were divided into hundreds.
*County of Gladstone (separate from the others, in south-eastern
Arnhem Landin the Roper Riverarea)
Darwin is located in the
Hundred of Bagotin the County of Palmerston: usually only the hundred name, not the county, is mentioned. This is divided into sections. An example of the way locations are described for Darwin is Darwin Airport listed as being in "Section 3381, Hundred of Bagot from plan LT089/067A" [ [http://frli.law.gov.au/s97.vts?action=View&VdkVgwKey=1998B00035&Collection=FRLI&ViewTemplate=frliview.hts Federal Register of Legislative Instruments] ] In Alice Springs, where there are no hundreds or counties, legal documents give the lot number, town and plan number, for example "Lot 8721 Town of Alice Springs, plan(s) LTO96/016" [ [http://www.alicesprings.nt.gov.au/astc_site/content/download/3119/58747/file/Report%20164%20Sign%20&%20Seal%20PAWA%20Easement%20Extinguishment%20and%20Creation.pdf alicesprings.nt.gov.au PAWA EASEMENT EXTINGUISHMENT & CREATION — LOT 8721] ]
There are currently 322 counties in Queensland, subdivided into 5,319 parishes. [ [http://www.nrw.qld.gov.au/museum/articles_complete/mapping/cad.html Queensland government, Cadastral mapping] ] In the 19th century there were 109 counties, which were later divided into 319 in 1901. The counties which contain the largest population are those on the east coast with the County of Stanley containing
Brisbane; the County of Ward containing the Gold Coast and the County of Canning containing Caboolture. Several of these were counties in New South Wales before Queensland became a separate colony in 1859. Legal documents list the Lot number, Registered Plan number, County and Parish. For instance, government land near the Brisbane Cricket Grounddescribed as "Lot 2 on Registered Plan B31553, County of Stanley, Parish of South Brisbane" [ [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/qld/bill/bcgb1993228/ Brisbane Cricket Ground Bill 1993] ] . In 2006, the Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Water was considering abolishing Counties and Parishes and using only Lot and Plan numbers to identify parcels of land. [ [http://www.ipswich.qld.gov.au/icc_cms/plugins/media_releases/viewMediaReleasePDF.php?id=452 Ipswich city council media release] Plan to change Queensland's land title system]
There are forty-nine counties in South Australia, mostly in the south-east part of the state. The counties are divided into 526 hundreds.
Adelaideis located in the Hundred of Adelaidein the County of Adelaide. The County Adelaide between 1855 and 1921 held at least 60% of South Australia's population; the figure rose to 70.6% in 1966. [ [http://www.atlas.sa.gov.au/go/resources/atlas-of-south-australia-1986/south-australians/population-change Atlas South Australia] ] All of the counties had been proclaimed by 1900, except for Le Hunte (proclaimed 1908), Bosanquet (proclaimed 1913), and Hore-Ruthven (proclaimed 1933). [ [http://www.adelaideco-op.familyhistorysa.info/hundreds.html The Hundreds of South Australia; shows the proclamation date of counties] ] Parcels of land in most residential areas are identified with the Deposited Plan or Filed Plan number with an allotment number, for example "Allotment 20 in Deposited Plan(DP) 11270" [ [http://www.onkaparingacity.com/web/binaries?
] , Minutes of the Operations Committee Meeting, 20 September 2005] . In many rural areas and historically in residential areas, land is described with the Section number, Hundred and County, for example "Section 53, Hundred of Borda, County of Carnarvon" [ [http://www.parliament.sa.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/4CAFE219-4281-4627-965D-796BBBE2FCBA/3687/36tuesday15october2002.htm Votes and Proceedings of the House of Assembly] , Parliament.sa.gov.au, Tuesday 15 October 2002] , or the allotment number within government towns. [ [http://www.landservices.sa.gov.au/1Online_Services/30PIERS_Online/FindingplansforaparceloflandinPIERSOnline.asp Finding plans for a parcel of land] , Land Services South Australia] Sometimes a combination is used, such as "allotment 1 (DP 25326), Hundred of Munno Para" [ [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/ngaa1967253/sch2.html NATURAL GAS AUTHORITY ACT 1967 - SCHEDULE 2] , South Australian Consolidated Acts, Austlii] Often only the Hundred name is used [ [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/npawa1972247/sch4.html NATIONAL PARKS AND WILDLIFE ACT 1972 - SCHEDULE 4] , Austlii] , not the County, as each Hundred has a unique name and the county name is not necessary.
Tasmania is divided into 20 land districts, subdivided into 480 parishes. These include the former 18 counties, which were renamed land districts and retained the same borders. In addition
Flinders Islandand King Islandare now also districts. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century Tasmania had 18 counties, as noted in the [http://www.fromoldbooks.org/Wood-NuttallEncyclopaedia/t/tasmania.html 1907 Nuttall Encyclopedia] . There was another type of smaller county in Tasmania in the early 19th Century, with some early 19th Century maps, such as [http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-nk11155-2 this 1852 map] , showing 36 counties in Tasmania, lying in a strip of land between Hobartand Launceston, but not covering the entire island. Hundreds were also introduced under Governor Arthur. [ [http://www.electoral.tas.gov.au/pages/LegislativeCouncil/DivisionNames/Pembroke.html Tasmanian electoral commission, Pembroke] ] Legal documents list Lot numbers, Plan numbers, Parishes and Land Districts. For example "Lot No. 2 on Plan No. P.14486, Parish of Sorell, Land District of Pembroke" [ [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/num_reg/ar1998n51345/sch1.html AIRPORTS REGULATIONS (AMENDMENT) 1998 No. 51 - SCHEDULE] , Austlii]
The counties of Victoria were gazetted in stages between 1849 and 1890. There are 37 counties, roughly 40 x 40 miles in size, which are further divided into 2914 [ [https://www.landata.vic.gov.au/clso.net/coverage/index.html landata.vic.gov.au] , Crown Land Status Online] parishes. The parishes were further subdivided into sections of about 1x1 mile, or designated as a town and then divided into sections and these subdivided into crown allotments. However many parishes in Victoria do not follow the county borders, some being located in more than one county, unlike in New South Wales. The county with the largest population is the
County of Bourke, which contains Melbourne. Legal documents can describe the County, Parish, Township (if there is one), Section, Crown Allotment number, and Certified Plan number [ [http://www.nre.vic.gov.au/Land/lcnlc2.nsf/childdocs/-418EED712A81C5AE4A256A0A0015CDC1-4D90CA6920C647A04A256A50000D72DE-206FCC0ADE92D139CA257108003D006F-5F7E799CD5750B81CA25712300803F67-775186A10786C3964A256B4200215F10?open Crown Survey Requirements] , land.vic.gov.au] . For example: " County of Dalhousie, Parish of Lauriston, being 2 hectares, being Crown Allotment 2, Section 40" [ [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/bill/lb2004193/ LAND (MISCELLANEOUS) BILL 2004] ] or "Parish of Ballarat, County of Grant.. Crown Allotment 29, Section 101, Township of Ballarat East.. as shown on Certified Plan No. 105127" [ [http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/Domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/PubLawToday.nsf/95c43dd4eac71a68ca256dde00056e7b/470d34d6e095ac8bca256e5b000373d0/$FILE/70-7955a001.pdf Ballarat (Sovereign Hill) Land Act 1970] . Act No. 7955/1970]
At the start of the 20th century, Western Australia had six Land Divisions which cover the whole state, divided into 80 Land Districts. The land districts were further subdivided into locations and lots. Western Australia also had 26 counties, all located in the south-west corner of the state, around Perth. The counties were designated in 1829, the year of the foundation of the
Swan River Colony, with Governor Stirling instructing that counties were to be approximately 40 miles square (1600 square miles). The counties appear on some nineteenth century maps of Australia along with counties in other states [ [http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-rm941 Australasia 1882] Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great Britain). Committee of General Literature and Education. NLA MAP RM 941.] [ [http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-t148 Australia 1873] Bartholomew, John, 1831-1893. NLA MAP T 148] , however it was the land districts which were used for cadastral purposes, and were the equivalent of the counties used in the eastern states. Legal documents usually write them in the order: Land District, Location, number. For example: "Swan Location 2301" [ [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/wa/consol_act/copra1993335/s32.html CITY OF PERTH RESTRUCTURING ACT 1993 - SECT 32] ] These are further divided into lots. More recently, Western Australia uses only the Lot and Deposited Plan numbers, such as "Lot 1209, as shown on Deposited Plan 173935" [ [http://boundarieswa.com/Documents/pdf/Technical_Descriptions.pdf Electoral District Boundaries] , technical descriptions, Boundarieswa.com, 4 August 2003]
Australian property law
Australian Property Legislation
* [http://extranet.mapinfo.com/products/Overview.cfm?productid=866 MapInfo CadastralPlus, database of all land parcels]
* [http://www.geo21.ch/cadastraltemplate/countrydata/au.htm Cadastral Template, Australia country data]
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