- Waitemata Harbour
The Waitemata Harbour is the main access by sea to
Auckland, New Zealand. For this reason it is often referred to as "Auckland Harbour", despite the fact that it is only one of two harbours surrounding the city, and is crossed by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. The Waitemata forms the north and east coasts of the Auckland isthmus. It is matched on the south by the shallower waters of Manukau Harbour.
With a size of 70 square miles, [http://www.teara.govt.nz/1966/W/WaitemataHarbour/WaitemataHarbour/en Waitemata Harbour] (from
Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand)] it connects the city's main port and the Auckland waterfrontto the Hauraki Gulf, and the Pacific Ocean. It is sheltered from Pacific storms by Auckland's North Shore, Rangitoto Islandand Waiheke Island.
The name is from the
Māori language, with Wai te Mataa referring to obsidianglass. The 'sparkling waters' (a later translation of the meaning) of the harbour were said to glint like the volcanic glass prized by these early arrivals to the harbour. [Information plaque at the end of Princes Wharf, as of 2007]
The harbour is an arm of the Hauraki Gulf, extending west for eighteen kilometres from the end of the
Rangitoto Channel. Its entrance is between North Head and Bastion Pointin the south. The westernmost ends of the harbour extend past Whenuapaiin the northwest, and to Te Atatuin the west, as well as forming the estuarial arm known as the Whau Riverin the southwest.
The north shore of the harbour is formed by
North Shore City, one of several separate cities within Greater Auckland. Suburbs located close to the shore here include Birkenhead, Northcote and Devonport (west to east). To the south is the heart of Auckland City, with the Auckland waterfront, as well as coastal suburbs such as Mission Bay, Parnell, Herne Bay and Point Chevalier(east to west), the latter of which lies on a short triangular peninsula jutting into the harbour.
The harbour is crossed at its narrowest point by the
Auckland Harbour Bridge. To the east of its southern end lie the marinas of Westhaven, as well as the suburbs of Freemans Bayand the Viaduct Basin. Further east from these, and close to the harbour's entrance, lies the Port of Auckland.
There are other wharves and ports within the harbour, notable among them the
Devonport Naval Base, and its accompanying ammunition dump at Kauri Point, Birkenhead, and the Chelsea Sugar Refinerywharf, all capable of taking ships over GRT|500|first=yes. [http://www.axis-intermodal.co.nz/_downloads/AXIS_Immediate__Sep06.pdf ID Positive] (newsletter of Axis Intermodal, September 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-06)] Smaller wharves at Birkenhead, Northcote, Devonport and West Harbour offer commuter ferry services to the Auckland CBD.
The harbour is in fact a drowned valley system in
marine sediments deposited during the Miocene. Recent volcanism in the Auckland volcanic fieldhas also shaped the coast, most obviously at Devonport and the Meola Reef(a lava flow which almost spans the harbour), but also in the explosion craters of Orakei Basinand in western Shoal Bay. In periods of low sea level, a tributary ran from Milford into the Shoal Bay stream. This valley provided the harbour with a second entrance when sea levels rose, until the Lake Pupukevolcano plugged this gap. ["City of Volcanoes: A geology of Auckland" - Searle, E. J., 1981, 2nd edition, revised by Mayhill, R. D. Longman Paul, Auckland. ISBN 0582717841. Figure 5.2, Page 69.]
The current shore is strongly influenced by tidal rivers, particularly in the west and north of the harbour.
Mudflats covered by mangroves flourish in these conditions, and salt marshes are also typical.
The harbour has long been the main anchorage and port area for the Auckland area, even before European colonial times. Well sheltered not only by the Hauraki Gulf itself but also by Rangitoto Island, the harbour offered good protection in almost all winds, and lacked dangerous shoals or major sand bars (like on the
Manukau Harbour) that would have made entry difficult. The harbour also proved a fertile area for encroaching development, with major land reclamationundertaken, especially along the Auckland waterfront, within a few decades of the city's European founding. ["References provided in the Auckland waterfrontarticle."]
Taking the idea of the several Māori
portagepaths over the isthmus one step further, a potential Waitemata Harbour-Manukau Harbour canal was considered in the the early 1900s, and legislation, the Auckland and Manukau Canal Act 1908, was passed that would allow authorities to take privately owned land where it was deemed required for a canal. However, no serious work (or land take) was undertaken. The act is technically still in force as of 2008. [" [http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10513619 Weird old laws can still trap the unwary ] " - " The New Zealand Herald", Saturday May 31, 2008]
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