- Environment Court of New Zealand
The Environment Court of New Zealand (Māori: Te Kooti Taiao o Aotearoa) is a specialist court for environmental issues within the court system of
New Zealand. It mainly deals with issues arising under the Resource Management Act.
The New Zealand history of independent
appeal courts addressing environmental matters began with the establishment of Appeal Boards under the Town and Country Planning Act 1953. The first planning appeals were heard in February 1955. The Appeal Boards were replaced by the Planning Tribunal following the passing of the Town and Country Planning Act 1977. ["Politics and Planning: The Independence of the Environment Court" - Judge John Bollard, New Zealand Planning Institute2007 Conference, Wednesday 28 March 2007]
The present-day Environment Court replaced the Planning Tribunal as a result of the Resource Management Amendment Act 1996. [ [http://www.justice.govt.nz/environment/ Environment Court] (from the Ministry of Justice website)]
The Environment Court has a substantially larger role than the Planning Tribunal, with expanded functions and powers over planning,
resource consents and enforcement. Virtually all important processes and decisions under the Resource Management Act1991, such as regional policy statements, regional and district plans, resource consents and water conservation orders, may be reviewed in the Environment Court. [Birdsong, B. (1998) [http://www.fulbright.org.nz/voices/axford/docs/birdsongb.pdf Adjudicating Sustainability: The Environment Court and New Zealand's Resource Management Act] , Prepared by Bret Birdsong October 1998 copyright © Ian Axford (New Zealand) Fellowship in Public Policy, page 18.]
In particular, the Environment Court hears appeals on decisions on applications for
resource consenton a 'de novo' basis. The Environment Court does not review the decision, it hears any evidence it requires and makes its own decision which replaces that of the local authority. It focuses on "the merits and substance of the particular decision at issue, not the deliberative process of the executive authority that made the initial decision." [Birdsong, B. (1998), page 22.]
The Environment Court also has the power to make declarations that interpret what the law is under the
Resource Management Act.
The Environment Court has the status and powers of a District Court so it can conduct prosecutions and enforcement of the
Resource Management Actthrough civil or criminal proceedings. [Birdsong, B. (1998), page 77.]
The Environment Court also has functions under other statutes:
*Forests Act 1949 - Appeals about felling beech forests
*Local Government Act 1974 (New Zealand) - Objections to road stopping proposals.
*Public Works Act 1981 - Objections to the compulsory taking of land.
*Transit New Zealand Act 1989 - Objections regarding access to limited access roads.
*Crown Minerals Act 1991 - Administration of existing privileges.
*Electricity Act 1992 - Disputes about land access to existing works.
*Historic Places Act 1993 - Appeals about archaeological sites.
*Maori Commercial Aquaculture Claim Settlement Act 2004 - Appeals against allocation decisions of regional councils, and,
*Biosecurity Act 1993 - Appeals about regional pest strategies. [ [http://www.justice.govt.nz/environment/legislation-and-resources/default.asp Legislation and Resources] , Environment Court of New Zealand website, retrieved 7 January 2008.]
Decisions of the Environment Court may only be appealed to the
High Court of New Zealandon a point of law. [Section 299 "Resource Management Act" 1991 (New Zealand)]
The Environment Court is a single court, but it has no centralised courthouse and it sits in courthouses across the country. Judges for the court are permanently stationed in
Wellington, Auckland, and Christchurch, but they travel to other centres on circuit as needed.
* [http://www.justice.govt.nz/environment/home.asp Environmental Court of New Zealand] : official site
* Your Guide to the Environment Court: An Everyday Guide to the RMA. Series 6.1, Ref. ME760, Ministry for the Environment, Wellington, New Zealand, June 2006. [http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/rma/everyday/court-guide-jun06/court-guide-jun06.pdf portable document format] , and [http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/rma/everyday/court-guide-jun06/html/index.html web page]
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