- History of the United States Air Force
United States Air Forcebecame a separate military service on September 18, 1947, with the implementation of the National Security Act of 1947. [The primary source for the history of the USAF prior to 1947 is "Winged Shield, Winged Sword: A History of the United States Air Force" Vol. I (1997) ISBN 0-16-049009-X , an Air University publication] [U.S. Intelligence Community (October 2004). " [http://www.intelligence.gov/0-natsecact_1947.shtml National Security Act of 1947] ". Retrieved April 14, 2006.] The Act created the United States Department of Defense, which was composed of three branches, the Army, Navy and a newly created Air Force. [U.S. Department of State(2006). " [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17603.htm National Security Act of 1947] ". Retrieved April 14, 2006.] Prior to 1947, the responsibility for military aviation was divided between the Army (for land-based operations) and the Navy, for sea-based operations from aircraft carrierand amphibious aircraft. The Army created the first antecedent of the Air Force in 1907, which through a succession of changes of organization, titles, and missions advanced toward eventual separation 40 years later. The predecessor organizations leading up to today's U.S. Air Force are:
Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps( August 1, 1907to July 18, 1914)
Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps( July 18, 1914to May 20, 1918)
Division of Military Aeronautics( May 20, 1918to May 24, 1918)
U.S. Army Air Service( May 24, 1918to July 2, 1926)
U.S. Army Air Corps( July 2, 1926to June 20, 1941) and
U.S. Army Air Forces( June 20, 1941to September 17, 1947)
World War I and between wars
In 1918, upon the United States' entry into
World War I, the first major U.S. aviation combat force was created when an Air Service was formed as part of the American Expeditionary Force(AEF). Major General Mason Patrickcommanded the Air Service of the AEF; his deputy was Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. These aviation units, some of which were trained in France, provided tactical support for the U.S. Army, especially during the Battle of Saint-Mihieland the Meuse-Argonne offensives. Among the aces of the AEF Air Service were Captain Eddie Rickenbackerand 2nd Lieutenant Frank Luke.Concurrent with the creation of this combat force, the U.S. Army's aviation establishment in the United States was removed from control of the Signal Corps and placed directly under the United States Secretary of War. An assistant secretary was created to direct the Army Air Service, which had dual responsibilities for development and procurement of aircraft, and raising and training of air units. With the end of the First World War, the AEF's Air Service was dissolved and the Army Air Service in the United States largely demobilized.
In 1920, the Air Service became a branch of the Army and in 1926 was reorganized into the U.S. Army Air Corps (USAAC). During this period, the USAAC began experimenting with new techniques, including
air-to-air refuelingand the development of the B-9 and the Martin B-10, the first all-metal monoplane bombers, and new fighters. In 1937, the B-17 Flying Fortressmade its first appearance. In a spectacular feat of navigation, three B-17s intercepted the Italian passenger liner "Rex" at sea. Though intended to demonstrate the ability of the Air Corps to defend the nation's coasts, the mission also indicated the emerging doctrine within the Air Corps of the supremacy of strategic bombing.
In 1935, as a result of recommendations from two civilian review boards, the next advancement toward independence for the Air Force occurred when all flying units, which heretofore had been distributed to various ground commands, were grouped together as an aerial task force under one air commander as the General Headquarters, Air Force. The Air Corps, headed by the Chief of the Air Corps, continued as before but now held responsibility only for supply, airfields, and training, in effect splitting the Air Force into two parts. Both components were commanded by major generals (
Frank Andrewsand Oscar Westover, followed by Henry H. ("Hap") Arnold).
During World War I, aviation technology developed rapidly; however, the Army's reluctance to use the new technology began to make airmen think that as long as the Army controlled aviation, development would be stunted and a potentially valuable force neglected. Air Corps senior officer Billy Mitchell began to campaign for Air Corps independence. But his campaign offended many and resulted in a court martial in 1925 that effectively ended his career. His followers, including future aviation leaders "Hap" Arnold and
Carl Spaatz, saw the lack of public, congressional, and military support that Mitchell received and decided that America was not ready for an independent air force. Under the leadership of its chief of staff Mason Patrick and, later, Arnold, the Air Corps waited until the time to fight for independence arose again.
World War II
The Air Force came of age in
World War II. President Franklin D. Roosevelttook the lead, calling for a vastly enlarged air force based on long-range strategic bombing. Organizationally it became largely independent in 1941, when the Army Air Corps became a part of the new U.S. Army Air Forces(USAAF), and the GHQ Air Force was redesignated the subordinate Combat Command. In the major reorganization of the Army by War Department Circular 59, effective March 9, 1942, the newly created United States Army Air Forces gained equal voice with the Army and Navy on the Joint Chiefs of Staffand complete autonomy from the Army Ground Forces and the Services of Supply. The reorganization also eliminated both Combat Command and the Air Corps as organizations (the latter became a combat arm until 1947) in favor of a streamlined system of commands and numbered air forces for decentralized management of the burgeoning Army Air Forces.
The reorganization merged all aviation elements of the former air arm into the Army Air Forces. Although the Air Corps still legally existed as an Army branch, the position of Chief of the Air Corps was left vacant, and the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps was dissolved. AAF leaders tried to completely eliminate the term "Air Corps."Fact|date=February 2007 However, people in and out of AAF who remembered the prewar designation often used the term "Air Corps" informally, as did the media. [AAFHA (2002). " [http://www.aafha.org/aaf_or_aircorps.html Was It the Air Corps or Army Air Forces in WW II?] ". Retrieved December 18, 2006.]
Carl A. Spaatztook command of the Eighth Air Forcein London in 1942; with General Ira Eakerhe supervised the strategic bombing campaign. In late 1943, Spaatz was made commander of the new U.S. Strategic Air Forces, reporting directly to the Combined Chiefs of Staff. Spaatz began daylight bombing operations using the prewar doctrine of flying bombers in close formations, relying on their combined defensive firepower for protection from attacking enemy aircraft rather than supporting fighter escorts. The doctrine proved flawed when deep-penetration missions beyond the range of escort fighters were attempted, because German fighter planes overwhelmed U.S. formations, shooting down bombers in excess of "acceptable" loss rates, especially in combination with the vast number of flak anti-aircraft batteries defending Germany's major targets. American fliers took heavy casualties during raids on the oil refineries of Ploieşti, Romania, and the ball-bearing factories at Schweinfurt and Regensburg, Germany, and it was the loss rate in crews and not materiel that brought about a pullback from the strategic offensive in the autumn of 1943.
The Eighth Air Force had attempted to use both the
P-47and P-38as escorts, but while the Thunderboltwas a capable dog-fighter it lacked the range, even with the addition of drop tanks to extend its range, and the Lightningproved mechanically unreliable in the frigid altitudes at which the missions were fought. Bomber protection was greatly improved after the introduction of North American P-51 Mustangfighters in Europe. With its built-in extended range and competitive or superior performance characteristics in comparison to all existing German piston-engined fighters, the Mustang was an immediately available solution to the crisis. In January 1944 the Eighth Air Force obtained priority in equipping its groups, so that ultimately 14 of its 15 groups fielded Mustangs. P-51 escorts began operations in February 1944 and increased their numbers rapidly, so that the Luftwaffe suffered increasing fighter losses in aerial engagements beginning with Big Weekin early 1944. Allied fighters were also granted free rein in attacking German fighter airfields, both in pre-planned missions and while returning to base from escort duties, and the major Luftwaffe threat against Allied bombers was severely diminished by D-Day.
Pacific Theater of Operations, the USAAF provided major tactical support under General George Kenneyto Douglas MacArthurin the Southwest Pacific theater. Kenney's pilots invented the skip-bombing technique against Japanese ships. Kenney's forces claimed destruction of 11,900 Japanese planes and 1.7 million tons of shipping.
The USAAF created the
Twentieth Air Forceto employ long-range B-29 Superfortressbombers in strategic attacks on Japanese cities. The use of forward bases in China(needed to be able to reach Japan by the heavily-laden B-29's) was ineffective because of the difficulty in logistically supporting the bases entirely by air from its main bases in India, and because of a persistent threat against the Chinese airfields by the Japanese army. After the Mariana Islandswere captured in mid-1944, providing locations for air bases that could be supplied by sea, Arnold moved all B-29 operations there by April 1945 and made General Curtis LeMayhis bomber commander (reporting directly to Arnold, who personally commanded Twentieth Air Force until July). LeMay reasoned that the Japanese economy, much of which was cottage industryin dense urban areas where manufacturing and assembly plants were also located, was particularly vulnerable to area attack, and abandoned inefficient high-altitude precision bombing in favor of low-level incendiary bombings, aimed at destroying large urban areas. Tokyosuffered a firestorm in which over 100,000 persons died. At the same time the B-29 was also employed in wide-spread mining of Japanese harbors and sea lanes. Neither Arnold and General Carl Spaatzwanted to use the atomic bomb, but were ordered by Secretary of War Henry Stimsonand President Harry Trumanto use the new weapon against Japan during the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasakiin August 1945.
Cold War and war in Korea
In practice, the
U.S. Army Air Forceswas virtually independent of the Army during World War II, but officials wanted formal independence. Over the continuing objections of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force was created by the National Security Act of 1947. That act became effective September 18, 1947when the first secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington, took office.
After World War II, relations between the United States and the
Soviet Unionbegan to deteriorate, and the period in history known as the Cold Warbegan. The United States entered an arms race with the Soviet Union and competition aimed at increasing each nation's influence throughout the world. In response, the United States expanded its military presence throughout the world. The USAF opened air bases throughout Europe, and later in Japanand South Korea. The United States also built air bases on the British overseas territoriesof British Indian Ocean Territoryand Ascension Islandin the South Atlantic. Operation Vittles: The first test for the USAF during the Cold War came in 1948, when Communistauthorities in Eastern Germanycut off road and air transportation to West Berlin. The USAF, along with the Royal Air Force(RAF), supplied the city during the Berlin airlift, using C-121 Constellations and the C-54 Skymasters. The efforts of the USAF and British RAF saved the city from starvation and forced the Soviets to back down in their blockade.
Conflict over post-war military administration, especially with regard to the roles and missions to be assigned to the Air Force and the U.S. Navy, led to an episode called the "
Revolt of the Admirals" in the late 1940s, in which high-ranking Navy officers argued the case for carrier-based aircraft rather than strategic bombers.
In 1947, the USAF began
Project Sign, a study of unidentified flying objects what would be twice revived (first as Project Grudgeand finally as Project Blue Book) and which would last until 1969. [ [http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?fsID=188 Unidentified Flying Objects and Air Force Project Blue Book (USAF Fact Sheet 95-03] , updated October, 2005); URL retrieved 25June 2007]
Korean War, which began in June 1950, the Far East Air Forces (FEAF) were among the first units to respond to the invasion by North Korea, but quickly lost its main airbase at Kimpo, South Korea. Forced to provide close air supportto the defenders of the Pusanpocket from bases in Japan, the FEAF also conducted a strategic bombing campaign against North Korea's war-making potential simultaneously. General Douglas MacArthur's landing at Inchon in September 1950 enabled the FEAF to return to Korea and develop bases from which they supported MacArthur's drive to the Korean-Chinese border.
When the Chinese
People's Liberation Armyattacked in December 1950, the USAF provided tactical air support. The introduction of Soviet-made MiG-15jet fighters caused problems for the B-29s used to bomb North Korea, but the USAF countered the MiGs with its new F-86 Sabrejet fighters. Although both air superiorityand close air supportmissions were successful, a lengthy attempt to interdict communist supply lines by air attack failed and was replaced by a systematic campaign to inflict as much economic cost to North Korea and the Chinese forces as long as war persisted, including attacks on the capital city of Pyongyangand against the North Korean hydroelectric system.
The USAF was heavily deployed during the
Vietnam War. The first bombing raids against North Vietnamoccurred in 1964, following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. In March 1965, a sustained bombing campaign began, code-named Operation Rolling Thunder. This campaign's purpose was to destroy the will of the North Vietnamese to fight, destroy industrial bases and air defences, and to stop the flow of men and supplies down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, while forcing North Vietnam into peace negotiations. The USAF dropped more bombs in all combat operations in Vietnam during the period 1965-68 than it did during World War II, [DoD release January 1968, cited in CIA estimate of damage to North Vietnam infrastructure] and the Rolling Thunder campaign lasted until the U.S. presidential election of 1968. Except for heavily damaging the North Vietnamese economy and infrastructure, Rolling Thunder failed in its political and strategic goals.
The USAF also played a critical role in defeating the
Easter Offensiveof 1972. The rapid redeployment of fighters, bombers, and attack aircraft help the South Vietnamese Army repel the invasion. Operation Linebackerdemonstrated to both the North and South Vietnamese that even without significant U.S. Army ground forces, the United States could still influence the war. The air war for the United States ended with Operation Linebacker II, also known as the "Christmas Bombings." These helped to finalize the Paris peace negotiations.
The insurgent nature of combat operations early in the war, and the necessity of interdicting the North Vietnamese regular army and its supply lines in third-party countries of Southeast Asia led to the development of a significant special operations capability within the USAF. Provisional and experimental concepts such as air commandos and aerial gunships, tactical missions such as the partially-successful
Operation Ivory Coastdeep inside enemy territory, and a dedicated Combat Search and Rescue mission resulted in development of operational doctrines, units, and equipment.
Combat operations since 1975
The USAF modernized its tactical air forces in the late 1970s with the introduction of the
F-15, A-10, and F-16fighters, and the implementation of realistic training scenarios under the aegis of Red Flag. In turn it also upgraded the equipment and capabilities of its Air Reserve Components (ARC) by the equipping of both the Air National Guardand Air Force Reservewith first-line aircraft.
Expanding its force structure in the 1980s to 40 fighter wings and drawing further on the lessons of the Vietnam War, the USAF also dedicated units and aircraft to
Electronic Warfare(EW) and the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD). The humiliating failure in April 1980 of the Operation Eagle Clawrescue mission in Iran resulted directly in an increased USAF emphasis on participation in the doctrine, equipment, personnel, and planning of Joint Special Operations.
USAF participated in
Operation Eagle Claw- the attempted hostage rescue mission in Iran 1979.
The USAF provided attack, airlift, and combat support capability for operations in Grenada in 1983, Libya in 1986, and Panama in 1989. Lessons learned in these operations were applied to its force structure and doctrine, and became the basis for successful air operations in the 1990s and after
September 11, 2001.
The development of satellite reconnaissance during the Cold War, the extensive use of both tactical and strategic aerial reconnaissance during numerous combat operations, and the nuclear war deterrent role of the USAF resulted in the recognition of space as a possible combat arena. An emphasis on "aerospace" operations and doctrine grew in the 1980s. Missile warning and space operations were combined to form
Air Force Space Commandin 1982. In 1991, Operation Desert Stormprovided emphasis for the command's new focus on supporting combat operations.
The creation of the
Internetand the universality of computer technology as a basic warfighting tool resulted in the priority development of cyber warfaretechniques and defenses by the USAF.
The USAF provided the bulk of the Allied air power during the
Gulf Warin 1991, flying alongside aircraft of the U.S. Navy and the RAF. The F-117 Nighthawkstealth fighter's capabilities were shown on the first night of the air war when it was able to bomb central Baghdadand avoid the sophisticated Iraqi anti-aircraft defenses. The USAF, along with the U.S. Navy and the RAF, later patrolled the skies of northern and southern Iraq after the war to ensure that Iraq's air defence capability could not be rebuilt. Operation Provide Comfort1991-96 and Operation Northern Watch1997-2003 - no-fly zones North of the 36° parallel and Operation Southern Watch- no-fly zone South of the 33° parallel.
In 1996 (
Operation Desert Strikeand 1998 Operation Desert FoxUSAF bombed Saddam Hussein's Iraq.
Bosnia and Kosovo
The USAF led
NATOaction in Bosnia with no-fly zones ( Operation Deny Flight) 1993-96 and in 1995 with air strikes against the Bosnian Serbs( Operation Deliberate Force). This was the first time that USAF aircraft took part in military action as part of a NATO mission. The USAF led the strike forces as the NATO air force (otherwise mainly composed of RAF and Luftwaffe aircraft) with the greatest capability to launch air strikes over a long period of time.
In 1999 the USAF led NATO air strikes against
Serbiaduring the Kosovo War( Operation Allied Force). NATO forces were later criticised for bombing civilian targets in Belgrade, including a strike on a civilian television station, and a later attack which destroyed the Chinese embassy.
Afghanistan and Iraq
In 2001, the USAF was deployed against the
Talibanforces in Afghanistan. Operating from Diego Garcia, B-52 Stratofortressand B-1 Lancerbombers attacked Taliban positions. The USAF deployed daisy cutter bombs, dropped from C-130 Herculescargo planes, for the first time since the Vietnam War. During this conflict, the USAF opened up bases in Central Asia for the first time.
The USAF was deployed in the
2003 invasion of Iraq. Following the defeat of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the USAF took over Baghdad International Airportas a base. USAF aircraft are used to provide support to Coalition and Iraqi forces in major operations to eliminate insurgent centers of activity and supply in north and west Iraq. Operations in both Afghanistan and Iraq demonstrated the effective utility of Unmanned air vehicles, the most prominent of which was the MQ-1 Predator.
The USAF maintains a Combined Air & Space Operations Center in the Middle East to direct air combat operations and Predator actions. [ [http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/02/15/air_war/ "Killing 'Bubba' from the skies" by Mark Benjamin, Salon.com, February 15, 2008] ]
Today, The United States Air Force is the largest and most technologically advanced
air forcein the world, with about 5778 manned aircraft in service, approximately 156 Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles, 2130 Air-Launched Cruise Missiles, and 450 intercontinental ballistic missiles. The USAF has 328,439 personnel on active duty, 74,000 in the Selected and Individual Ready Reserves, and 106,000 in the Air National Guard. In addition, the Air Force employs 168,900 civilian personnel including indirect hire of foreign nationals.
An Air Force fighter pilot died
February 20 2008after two F-15C jets collided during a training exercise over the Gulf of Mexico. [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/US/02/20/jetcrash/index.html Air Force: 1 pilot dies, another survives after F15Cs collide, February 20, 2008] ]
The U.S. Air Force on
February 29 2008announced one of the largest military acquisition programs in U.S. history, saying the service had chosen Northrop Grummanover Boeingto replace its aging air refueling tanker fleet. [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/US/02/29/air.force.tankers/index.html Northrop Grumman gets $40B deal to replace Air Force tankers, February 29, 2008] ]
The pilot of an F-16C fighter [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-16#F-16C.2FF-16D] jet that crashed in a remote area about 80 miles northwest of
Phoenix, Arizonawas killed when his plane went down. The plane was spotted late March 13 2008. Rescuers could reach the site only by helicopter and arrived at daybreak March 15 2008. There have been 17 other crashes of Luke Air Force BaseF-16s since 1998, and only one of those resulted in a fatality. That crash happened in May 2004, when a pilot with the Republic of Singapore Air Forcedied after his jet went down during a training mission at an Air Force bombing range in southwest Arizona. The most recent crashes came in 2006. A pilot ejected safely from an F-16 in April 2006 after the lone engine on the jet exploded just after takeoff from the base. The aircraft came down in a cornfield. [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/US/03/15/f16.crash.ap/index.html Pilot killed in F-16 combat training, March 16, 2008] ]
June 5, 2008Robert Gates announced the results of an investigation into the misshipment of four MK-12 forward-section reentry vehicle assemblies to Taiwan. The investigation, conducted by Admiral Kirkland H. Donald, director of the US Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, found that the Taiwan missile incident was, in Gates' words, "A degradation of the authority, standards of excellence and technical competence within the nation's ICBM force. Similar to the bomber-specific August 2007 Minot-Barksdale nuclear weapons transfer incident, this incident took place within the larger environment of declining Air Force nuclear mission focus and performance" and that "the investigation identified commonalities between the August 2007 Minot incident and this [the Taiwan] event." In his investigation report, Donald stated that the issues identified by his investigation were, "Indicative of an overall decline in Air Force nuclear weapons stewardship, a problem that has been identified but not effectively addressed for over a decade. Both the Minot-Barksdale nuclear weapons transfer incident and the Taiwan misshipment, while different in specifics, have a common origin: the gradual erosion of nuclear standards and a lack of effective oversight by Air Force leadership" [US DoD, "DoD News Briefing with Secretary Gates from the Pentagon", "Military Times", "Moseley and Wynne forced out", Shanker, "2 Leaders Ousted From Air Force in Atomic Errors".]
As a result of the investigation, Gates announced that, "A substantial number of Air Force general officers and colonels have been identified as potentially subject to disciplinary measures, ranging from removal from command to letters of reprimand," and that he had accepted the resignations of USAF Secretary Michael Wynn and USAF Chief of Staff Michael Moseley. Gates added that he had asked
James R. Schlesingerto lead a senior-level task force to recommend improvements in the stewardship and operation of nuclear weapons, delivery vehicles and sensitive components by the US DoD. Members of the task force came from the Defense Policy Board and the Defense Science Board. [US DoD, "DoD News Briefing with Secretary Gates from the Pentagon", June 5, 2008, "Military Times", "Moseley and Wynne forced out", Shanker, "2 Leaders Ousted From Air Force in Atomic Errors".]
Notes and References
* [https://www.aef.org/media/reports/Coldwar.pdf John T. Correll, "The Air Force and the Cold War" (2002), short official history of USAF]
* [http://www.afa.org/magazine/July2002/0702eaf.asp Correll, John T. "The EAF in Peace and War." "Air Force Magazine" 85:24-31 July 2002] on WW1
* [https://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/Annotations/cravenAAFWWII.htm Craven, Wesley and James Cate, eds. "The Army Air Forces In World War II"] official history. (1948-55; also reprinted)
** [http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/aaf_wwii-v1.pdf Volume One: "Plans and Early Operations January 1939 to August 1942"]
** [http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/aaf_wwii-v2.pdf Volume Two: " Europe: Torch to Pointblank August 1942 to December 1943"]
** [http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/aaf_wwii-v3.pdf Volume Three: "Europe: Argument to V-E Day January 1944 to May 1945"]
** [http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/aaf_wwii-v4.pdf Volume Four: "The Pacific: Guadalcanal to Saipan August 1942 to July 1944"]
** [http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/aaf_wwii-v5.pdf Volume Five: "The Pacific: Matterhorn to Nagasaki June 1944 to August 1945"]
** [http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/aaf_wwii-v6.pdf Volume Six: "Men and Planes"]
** [http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/aaf_wwii-v7.pdf Volume Seven: "Services Around the World"]
* Futrell, Robert F. "The United States Air Force in Korea; 1950–1953" (1983).
* Futrell, Robert F. "Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: A History of Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907-1984" (2 vols., Air University) [http://aupress.au.af.mil/Books/Ideas_v1/Ideas_vI.pdf vol 1] , [http://aupress.au.af.mil/Books/Ideas_vol2/Ideas_vol2.pdf vol 2] comprehensive history of doctrine
* Alfred Goldberg. "A History of the United States Air Force, 1907-1957" (ISBN 0-405-03763-5) (1972)
* [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/3spr90.html Maj Roger F. Kropf, "The US Air Force in Korea: Problems That Hindered the Effectiveness of Air Power," "Airpower Journal" (spr 1990)]
* United States Air Force: History and Guide to Resources (ISBN 1-4116-3638-4)
*PDFlink| [http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/printed_unit_histories.pdf United States Air Force And Its Antecedents: Published And Printed Unit Histories, A Bibliography]
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