A stroboscope, also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary. The principle is used for the study of rotating, reciprocating, oscillating or vibrating objects. Machine parts and vibrating strings are common examples.
In its simplest form, a rotating disc with evenly-spaced holes is placed in the line of sight between the observer and the moving object. The rotational speed of the disc is adjusted so that it becomes synchronised with the movement of the observed system, which seems to slow and stop. The illusion is caused by
temporal aliasing, commonly known as the "stroboscopic effect".
In electronic versions, the perforated disc is replaced by a lamp capable of emitting brief and rapid flashes of light. The
frequencyof the flash is adjusted so that it is a equal to, or a unit fractionbelow or above the object's cyclic speed, at which point the object is seen to be either stationary or moving backward or forward, depending on the flash frequency.
Joseph Plateauof Belgiumis generally credited with the invention of the stroboscope in 1832, when he used a disc with radial slits which he turned while viewing images on a separate rotating wheel. Plateau called his device the " Phenakistoscope". There was a simultaneous and independent invention of the device by the Austrian Simon von Stampfer, which he named the "Stroboscope", and it is his term which is used today. The etymology is from the Greek words "strobo(s)", meaning "whirling" and "scope" meaning "to look at".
As well as having important applications for scientific research, the earliest inventions received immediate popular success as methods for producing moving pictures, and the principle was used for numerous toys.
Other early pioneers employed rotating or vibrating mirrors. The electronic
strobe lightstroboscope was invented in 1931, when Harold Eugene Edgerton("Doc" Edgerton) employed a flashing lamp to study machine parts in motion. General RadioCorporation then went on to productize this invention in the form of their "Strobotach".
Edgerton later used very short flashes of light as a means of producing still photographs of fast-moving objects, such as bullets in flight.
Stroboscopes play an important role in the study of stresses on machinery in motion, and in many other forms of research. They are also used as measuring instruments for determining cyclic speed.
timing lightthey are used to set the ignition timingof internal combustion engines.
In medicine, stroboscopes are used to view the
vocal cordsfor diagnosis. The patient hums or speaks into a microphonewhich in turn activates the stroboscope at either the same or a slightly different frequency. The light source and a camera are positioned by endoscopy.
Another application of the stroboscope can be seen on many
gramophoneturntables. The edge of the platter has marks at specific intervals so that when viewed by incandescent lighting (incandescent bulbs don't strobe, these turntables use a neon bulb) powered at mains frequency, and provided the platter is rotating at the correct speed, the marks appear to be stationary.
Flashing lamp strobes are also adapted for pop use, as a lighting effect for
discotheques and night clubs where they give the impression of dancing in slow motion.
Rapid flashing can give the illusion that white light is tinged with colour, known as Fechner colour. Within certain ranges, the apparent colour can be controlled by the frequency of the flash, but it is an illusion generated in the mind of the observer and not a real colour. The
Benham's topdemonstrates the effect.
At certain frequencies, flashing light can trigger epileptic seizures in some people.
* [http://www.checkline.com/stroboscopes"Checkline", Hand-Held Stroboscope manufacturer]
* [http://courses.ncssm.edu/gallery/collections/toys/html/exhibit07.htm Demonstration of Phenakistoscope and Stroboscope at North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics]
* [http://www.automatesintelligents.com/echanges/2003/avr/cinema.html an ancestor of stroboscope : the palissadoscope]
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См. также в других словарях:
stroboscope — [ strɔbɔskɔp ] n. m. • 1866; de strobo et scope 1 ♦ Anciennt Appareil rotatif (disque, cylindre) donnant l illusion du mouvement par une suite d images fixes. Le stroboscope, ancêtre du cinéma, des dessins animés. 2 ♦ Phys. Instrument qui émet de … Encyclopédie Universelle
Stroboscope — Strob o*scope, n. [Gr. ? a whirling + scope.] 1. An instrument for studying or observing the successive phases of a periodic or varying motion by means of light which is periodically interrupted. [1913 Webster] 2. An optical toy similar to the… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
stroboscope — ► NOUN Physics ▪ an instrument which shines a bright light at rapid intervals so that a moving or rotating object appears stationary. DERIVATIVES stroboscopic adjective. ORIGIN from Greek strobos whirling … English terms dictionary
stroboscope — [strō′bə skōp΄; ] occas. [ sträb′əskōp] n. [< Gr strobos, a twisting around (for IE base see STROPHE) + SCOPE] 1. an instrument for studying periodic or varying motion; specif., a device using a strobe light to illuminate a moving body,… … English World dictionary
Stroboscope — Rebonds d une balle capturés au stroboscope à 25 images par seconde. Un stroboscope est une source de lumière intermittente. Par un dispositif mécanique ou électronique, on produit une alternance de phases lumineuses (flashs) et de phases… … Wikipédia en Français
stroboscope — stroboscopic /stroh beuh skop ik, strob euh /, stroboscopical, adj. stroboscopy /streuh bos keuh pee/, n. /stroh beuh skohp , strob euh /, n. 1. a device for studying the motion of a body, esp. a body in rapid revolution or vibration, by making… … Universalium
stroboscope — stroboskopas statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Optinis demonstravimo ar matavimo aparatas, kurio veikimas pagrįstas stroboskopiniu efektu. atitikmenys: angl. stroboscope vok. Stroboskop, n rus. стробоскоп, m pranc.… … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
stroboscope — stroboskopas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. stroboscope vok. Stroboskop, n rus. стробоскоп, m pranc. stroboscope, m … Fizikos terminų žodynas
stroboscope — noun Etymology: Greek strobos whirling + International Scientific Vocabulary scope Date: 1896 an instrument for determining the speed of cyclic motion (as rotation or vibration) that causes the motion to appear slowed or stopped: as a. a… … New Collegiate Dictionary
stroboscope — noun a) Instrument for studying or observing periodic movement by rendering a moving body visible only at regular intervals. b) A lamp that produces short bursts of light that synchronizes with a camera shutter for photographing fast moving… … Wiktionary