- Qasim Khanate
Qasim Khanate or Kingdom of Qasim (Tatar: "Qasím xanlığı/Касыйм ханлыгы", "Qasím patşalığı/Касыйм патшалыгы"; Russian: "Касимовское ханство", "Касимовское царство") was a
Tatarterritorial formation ( khanate), vassal of Russia, which existed from 1452till 1681in the territory of modern Ryazan Oblastin Russiawith its capital Kasimov, in the middle stream of the Oka River. It was created in the lands that Vasili II presented to the Kazan prince Qasim khan, son of the first Kazan khan Olug Moxammat.
The original populations were Finnic tribes
Meshchyoraand Muroma, Mordvins. The land was under Kievan Rus' and Volga Bulgaria's influence. Local tribes were tributes of Russian dukes. Later, the area was incorporated into Vladimir-Suzdal. In 1152, duke of Vladimir Yuri Dolgorukyfounded Gorodets-Meshchyorskiy. After the Mongol conquest, the territory was incorporated into the territory of the Golden Horde. Turkic settlers appeared in those areas, and most of them accepted Islamunder Volga Bulgaria's influence. The semi-independent principality Mishar Yurtwas founded by Hordian Mohammad Shirin beg. From 1393, the area became a part of Russia. After the battle of Suzdalin 1445, Olug Moxammadclaimed to return those lands to the Tatars.
According to some historians, such as Khudyakov, Vassily executed the claim and Moxammat's son Qasim was crowned as a ruler of Meshchyora lands. The area and capital were renamed after him. Another version is that Qasim came into Russian service and was granted those lands to create a
buffer statebetween Grand Duchy of Moscowand the Khanate of Kazan. However, the Khanate was a vassal of Russia. From the beginning, Khans governed the Khanate's territory, but the inner politics were controlled by Russia.
The land was settled by Mishar
Tatars(the descendants of the earliest Turkic population), Russians, and Mordvins. The Meshchyoraand Muromatribes had been already assimilated. Some Kazan Tatarsresettled to Qasim lands, and were called "Qasim Tatars". The most of Qasim Tatars served at the khan's palace or served in the khan's military. This group had been assimilated into the Mishar Tatars, but nearby 1,000 Qasim Tatars are still living in the city of Kasimov.
The noble families were the Manghyt (Manğıt), Arghyn (Arğın), Jalair (Cälair), Qipchaq (Qıpçaq). Moscow's administrators elected the khans from ruling families of the Tatar khanates:
Khanate of Kazan, the Crimean Khanate, and the Siberia Khanate.
Qasim khans with their guard participated in all of Russians raids into
Kazan( 1467- 1469, 1487, 1552). Qasim khan Şahğäli( 1515- 1567) was 3 times crowned as Kazan khan with the aid of Russia. After the conquest of Kazan, the self-government of the khans was abolished and the khanate came to be governed by Russian voyevodas. However, khans still reigned. One of the khans, Simeon Bekbulatovich, was baptised and proclaimed Grand Duke of Moscow in 1574. At the reign of Sayed Borhankhan ( 1627- 1679) Russia started a policy of Christianization. Begs, who had a status equal to Boyars, were switched to Serving Tatars, equal to Dvoryans. This policy provoked a Tatar revolt in 1656. After the death of khanbika (queen) Fatima Soltanin 1681, the Khanate was abolished.
*TES|Qasím Xanlığı/Касыйм ханлыгы
*en icon [http://www.ozturkler.com/data_english/0003/0003_07_01.htm Qasim Khanate on ÖzTürkler]
* [http://www.hostkingdom.net/russia.html#Kasimov List of Qasim rulers]
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