- NKVD troika
NKVD troika or Troika, in Soviet Union history, were commissions of three persons who convicted people without trial. These commissions were employed as an instrument of extrajudicial punishment introduced to circumvent the legal system with a means for quick execution or imprisonment. It began as an institution of the Cheka, then later became prominent again in the NKVD, when it was used during the Great Purge. Troikas are credited with the death sentences or exile of over 600,000 people.
'Troika' literally means "a group of three" in Russian.
The first "operational troikas" (оперативная тройка) were introduced in the "centre", in the Moscow military okrug in 1929. The qualifier "operational" denotes they were based on the operational departments of the OGPU. Gradually, troikas were introduced to other parts of the Soviet Union for various and different purposes: "court troikas" (судебная тройка), "extraordinary troikas" (чрезвычайная тройка), and "special troikas" (специальная тройка).
Repression of kulaks
A notable step was the NKVD Order no. 00447 by July 30, 1937 О репрессировании бывших кулаков, уголовников и других антисоветских элементов ("About repression of former kulaks, criminals, and other anti-Soviet elements") undersigned by Nikolai Yezhov. By this order, troikas were created on the levels of republic, krai, and oblast. Investigation was to be performed by 'operative groups' "in a speedy and simplified way", the results were to be delivered to troikas for trials.
The chairman of a troika was the chief of the corresponding territorial subdivision of NKVD (People's Commissar of a republican NKVD, etc.) Usually a troika included the prosecutor of the republic/krai/oblast in question; if not, he was allowed to be present at the session of a troika. The third person was usually the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) secretary of the corresponding regional level. The staff of these troikas were personally specified in the Order # 00447.
Protocols of a troika session were passed to the corresponding operative group for executions of sentences. Times and places of executions of death sentences were ordered to be held in secret. Troikas of this purpose functioned for about a year.
Repression of Poles
On September 15, 1939 the Politburo issued the resolution (# П64/22) about the creation of special troikas (Особая тройка) for the period of Polish operation of the NKVD, functioned for about two months. Later the experience was re-used during other national operations of the NKVD: Romanian, Latvian, Finnish, Ukrainian.
The institution of troikas was abolished in 1938 by the Decree about Arrests, Prosecutor Supervision and Course of Investigation, issued jointly by the Sovnarkom and Central Committee of the CPSU.
Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465002399.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Troika — A general meaning of the Russian word troika (Cyrillic alphabet: тройка) is threesome , a collection of three of any kind (except the Holy Trinity). The following particular meanings entered into other languages:* A three horse drawn sled or… … Wikipedia
Troika (desambiguación) — Troika (en ruso тройка, tríada) es un término que puede referirse a: Troika, en general, triunvirato, alianza de tres personas para llevar a cabo un mismo objetivo. Troika del NKVD, comisiones de tres personas que servían como instrumento para el … Wikipedia Español
Troika (triumvirate) — Troika (Russian: тройка, meaning threesome ) is a committee consisting of three members. NKVD Troikas The word became notorious in the Soviet Union during the Stalinist era: troikas replaced the normal legal system for quick persecution of… … Wikipedia
NKVD Order No. 00447 — Excerpt of NKVD Order No. 00447 NKVD Order № 00447 by July 30, 1937 (Russian: О репрессировании бывших кулаков, уголовников и других антисоветских элементов) O repressirovanii byvshikh kulakov, ugolovnikov i drugikh antisovyetskikh elementov (… … Wikipedia
Troika del NKVD — La Troika del NKVD (ruso: Особая тройка НКВД) eran comisiones de tres personas que servían como instrumento para el castigo extrajudicial (внесудебная расправа, внесудебное преследование), que se constituyó como un suplemento al sistema legal… … Wikipedia Español
Special Council of the NKVD — Special Council of the USSR NKVD (Особое Совещание при НКВД СССР, ОСО) was created by the same decree of Sovnarkom of July 10, 1934 that introduced the NKVD itself. By the decree, the Special Council was endowed with the rights to apply… … Wikipedia
Timeline of the Great Purge — The Great Purge of 1936 1938 can be roughly divided into four periods [http://www.memo.ru/history/y1937/hronika1936 1939/xronika.html N.G. Okhotin, A.B. Roginsky Great Terror : Brief Chronology] Memorial, 2007] :;October 1936 February 1937:… … Wikipedia
Great Purge — ( ru. Большая чистка, transliterated Bolshaya chistka ) was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin in 1937 1938. Orlando Figes The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin s… … Wikipedia
Joseph Stalin — Stalin redirects here. For other uses, see Stalin (disambiguation). Joseph Stalin Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე სტალინი … Wikipedia
List of English words of Russian origin — Including English, contain words most likely borrowed from the Russian language. Not all of the words are truly fluent Russian or Slavic origin. Some of them co exist in other Slavic languages and it is difficult to decide whether they made… … Wikipedia