name = "Berberis"

image_width = 240px
image_caption = "Berberis darwinii" shoot with flowers

image2_width = 240px
image2_caption = "Berberis thunbergii" shoot with fruit
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Ranunculales
familia = Berberidaceae
genus = "Berberis"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = About 450-500; see text

"Berberis" ("Bér-be-ris", barberry, pepperidge bush) a genus of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1-5 m tall with thorny shoots, native to the temperate and subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and South America. They are closely related to the genus "Mahonia", which is included within "Berberis" by some botanists.

The plant

The genus is characterised by dimorphic shoots, with long shoots which form the structure of the plant, and short shoots only 1-2 mm long. The leaves on long shoots are non-photosynthetic, developed into three-spined thorns 3-30 mm long; the bud in the axil of each thorn-leaf then develops a short shoot with several normal, photosynthetic leaves. These leaves are 1-10 cm long, simple, and either entire, or with spiny margins. Only on young seedlings do leaves develop on the long shoots, with the adult foliage style developing after the young plant is 1-2 years old.

The deciduous species (e.g. "Berberis thunbergii, B. vulgaris") are noted for good autumn colour, the leaves turning pink or red before falling. In some evergreen species from China (e.g. "B. candidula, B. verruculosa"), the leaves are brilliant white beneath, making them particularly attractive.

The flowers are produced singly or in racemes of up to 20 on a single flower-head. They are yellow or orange, 3-6 mm long, with six sepals and six petals in alternating whorls of three, the sepals usually coloured like the petals. The fruit is a small berry 5-15 mm long, ripening red or dark blue, often with a pink or violet waxy surface bloom; they may be either long and narrow (like a bar, hence 'barberry') or in other species, spherical.

"Berberis" species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Mottled Pug.

Several are popular garden shrubs, grown for their ornamental leaves, yellow flowers, and red or blue-black berries. They are also valued for crime prevention; being very dense, viciously spiny shrubs, they make very effective barriers impenetrable to burglars. For this reason they are often planted below potentially vulnerable windows, and used as hedges and other barriers.

Historically, yellow dye was extracted from the stem, root, and bark. [cite book|author=Tomlinson, C., ed.|title=Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts|year=1866|publisher=Virtue & Co.|location=London Vol I, page 97.]

"Berberis vulgaris" (European barberry) is the alternate host species of the wheat rust "Puccinia graminis", a serious fungal disease of wheat. For this reason, cultivation of this species is prohibited in many areas.

Some "Berberis" have become invasive species when planted outside of their native ranges, including "B. glaucocarpa" and "B. darwinii" in New Zealand (where it is now banned from sale and propagation), and "B. thunbergii" in some parts of North America.

Culinary uses

The berries are edible, and rich in vitamin C, though with a very sharp flavour; the thorny shrubs make harvesting them difficult, so in most places they are not widely consumed. They are an important food for many small birds, which disperse the seeds in their droppings.

"Berberis" is often used in borsch as a spice. Throughout the former Soviet Union, they are also used as the flavouring in a popular candy of the same name. In Kazakhstan the dried fruits are used to add flavour to a traditional dish Plov (lamb with rice).

"Berberis buxifolia" (Calafate) and "Berberis darwinii" (Michay) are two species found in Patagonia in Argentina and Chile. Their edible purple fruits are used for jams and infusions; anyone who tries a berry is said to be certain to return to Patagonia. The calafate and michay are symbols of Patagonia.


"Zereshk" () is the Kurdish and Persian name for the dried fruit of "Berberis vulgaris", which are widely cultivated in Iran. Iran is the largest producer of "zereshk" and saffron in the world. "Zereshk" and saffron are produced on the same land and the harvest is at the same time. The South Khorasan province in Iran is the main area of "zereshk" production. A garden of "zereshk" is called "zereshk-estan".

Zereshk is widely used in cooking, imparting a tart flavor to chicken dishes. It is usually cooked with rice, called "zereshk polo", and provides a nice meal with chicken. "Zereshk" jam [] , "zereshk" juice [ photo] , and "zereshk" fruit rolls [] are also produced in Iran.

In colloquial Persian, "zereshk" is used as a term for showing dissent or disagreement, similar to the usage of "blowing a raspberry" in English. Although not a vulgar term in that context, it is not used in polite speech.fact|date= April 2008

elected species



* cite web
last =Murrills
first =Angela
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Best Eating: Check, please
work =
date =2005-11-24
url =
format =
doi =
accessdate =2007-05-02

* cite web
last =Wilkinson
first =Bobbie
authorlink =
coauthors =Tom Wilkinson
title =It's an Adventure in Persian Cuisine at Darya Kabob
work =
publisher =The Washington Post
url =
format =
doi =
accessdate =2007-05-02

* cite web
last =Arellano
first =Gustavo
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Naan & Kabob
work =
publisher =Orange County Weekly
date =2004-03-18
url =
format =
doi =
accessdate =2007-05-02

* [ Royal New Zealand Institute of horticulture. "Berberis glaucocarpa"]

External links

* [ Berberine Thoughts] – Informative but non-scholarly essay on barberry and "Berberis" (culture, history and etymology)

ee also



* [ of packaged "Berberis" fruit] (Zereshk) as sold in Iran and in the US.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Berberis — Berberis …   Danske encyklopædi

  • Berberis — Berbéris Berberis …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Berberis — Berberis, Sauerdorn (Berberideae. Hexandria Monogynia), reiche Gattung, bei uns repräsentirt durch die Berberis vulgaris (Berberitze, Erbselenstrauch, Sauerdorn); man hat von ihr Varietäten mit weißen, gelben, rothen, violetten, sogar auch… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Berbĕris — (B. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Berberideen, 1. Ordn. 6. Kl. L., mit 6blättrigem Kelche, 6blättriger Blumenkrone, mit 2 Drüsen an der Basis der Blätter u. zweisamiger Beere. Die Staubgefäße legen sich, wenn man sie unten mit einer… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Berbĕris — L. (Berberitzenstrauch, Sauerdorn), Gattung der Berberidazeen, dornige Sträucher mit gelbem Holz, ganzen, gefiederten, gewimpertgezahnten oder ganzrandigen Blättern (s. Tafel »Blattformen II«., Fig. 26), in meist einfachen Trauben oder einzeln… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Berberis — Berbĕris L., Berberitze, Sauerdorn, Essigbeerstrauch, Sträucher der Berberideen; bes. B. vulgāris L. [Abb. 192], mit gelben Blütentrauben und zinnoberroten Beeren (Weinnägelein, Erbsele), aus denen Apfelsäure und Gelee bereitet wird …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • berbéris — [ bɛrberis ] n. m. • XVIe; gr. berberi « coquillage » ♦ Bot. ⇒ épine vinette …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • berberis — BERBERIS. Voy. Épine vinette …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • berberis — Berberis, ou Espine vinette, Oxyacantha, vel Oxyacanthus …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • berberís — (Del ár. [am]barbarīs). m. agracejo (ǁ arbusto berberidáceo) …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Berberis —   Berberis …   Wikipedia Español

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