name = "Berberis"
image_width = 240px
image_caption = "Berberis darwinii" shoot with flowers
image2_width = 240px
image2_caption = "Berberis thunbergii" shoot with fruit
divisio = Magnoliophyta
genus = "Berberis"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = About 450-500; see text
"Berberis" ("Bér-be-ris", barberry, pepperidge bush) a
genusof about 450-500 species of deciduousand evergreen shrubs from 1-5 m tall with thorny shoots, native to the temperate and subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, North Americaand South America. They are closely related to the genus " Mahonia", which is included within "Berberis" by some botanists.
The genus is characterised by dimorphic shoots, with long shoots which form the structure of the plant, and short shoots only 1-2 mm long. The leaves on long shoots are non-photosynthetic, developed into three-spined thorns 3-30 mm long; the bud in the axil of each thorn-leaf then develops a short shoot with several normal, photosynthetic leaves. These leaves are 1-10 cm long, simple, and either entire, or with spiny margins. Only on young seedlings do leaves develop on the long shoots, with the adult foliage style developing after the young plant is 1-2 years old.
The deciduous species (e.g. "Berberis thunbergii, B. vulgaris") are noted for good autumn colour, the leaves turning pink or red before falling. In some evergreen species from
China(e.g. "B. candidula, B. verruculosa"), the leaves are brilliant white beneath, making them particularly attractive.
flowers are produced singly or in racemes of up to 20 on a single flower-head. They are yellow or orange, 3-6 mm long, with six sepals and six petals in alternating whorls of three, the sepals usually coloured like the petals. The fruitis a small berry5-15 mm long, ripening red or dark blue, often with a pink or violet waxy surface bloom; they may be either long and narrow (like a bar, hence 'barberry') or in other species, spherical.
"Berberis" species are used as food plants by the
larvae of some Lepidopteraspecies including Mottled Pug.
Several are popular
gardenshrubs, grown for their ornamental leaves, yellow flowers, and red or blue-black berries. They are also valued for crime prevention; being very dense, viciously spiny shrubs, they make very effective barriers impenetrable to burglars. For this reason they are often planted below potentially vulnerable windows, and used as hedges and other barriers.
Historically, yellow dye was extracted from the stem, root, and bark. [cite book|author=Tomlinson, C., ed.|title=
Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts|year=1866|publisher=Virtue & Co.|location=London Vol I, page 97.]
"Berberis vulgaris" (European barberry) is the alternate host species of the wheat rust "Puccinia graminis", a serious fungal
diseaseof wheat. For this reason, cultivation of this species is prohibited in many areas.
Some "Berberis" have become
invasive specieswhen planted outside of their native ranges, including "B. glaucocarpa" and "B. darwinii" in New Zealand(where it is now banned from sale and propagation), and "B. thunbergii" in some parts of North America.
The berries are edible, and rich in
vitamin C, though with a very sharp flavour; the thorny shrubs make harvesting them difficult, so in most places they are not widely consumed. They are an important food for many small birds, which disperse the seeds in their droppings.
"Berberis" is often used in
borschas a spice. Throughout the former Soviet Union, they are also used as the flavouring in a popular candy of the same name. In Kazakhstan the dried fruits are used to add flavour to a traditional dish Plov (lamb with rice).
"Berberis buxifolia" (Calafate) and "Berberis darwinii" (Michay) are two species found in
Patagoniain Argentinaand Chile. Their edible purple fruits are used for jams and infusions; anyone who tries a berry is said to be certain to return to Patagonia. The calafate and michay are symbols of Patagonia.
"Zereshk" () is the Kurdish and Persian name for the dried
fruitof " Berberis vulgaris", which are widely cultivated in Iran. Iran is the largest producer of "zereshk" and saffronin the world. "Zereshk" and saffron are produced on the same land and the harvestis at the same time. The South Khorasanprovince in Iranis the main area of "zereshk" production. A garden of "zereshk" is called "zereshk-estan".
Zereshk is widely used in cooking, imparting a tart flavor to chicken dishes. It is usually cooked with
rice, called "zereshk polo", and provides a nice meal with chicken. "Zereshk" jam [http://www.niavaran.ir/ja.barberry%20jam.jpgphoto] , "zereshk" juice [http://www.flickr.com/photos/marsopolitan/16945788/ photo] , and "zereshk" fruit rolls [http://sadaf.com/store/media/56-6807.jpgphoto] are also produced in Iran.
In colloquial Persian, "zereshk" is used as a term for showing dissent or disagreement, similar to the usage of "
blowing a raspberry" in English. Although not a vulgar term in that context, it is not used in polite speech.fact|date= April 2008
* cite web
title =Best Eating: Check, please
* cite web
coauthors =Tom Wilkinson
title =It's an Adventure in Persian Cuisine at Darya Kabob
publisher =The Washington Post
* cite web
title =Naan & Kabob
publisher =Orange County Weekly
* [http://www.rnzih.org.nz/pages/berberisglaucocarpa.htm Royal New Zealand Institute of horticulture. "Berberis glaucocarpa"]
* [http://lakecounty.typepad.com/life_in_lake_county/2007/05/berberine_thoug.html Berberine Thoughts] – Informative but non-scholarly essay on barberry and "Berberis" (culture, history and etymology)
* [http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/berber2b.jpgPicture of packaged "Berberis" fruit] (
Zereshk) as sold in Iran and in the US.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Berberis — Berberis … Danske encyklopædi
Berberis — Berbéris Berberis … Wikipédia en Français
Berberis — Berberis, Sauerdorn (Berberideae. Hexandria Monogynia), reiche Gattung, bei uns repräsentirt durch die Berberis vulgaris (Berberitze, Erbselenstrauch, Sauerdorn); man hat von ihr Varietäten mit weißen, gelben, rothen, violetten, sogar auch… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Berbĕris — (B. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Berberideen, 1. Ordn. 6. Kl. L., mit 6blättrigem Kelche, 6blättriger Blumenkrone, mit 2 Drüsen an der Basis der Blätter u. zweisamiger Beere. Die Staubgefäße legen sich, wenn man sie unten mit einer… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Berbĕris — L. (Berberitzenstrauch, Sauerdorn), Gattung der Berberidazeen, dornige Sträucher mit gelbem Holz, ganzen, gefiederten, gewimpertgezahnten oder ganzrandigen Blättern (s. Tafel »Blattformen II«., Fig. 26), in meist einfachen Trauben oder einzeln… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Berberis — Berbĕris L., Berberitze, Sauerdorn, Essigbeerstrauch, Sträucher der Berberideen; bes. B. vulgāris L. [Abb. 192], mit gelben Blütentrauben und zinnoberroten Beeren (Weinnägelein, Erbsele), aus denen Apfelsäure und Gelee bereitet wird … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
berbéris — [ bɛrberis ] n. m. • XVIe; gr. berberi « coquillage » ♦ Bot. ⇒ épine vinette … Encyclopédie Universelle
berberis — BERBERIS. Voy. Épine vinette … Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798
berberis — Berberis, ou Espine vinette, Oxyacantha, vel Oxyacanthus … Thresor de la langue françoyse
berberís — (Del ár. [am]barbarīs). m. agracejo (ǁ arbusto berberidáceo) … Diccionario de la lengua española
Berberis — Berberis … Wikipedia Español