The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the
Franksin a region (known as Franciain Latin) largely corresponding to ancient Gaulfrom the mid fifth to the mid eighth century. Their politics involved frequent civil warfare between branches of the family. During the final century of the Merovingian rule, the dynasty was increasingly pushed into a ceremonial role. The Merovingian rule was ended by a palace coupin 751 when Pepin the Shortformally deposed Childeric III, beginning the Carolingian monarchy.
They were sometimes referred to as the "long-haired kings" (Latin "reges criniti") by contemporaries, for their symbolically unshorn hair (traditionally the tribal leader of the Franks wore his hair long, as distinct from the Romans and the
tonsured clergy). The term "Merovingian" comes from medieval Latin"Merovingi" or "Merohingi" ("sons of Merovech"), an alteration of an unattested Old West Low Franconian form, akin to their dynasty's Old Englishname "Merewīowing", [Babcock, Philip (ed). "Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged". Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1993: 1415] with the final -"ing" being a typical patronymicsuffix.
The Merovingian dynasty owes its name to the semi-legendary
Merovech, ( Latinised as "Meroveus" or "Merovius"), leader of the Salian Franks, and emerges into wider history with the victories of his son Childeric I(reigned c.457 – 481) against the Visigoths, Saxons, and Alemanni. Childeric's son Clovis Iwent on to unite most of Gaulnorth of the Loireunder his control around 486, when he defeated Syagrius, the Roman ruler in those parts. He won the Battle of Tolbiacagainst the Alemanni in 496, at which time, according to Gregory of Tours, Clovis adopted his wife's Nicene Christian faith. He subsequently went on to decisively defeat the Visigothic kingdom of Toulousein the Battle of Vouilléin 507. After Clovis' death, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons, and over the next century this tradition of partition would continue. Even when multiple Merovingian kings ruled, the kingdom — not unlike the late Roman Empire— was conceived of as a single entity ruled collectively by several kings (in their own realms) and a turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole kingdom under a single ruler. Leadership among the early Merovingians was probably based on mythical descent and alleged divine patronage, expressed in terms of continued military success.
Upon Clovis' death in 511, the Merovingian kingdom included all the Franks and all of
Gaulbut Burgundy. To the outside, the kingdom, even when divided under different kings, maintained unity and conquered Burgundy in 534. After the fall of the Ostrogoths, the Franks also conquered Provence. After this their borders with Italy(ruled by the Lombardssince 568) and Visigothic Septimaniaremained fairly stable. [Archibald R. Lewis, " [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-7134%28197607%2951%3A3%3C381%3ATDITRF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8 The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550-751.] " "Speculum" 51.3 (July 1976, pp. 381-410) p 384.]
Internally, the kingdom was divided among Clovis' sons and later among his grandsons and frequently saw war between the different kings, who quickly allied among themselves and against one another. The death of one king would create conflict between the surviving brothers and the deceased's sons, with differing outcomes. Later, conflicts were intensified by the personal feud around Brunhilda. However, yearly warfare often did not constitute general devastation but took on an almost ritual character, with established 'rules' and norms. [Guy Halsall, Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900 (Routledge, London, 2003)]
Clotaire IIin 613 reunited the entire Frankish realm under one ruler. Later divisions produced the stable units of Austrasia, Neustria, Burgundy and Aquitania.
The frequent wars had weakened royal power, while the aristocracy had made great gains and procured enormous concessions from the kings in return for their support. These concessions saw the very considerable power of the king parcelled out and retained by leading "comites" and "duces" (
counts and dukes). Very little is in fact known about the course of the seventh century due to a scarcity of sources, but Merovingians remained in power until the eighth century.
Dagobert I(died 639), who had sent troops to Spain and pagan Slavic territories in the east, is commonly seen as the last powerful Merovingian King. Later kings are known as "rois fainéants" ("do-nothing kings"), despite the fact only the last two kings did nothing. The kings, even strong-willed men like Dagobert IIand Chilperic II, were not the main agents of political conflicts, leaving this role to their mayors of the palace, who increasingly substituted their own interest for their king's. Many kings came to the throne at a young age and died in the prime of life, weakening royal power further.
The conflict between mayors was ended when the Austrasians under the Pepin the Middle triumphed in 687 in the
Battle of Tertry. After this, Pepin, though not a king, was the political ruler of the Frankish kingdom and left this position as a heritage to his sons. It was now the sons of the mayor that divided the realm among each other under the rule of a single king.
After Pepin's long rule, his son
Charles Martelassumed power, fighting against nobles and his own stepmother. His reputation for ruthlessness further undermined the king's position. During the last years of his life he even ruled without a king, though he did not assume royal dignity. His sons Carloman and Pepin again appointed a Merovingian figure-head to stem rebellion on the kingdom's periphery. However, in 751, Pepin finally displaced the last Merovingian and, with the support of the nobility and the blessing of Pope Zachary, became one of the Frankish Kings. The deposed Merovingian was sent into a monastery, bereft of his symbolic long hair. With Pepin, the Carolingians ruled the Franks as Kings.
Government and law
The Merovingian king was the master of the booty of war, both movable and in lands and their folk, and he was in charge of the redistribution of conquered wealth among his followers, though these powers were not absolute. "When he died his property was divided equally among his heirs as though it were private property: the kingdom was a form of patrimony" (Rouche 1987 p 420). Some scholars have attributed this to the Merovingians lacking a sense of "
res publica", but other historians have criticized this view as an oversimplification.
The kings appointed magnates to be "comites" (counts), charging them with defense, administration, and the judgement of disputes. This happened against the backdrop of a newly isolated Europe without its Roman systems of
taxationand bureaucracy, the Franks having taken over administration as they gradually penetrated into the thoroughly Romanised west and south of Gaul. The counts had to provide armies, enlisting their "milites" and endowing them with land in return. These armies were subject to the king's call for military support. There were annual national assemblies of the nobles of the realm and their armed retainers which decided major policies of warmaking. The army also acclaimed new kings by raising them on its shields in a continuance of ancient practice which made the king the leader of the warrior-band. Furthermore, the king was expected to support himself with the products of his private domain ( royal demesne), which was called the " fisc". This system developed in time into feudalism, and expectations of royal self-sufficiency lasted until the Hundred Years' War. Trade declined with the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, and agricultural estates were mostly self-sufficient. The remaining international trade was dominated by Middle Eastern merchants.
Merovingian law was not universal law equally applicable to all; it was applied to each man according to his origin: Ripuarian Franks were subject to their own "
Lex Ripuaria", codified at a late date (Beyerle and Buchner 1954), while the so-called "Lex Salica" ( Salic Law) of the Salian clans, first tentatively codified in 511 (Rouche 1987 p 423) was invoked under medieval exigencies as late as the Valoisera. In this the Franks lagged behind the Burgundians and the Visigoths, that they had no universal Roman-based law. In Merovingian times, law remained in the rote memorisation of "rachimburgs", who memorised all the precedents on which it was based, for Merovingian law did not admit of the concept of creating "new" law, only of maintaining tradition. Nor did its Germanic traditions offer any code of civil lawrequired of urbanised society, such as Justinian caused to be assembled and promulgated in the Byzantine Empire. The few surviving Merovingian edicts are almost entirely concerned with settling divisions of estates among heirs.
Religion and culture
Merovingian culture was so thoroughly imbued with religion that Yitzhak Hen found that a presentation of Merovingian popular culture was essentially synonymous with Merovingian religion, which he presented through written texts. [Yitzhak Hen , "Culture and Religion in Merovingian Gaul, A.D. 481-751" (New York: Brill) 1995.] Merovingian culture certainly witnessed an extensive proliferation of saints.
Christianitywas brought to the Franksby monks. The most famous of these missionariesis St. Columbanus, an Irish monk who enjoyed great influence with Queen Balthild. Merovingian kings and queens used the newly forming ecclesiastical power structure to their advantage. Monasteriesand episcopal seats were shrewdly awarded to elites who supported the dynasty. Extensive parcels of land were donated to monasteries to exempt those lands from royal taxation and to preserve them within the family. The family would maintain its dominance over the monastery by appointing family members as abbots. Extra sons and daughters who could not be married off were sent to monasteries so that they would not threaten the inheritance of older children. This pragmatic use of monasteries ensured close ties between elites and monastic properties.
Numerous Merovingians who served as
bishops and abbots, or who generously funded abbeys and monasteries, were rewarded with sainthood. The outstanding handful of Frankish saints who were not of the Merovingian kinship nor the family alliances that provided Merovingian counts and dukes, deserve a closer inspection for that fact alone: like Gregory of Tours, they were almost without exception from the Gallo-Romanaristocracy in regions south and west of Merovingian control. The most characteristic form of Merovingian literature is represented by the "Lives" of the saints. Merovingian hagiographydid not set out to reconstruct a biography in the Roman or the modern sense, but to attract and hold popular devotion by the formulas of elaborate literary exercises, through which the Frankish Church channeled popular piety within orthodox channels, defined the nature of sanctity and retained some control over the posthumous cults that developed spontaneously at burial sites, where the life-force of the saint lingered, to do good for the votary. [J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, "The Frankish Church,", V:"The Merovingian Saints" (1983), pp. 75-94.] The "vitae et miracula", for impressive miracles were an essential element of Merovingian hagiography, were read aloud on saints’ feast days. Many Merovingian saints, and the majority of female saints, were local ones, venerated only within strictly circumscribed regions; their cults were revived in the High Middle Ages, when the population of women in religious orders increased enormously. Judith Oliver noted five Merovingian female saints in the diocese of Liègewho appeared in a long list of saints in a late thirteenth-century psalter-hours. [Judith Oliver, "'Gothic' Women and Merovingian Desert Mothers" "Gesta" 32.2 (1993), pp. 124-134.] The characteristics they shared with many Merovingian female saints may be mentioned: Regenulfa of Incourt, a seventh-century virgin in French-speaking Brabantof the ancestral line of the dukes of Brabantfled from a proposal of marriage to live isolated in the forest, where a curative spring sprang forth at her touch; Ermelindis of Meldert, a sixth-century virgin descended from Pepin I, inhabited several isolated villas; Begga of Andenne, the mother of Pepin II, founded seven churches in Andenneduring her widowhood; the purely legendary " Oda of Amay" was drawn into the Carolingian line by spurious genealogy in her thirteenth-century "vita", which made her the mother of Arnulf, Bishop of Metz, but she has been identified with the historical Saint Chrodoara; [Oliver 1993:127.] finally, the widely-venerated Gertrude of Nivelles, sister of Beggain the Carolingian ancestry, was abbess of a nunnery established by her mother. The "vitae" of six late Merovingian saints that illustrate the political history of the era have been translated and edited by Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding, and presented with " Liber Historiae Francorum," to provide some historical context. [Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding, "Late Merovingian France: History and Hagiography, 640-720" (Manchester University) 1996.]
Merovingian saints of more than local cult
Queens and abbesses
*Genovefa, virgin of Paris (died 502);
Clothilde, queen of the Franks (died 544/45);
Monegund, widow and recluse of Tours(died 544);
Radegund, Thuringianprincess who founded a monastery at Poitiers(died 587);
Rusticula, abbess of Arles(died 632);
Cesaria II, abbess of St Jean of Arles(died ca 550);
Glodesind, abbess in Metz(died ca 600);
Burgundofara, abbess of Moutiers(died 645);
Sadalberga, abbess of Laon(died 670);
Rictrude, founding abbess of Marchiennes(died 688);
Itta, founding abbess of Nivelles(died 652);
Begga, abbess of Andenne (died 693);
Gertrude of Nivelles, abbess of Nivelles (died 658) presented in "The Life of St. Geretrude" (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
Aldegund, abbess of Mauberges(died ca 684);
Waltrude, abbess of Mons(died ca 688);
Balthild, queen of the Franks (died ca 680), presented in "The Life of Lady Bathild, Queen of the Franks" (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
Eustadiola, widow of Bourges(died 684);
Bertilla, abbess of Chelles(died ca. 700);
Anstrude, abbess of Laon (died before 709);
Austreberta, abbess of Pavilly(died 703);
Bishops and abbots
*Audouin of Rouen, presented in "The Life of Audoin, Bishop of Rouen" (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
Aunemond, presented in "The Deeds of Aunemond" (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
Leodegar, bishop of Autun; presented in "The Suffering of Ludegar" (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
Praejectus"The Suffering of Praejectus" (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
*Prætextatus, Bishop of
Rouenand friend of Gregory;
Gregory of Tours, Bishop of Toursand historian;
Hubertus, Apostle of the Ardennesand first Bishop of Liège.
Arnulf, bishop of Metz
Historiography and sources
:"The story of the Franks, especially of the earlier Franks, is rich in fable but poor in history."::—Preface to Lewis Sergeant's "The Franks"
There exists a limited number of contemporary sources for the history of the Merovingian Franks, but those which have survived cover the entire period from Clovis' succession to Childeric's deposition. First and foremost among chroniclers of the age is the
canonised bishop of Tours, Gregory of Tours. His "Decem Libri Historiarum" is a primary source for the reigns of the sons of Clotaire II and their descendants until Gregory's own death.
The next major source, far less organised than Gregory's work, is the "
Chronicle of Fredegar", begun by Fredegarbut continued by unknown authors. It covers the period from 584 to 641, though its continuators, under Carolingianpatronage, extended it to 768, after the close of the Merovingian era. It is the only primary narrative source for much of its period. The only other major contemporary source is the Liber Historiae Francorum, an anonymous adaptation of Gregory's work apparently ignorant of Fredegar's chronicle: its author(s) ends with a reference to Theuderic IV's sixth year, which would be 727. It was widely read; though it was undoubtedly a piece of Arnulfingwork, and its biases cause it to mislead (for instance, concerning the two decades "between" the controversies surrounding mayors Grimoald the Elderand Ebroin: 652-673).
Aside from these chronicles, the only surviving reservoires of historiography are letters, capitularies, and the like. Clerical men such as Gregory and
Sulpitius the Piouswere letter-writers, though relatively few letters survive. Edicts, grants, and judicial decisions survive, as well as the famous "Lex Salica", mentioned above. From the reign of Clotaire II and Dagobert I survive many examples of the royal position as the supreme justice and final arbiter. There also survive biographical Lives of saints of the period, for instance Saint Eligiusand Leodegar, written soon after their subjects' deaths.
Finally, archaeological evidence cannot be ignored as a source for information, at the very least, on the "modus vivendi" of the Franks of the time. Among the greatest discoveries of lost objects was the 1653 accidental uncovering of Childeric I's tomb in the church of Saint Brice in
Tournai. The grave objects included a golden bull's head and the famous golden insects (perhaps bees, cicadas, aphids, or flies) on which Napoleonmodelled his coronation cloak. In 1957, the sepulchre of Clotaire I's second wife, Aregund, was discovered in Saint Denis Basilicain Paris. The funerary clothing and jewellery were reasonably well-preserved, giving us a look into the costume of the time.
Byzantine coinagewas in use in Franciabefore Theudebert Ibegan minting his own money at the start of his reign. He was the first to issue distinctly Merovingian coinage. On gold coins struck in his royal workshop, Theodebert in shown in the pearl-studded regalia of the Byzantine emperor; Childebert Iis shown in profile in the ancient style, wearing a togaand a diadem. The solidus and trienswere minted in Francia between 534 and 679. The denarius(or denier) appeared later, in the name of Childeric IIand various non-royals around 673–675. A Carolingian denarius replaced the Merovingian one, and the Frisianpenning, in Gaulfrom 755 to the eleventh century.
Merovingian coins are on display at the "
Monnaie de Paris" in Paris; there are Merovingian gold coins at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Cabinet des Médailles.
Merovingians in pseudohistory
The Merovingians are extensively featured in the book "
The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail", in which they are claimed to be the descendants of Jesus, based on a hoaxoriginating with Pierre Plantardin the mid-twentieth century. The 2006 film, "The DaVinci Code", based on a book by Dan Brown, is a fictional treatment of themes from "Holy Blood". In it the main character, Sophie, discovers that she is a descendant of the Merovingian blood line as well as Jesus Christ.
The word "Merovingian" has even been used as an adjective, at least five times in "
Swann's Way" by Marcel Proust.
*Beyerle, F and R. Buchner: "Lex Ribuaria" in "MGH", Hannover 1954.
Eugen Ewig: "Die Merowinger und das Frankenreich". Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2001.
*Patrick J. Geary: "Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World", Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
*Kaiser, Reinhold: "Das römische Erbe und das Merowingerreich", (Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte 26) (München, 2004)
*Rouche, Michael: "Private life conquers State and Society" in Paul Veyne (ed.), "A History of Private Life: 1. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium", Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1987.
*Werner, Karl Ferdinand: "Die Ursprünge Frankreichs bis zum Jahr 1000", Stuttgart 1989.
*Oman, Charles: "The Dark Ages 476-918", London, 1914.
*Wood, Ian: "The Merovingian Kingdoms: 450-751", New York: Longman Press, 1994.
*Effros, Bonnie. " [http://www.psupress.psu.edu/books/titles/0-271-02196-9.html Caring for Body and Soul: Burial and the Afterlife in the Merovingian World] ". Penn State Press, 2002. ISBN 0-271-02196-9.
* Robert Godding, "Prêtres en Gaule mérovingienne", Brussels: Société des Bollandistes, 2001, lxx, 559 pp. (Subsidia Hagiographica, 82).
* [http://www.j-paine.org/merovingian.html The Oxford Merovingian Page] .
* [http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~dvess/ids/medieval/mermon.html Dr Deborah Vess: Merovingian and Carolingian bibliography, sources and web links] .
* [http://genealogy.euweb.cz/merove/merove1.html Genealogy of the Merovingian dynasty from Genealogy.eu]
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merovingian — MEROVINGIÁN, Ă, merovingieni, e, adj. Care aparţine primei dinastii de regi ai statului franc, privitor la această dinastie. [pr.: gi an] – Din fr. mérovingien. Trimis de LauraGellner, 28.05.2004. Sursa: DEX 98 merovingián adj. m. (sil. gi an) … Dicționar Român
Merovingian — Mer o*vin gi*an, a. [From Merovaeus, the Latin name of a king of the Franks.] Of or pertaining to the first Frankish dynasty in Gaul or France. n. One of the kings of this dynasty. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Merovingian — (adj.) 1690s, from Fr. Mérovingien, from M.L. Merovingi, descendants of Meroveus, (mythical?) ancestor of the line of Frankish kings in Gaul (c.500 752) beginning with Clovis; Merovingi is a Latinization of his Germanic name (Cf. O.H.G. Mar wig… … Etymology dictionary
Merovingian — [mer΄ō vin′jē ən, mer΄ō vin′jən] adj. [Fr Mérovingien < ML Merovingi, descendants of Merovaeus, Latinized name of Merowig, grandfather of CLOVIS I] designating or of the Frankish line of kings who reigned in Gaul (ancient France) from c.A.D.… … English World dictionary
Merovingian — adjective Etymology: French mérovingien, from Medieval Latin Merovingi Merovingians, from Merovaeus Merowig died 458 Frankish founder of the dynasty Date: 1687 of or relating to the first Frankish dynasty reigning from about A.D. 500 to 751 •… … New Collegiate Dictionary
Merovingian — /mer euh vin jee euhn, jeuhn/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to the Frankish dynasty established by Clovis, which reigned in Gaul and Germany from A.D. 476 to 751. n. 2. a member or supporter of the Merovingian dynasty. [1685 95; < F mérovingien,… … Universalium
Merovingian — merÉ™ÊŠ vÉªndÊ’Ê’n n. member of the Merovingian dynasty … English contemporary dictionary
Merovingian — [ˌmɛrə vɪn(d)ʒɪən] adjective relating to the Frankish dynasty reigning in Gaul and Germany c.500–750. noun a member of the Merovingian dynasty. Origin from Fr. mérovingien, from med. L. Merovingi descendants of Merovich (a semi legendary Frankish … English new terms dictionary
merovingian — merÉ™ÊŠ vÉªndÊ’Ê’n adj. of the dynasty of Frankish kings that was established by Clovis I and ruled ancient Belgium and Germany in the 476 751 AD … English contemporary dictionary
merovingian — mer·o·vin·gian … English syllables