- History of music
Musicis found in every known culture, past and present, varying wildly between times and places. Scientists now believe that modern humansemerged from Africa160,000 years ago. Around 50,000 years ago these humans began to disperse from Africa reaching all the habitable continents. Since all people of the world, including the most isolated tribal groups, have a form of music, scientists conclude that music must have been present in the ancestral population prior to the dispersal of humans around the world. Consequently music must have been in existence for at least 50,000 years and the first music must have been invented in Africa and then evolved to become a fundamental constituent of human life. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=vYQEakqM4I0C&printsec=frontcover The origins of music Nils Lennart Wallin, Steven Brown, Björn Merker] ISBN 0262731436]
A culture's music is influenced by all other aspects of that culture, including social and economic organization and experience, climate, and access to technology. The emotions and ideas that music expresses, the situations in which music is played and listened to, and the attitudes toward music players and composers all vary between regions and periods. "
Music history" is the distinct subfield of musicologyand historywhich studies music (particularly western art music) from a chronological perspective.
Music history eras
Prehistoric music, once more commonly called primitive music, is the name given to all music produced in preliterate cultures (
prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history.
Traditional Native American and
Australian Aboriginal musiccould be called prehistoric, but the term is commonly used to refer to the music in "Europe" before the development of writing there. It is more common to call the "prehistoric" music of non-European continents – especially that which still survives – folk, indigenous, or traditional music.
The prehistoric era is considered to have ended with the development of writing, and with it, by definition, prehistoric music. "Ancient music" is the name given to the music that followed.
The "oldest known song" was written in cuneiform, dating to 4,000 years ago from Ur. It was deciphered by Prof. Anne Draffkorn Kilmer (University of Calif. at Berkeley), and was demonstrated to be composed in harmonies of thirds, like ancient "
gymel" (Kilmer, Crocker, Brown, "Sounds from Silence", 1976, Bit Enki, Berkeley, Calif., LCC 76-16729), and also was written using a Pythagorean tuningof the diatonic scale.
Double pipes, such as used by the ancient Greeks, and ancient bagpipes, as well as a review of ancient drawings on vases and walls, etc., and ancient writings (such as in Aristotle, "Problems," Book XIX.12) which described musical techniques of the time, indicate polyphony.
One pipe in the aulos pairs (double flutes) likely served as a drone or "keynote," while the other played melodic passages.
Instruments, such as the seven holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the
Indus valley civilizationarchaeological sites. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN8170173329&id=yySNDP9XVggC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=seven+holed+flute+and+various+types+of+stringed+instruments&sig=0baqFLb6KItfPYLoCdFWFTCD8Sk] Indian classical music("marga") can be found from the scriptures of the Hindutradition, the Vedas. Samaveda, one of the four vedas describes music at length.
The history of musical development in Iran [Persia]
Persian music, dates back to the prehistoric era. The great legendary king, Jamshid, is credited with the invention of music. Music in Iran can be traced back to the days of the Elamite Empire(2,500-644 B.C). Fragmentary documents from various periods of the country's history establish that the ancient Persians possessed an elaborate musical culture. The Sassanianperiod (A.D. 226-651), in particular, has left us ample evidence pointing to the existence of a lively musical life in Persia. The names of some important musicians such as Barbod, Nakissa and Ramtin, and titles of some of their works have survived.
Early musicera may also refer to contemporary but traditional or folk music, including Asian music, Persian music, music of India, Jewish music, Greek music, Roman music, the music of Mesopotamia, the music of Egypt, and Muslim music.
Early music is a general term used to describe music in the European classical tradition from after the fall of the
Roman Empire, in 476CE, until the end of the Baroque era in the middle of the 18th century. Music within this enormous span of time was extremely diverse, encompassing multiple cultural traditions within a wide geographic area; many of the cultural groups out of which medieval Europe developed already had musical traditions, about which little is known. What unified these cultures in the Middle Ages was the Roman Catholic Church, and its music served as the focal point for musical development for the first thousand years of this period. Very little non-Christian music from this period survived, due to its suppression by the Church and the absence of music notation; however, folk music of modern Europe probably has roots at least as far back as the Middle Ages.
Western Art Music
While musical life was undoubtedly rich in the early
Medievalera, as attested by artistic depictions of instruments, writings about music, and other records, the only repertory of music which has survived from before 800 to the present day is the plainsongliturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest part of which is called Gregorian chant. Pope Gregory I, who gave his name to the musical repertory and may himself have been a composer, is usually claimed to be the originator of the musical portion of the liturgy in its present form, though the sources giving details on his contribution, date from more than a hundred years after his death. Many scholars believe that his reputation has been exaggerated by legend. Most of the chant repertory was composed anonymously in the centuries between the time of Gregory and Charlemagne.
9th centuryseveral important developments took place. First, there was a major effort by the Church to unify the many chant traditions, and suppress many of them in favor of the Gregorian liturgy. Second, the earliest polyphonic music was sung, a form of parallel singing known as organum. Third, and of greatest significance for music history, notation was reinvented after a lapse of about five hundred years, though it would be several more centuries before a system of pitch and rhythm notation evolved having the precision and flexibility that modern musicians take for granted.
Several schools of polyphony flourished in the period after
1100: the St. Martial schoolof organum, the music of which was often characterized by a swiftly moving part over a single sustained line; the Notre Dame schoolof polyphony, which included the composers Léoninand Pérotin, and which produced the first music for more than two parts around 1200; the musical melting-pot of Santiago de Compostelain Galicia, a pilgrimage destination and site where musicians from many traditions came together in the late Middle Ages, the music of whom survives in the Codex Calixtinus; and the English school, the music of which survives in the Worchester Fragments and the Old Hall Manuscript. Alongside these schools of sacred music a vibrant tradition of secular song developed, as exemplified in the music of the troubadours, trouvères and Minnesänger. Much of the later secular music of the early Renaissanceevolved from the forms, ideas, and the musical aesthetic of the troubadours, courtly poets and itinerant musicians, whose culture was largely exterminated during the Albigensian Crusadein the early 13th century.
Forms of sacred music which developed during the late 13th century included the
motet, conductus, discant, and clausulae. One unusual development was the " Geisslerlieder", the music of wandering bands of flagellants during two periods: the middle of the 13th century (until they were suppressed by the Church); and the period during and immediately following the Black Death, around 1350, when their activities were vividly recorded and well-documented with notated music. Their music mixed folk song styles with penitential or apocalyptic texts.
14th centuryin European music history is dominated by the style of the " ars nova", which by convention is grouped with the medieval era in music, even though it had much in common with early Renaissance ideals and aesthetics. Much of the surviving music of the time is secular, and tends to use the formes fixes: the ballade, the virelai, the lai, the rondeau, which correspond to poetic forms of the same names. Most pieces in these forms are for one to three voices, likely with instrumental accompaniment: famous composers include Guillaume de Machautand Francesco Landini.
The beginning of the Renaissance in music is not as clearly marked as the beginning of the Renaissance in the other arts, and unlike the Renaissance in the other arts, it did not begin in
Italy, but in northern Europe, specifically in the area currently comprising central and northern France, the Netherlands, and Belgium. The style of the Burgundian composers, as the first generation of the Franco-Flemish school is known, was at first a reaction against the excessive complexity and mannered style of the late 14th century" ars subtilior", and contained clear, singable melody and balanced polyphonyin all voices. The most famous composers of the Burgundian school in the mid- 15th centuryare Guillaume Dufay, Gilles Binchois, and Antoine Busnois.
By the middle of the
15th century, composers and singers from the Low Countriesand adjacent areas began to overspread Europe, moving especially into Italy where they were employed by the papal chapel and the aristocratic patrons of the arts, such as the Medici, the Estefamily in Ferrara, and the Sforzafamily in Milan. They carried their style with them: smooth polyphony which could be adapted for sacred or secular use as appropriate. Principal forms of sacred musical composition at the time were the mass, the motet, and the laude; secular forms included the chanson, the frottola, and later the madrigal.
The invention of
printinghad an immense influence on the dissemination of musical styles, and along with the movement of the Franco-Flemish musicians throughout Europe, contributed to the establishment of the first truly international style in European music since the unification of Gregorian chant under Charlemagne seven hundred years before.
Composers of the middle generation of the Franco-Flemish school included
Johannes Ockeghem, who wrote music in a contrapuntally complex style, with varied texture and an elaborate use of canonical devices; Jacob Obrecht, one of the most famous composers of masses in the last decades of the 15th century; and Josquin Desprez, probably the most famous composer in Europe before Palestrina, and who during the 16th centurywas renowned as one of the greatest artists in any form.
Music in the generation after Josquin explored increasing complexity of
counterpoint; possibly the most extreme expression of this tendency is in the music of Nicolas Gombert, whose contrapuntal complexities influenced early instrumental music, such as the canzonaand the ricercar, ultimately culminating in Baroque fugal forms.
By the middle of the
16th century, the international style began to break down, and several highly diverse stylistic trends became evident: a trend towards simplicity in sacred music, as directed by the Counter-Reformation Council of Trent, and as exemplified in the austere perfection of the music of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina; a trend towards complexity and chromaticismin the madrigal, which reached its extreme expression in the avant-gardestyle of the Ferrara Schoolof Luzzaschi, and the late century madrigalist Carlo Gesualdo; and the grandiose, sonorous music of the Venetian school, which took advantage of the architecture of the Basilica San Marco di Veneziato create a music of antiphonal contrasts. The music of the Venetian school can be seen on the cusp of the Renaissance and the Baroque eras, and included the development of orchestration, ornamented instrumental parts, and continuo bass parts, all of which occurred within a span of several decades around 1600. Famous composers in Veniceincluded the Gabrielis, Andrea and Giovanni, as well as Claudio Monteverdi, one of the most significant innovators at the end of the era.
Most parts of Europe had active, and well-differentiated, musical traditions by late in the century. In England, composers such as
Thomas Tallisand William Byrdwrote sacred music in a style similar to that written on the continent, while an active group of home-grown madrigalists adapted the Italian form for English tastes: famous composers included Thomas Morley, John Wilbyeand Thomas Weelkes. Spaindeveloped instrumental and vocal styles of its own, with Tomás Luis de Victoriawriting refined music similar to that of Palestrina, and numerous other composers writing for a new instrument called the guitar. Germany cultivated polyphonic forms built on the Protestant chorales, which replaced the Roman Catholic Gregorian Chant as a basis for sacred music, and imported wholesale the style of the Venetian school (the appearance of which defined the start of the Baroque era there). In addition, German composers wrote enormous amounts of organ music, establishing the basis for the later spectacular flowering of the Baroque organ style which culminated in the work of J.S. Bach. France developed a unique style of musical diction known as musique mesurée, used in secular chansons, with composers such as Guillaume Costeleyand Claude Le Jeuneprominent in the movement.
One of the most revolutionary movements in the era took place in Florence in the
1570sand 1580s, with the work of the Florentine Camerata, who ironically had a reactionary intent: dissatisfied with what they saw as contemporary musical depravities, their goal was to restore the music of the ancient Greeks. Chief among them were Vincenzo Galilei, the father of the astronomer, and Giulio Caccini. The fruits of their labors was a declamatory melodic singing style known as monody, and a corresponding dramatic form consisting of staged, acted monody: a form known today as opera. The first operas, written around 1600, also define the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque eras.
Music prior to 1600 was modal rather than tonal. Several theoretical developments late in the 16th century, such as the writings on scales on modes by
Gioseffo Zarlinoand Franchinus Gaffurius, led directly to the development of common practice tonality. The major and minor scales began to predominate over the old church modes, a feature which was at first most obvious at cadential points in compositions, but gradually became pervasive. Music after 1600, beginning with the tonal music of the Baroque era, is often referred to as belonging to the common practice period.
Instrumental music became dominant in the Baroque, and most major music forms were defined.
Counterpointwas one of the major forces in both the instrumental and the vocal music of the period. Although a strong religious musical tradition continued, secular music came to the fore with the development of the sonata, the concerto, and the concerto grosso. Much Baroque music was designed for improvisation, with a figured bassprovided by the composer for the performer to flesh out and ornament. The keyboard, particularly the harpsichord, was a dominant instrument, and the beginnings of well temperamentopened up the possibilities of playing in all keys and of modulation. Much Baroque music featured a basso continuoconsisting of a keyboard, either harpsichord or organ (sometimes a luteinstead), and a bass instrument, such as a viola da gambaor bassoon. The three outstanding composers of the period were Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, and Antonio Vivaldi, but a host of other composers, some with huge output, were active in the period.
Classical music era
The music of the Classical period is characterized by
homophonic texture, or an obvious melodywith accompaniment. These new melodies tended to be almost voice-like and singable, allowing composers at the time to actually replace singer(s) as the focus of the music. Instrumental music therefore quickly replaced operaand other sung forms (such as oratorio) as the favorite of the musical audience and the epitome of great composition. This is not to say that operadisappeared. Indeed, during the classical period, several composers began producing operas for the general public, in their native languages (previous operas were generally in Italian).
Along with the gradual displacement of the voice in favor of stronger, clearer melodies, counterpoint also typically became a decorative flourish, often used near the end of a work or for a single movement. In its stead, simple patterns, such as arpeggios and, in piano music,
Alberti bass(an accompaniment with a repeated pattern typically in the left hand) were used to liven the movement of the piece without creating a confusing additional voice. The now popular instrumental music was dominated by several well-defined forms: the sonata, the symphony, and the concerto, though none of these forms were specifically defined or taught at the time as they are now in the field of music theory. All three derive from sonata form, which is used to refer both to the overlying form of an entire work and the structure of a single movement. Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century.The early Classical period was ushered in by the Mannheim School, which included such composers as Johann Stamitz, Franz Xaver Richter, Carl Stamitz, and Christian Cannabich. It exerted a profound influence on Joseph Haydnand, through him, on all subsequent European music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozartwas the central figure of the Classical period, and his phenomenal and varied output in all genres defines our perception of the period. Ludwig van Beethovenand Franz Schubertwere transitional composers, leading into the Romantic period, with their expansion of existing genres, forms, and even functions of music.
In the Romantic period, music became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literature, art, and philosophy. Famous early Romantic composers include Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Bellini, and Berlioz.
The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the
orchestra, and in the role of concerts as part of urban society. Famous composers from the second half of the century include Johann Strauss II, Brahms, Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Verdi, and Wagner.
Between 1890 and 1910, a third wave of composers including Dvořák, Mahler,
Richard Strauss, Puccini, and Sibelius built on the work of middle Romantic composers to create even more complex – and often much longer – musical works. A prominent mark of late 19th century music is its nationalistic fervor, as exemplified by such figures as Dvořák, Sibelius, and Grieg. Other prominent late-century figures include Saint-Saëns, Fauré, Rachmaninoff and Franck.
20th century music
The 20th Century saw a revolution in music listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music. Because music was no longer limited to concerts and clubs, it became possible for music artists to quickly gain fame nationwide and sometimes worldwide. Conversely, audiences were able to be exposed to a wider range of music than ever before. Music performances became increasingly visual with the broadcast and recording of music videos and concerts. Music of all kinds also became increasingly portable. Headphones allowed people sitting next to each other to listen to entirely different performances or share the same performance.
20th Century music brought a new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods. The invention of musical
amplificationand electronic instruments, especially the synthesizer, in the mid-20th century revolutionized popular music and accelerated the development of new forms of music.
:see also|Contemporary classical music
Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of art, ecclesiastical and concert music. A music is classical if it includes some of the following features: a learned tradition, support from the church or government, or greater cultural capital. Classical music is also described as complex, lasting, transcendent, and abstract.
In many cultures a classical tradition coexisted with traditional or popular music, occasionally for thousands of years, and with different levels of mutual borrowing with the parallel tradition.
'Classical European music' is a somewhat broad term, referring to music produced in or rooted in the traditions of European art, ecclesiastical, and concert music, particularly between 1000 and 1900. The central norms of this tradition developed between 1550 and 1825 centering on what is known as the
common practice period.
Asian music covers the music cultures of Arabia, Central Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.:see also|Gagaku|Gamelan|Music of Korea#Classical music|Japanese music
The Indian music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. [World Music: The Basics By Nidel Nidel, Richard O. Nidel (page 219)] The
Indus Valley civilizationhas sculptures which show dance [World History: Societies of the Past By Charles Kahn (page 98)] and old musical instruments, like the seven holed flute. Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harrappaand Mohenjo Daroby excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. [World History: Societies of the Past By Charles Kahn (page 11)] The Rigvedahas elements of present Indian music, with a musical notation to denote the metre and the mode of chanting. [World Music: The Basics By Nidel Nidel, Richard O. Nidel (page 10)] Early Indian musical tradition also speaks of three accents and vocal music known as "Samagan" (Sama meaning melody and Gan meaning to sing). [The Music of India By Jamila Massey, Reginald Massey (page 13)]
The classical music of India includes two major traditions of the southern
Carnatic musicand the northern Hindustani classical music. India's classical music tradition has a history spanning millennia and, developed over several eras, remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment.
Indian classical music (marga) is monophonic, and based around a single melody line or
ragarhythmically organized through talas. Carnatic music is largely devotional; the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities. There are a lot of songs emphasising love and other social issues. In contrast to Carnatic music, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but also by the Persian performance practices of the Afghan Mughals.
The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the
Hindutradition, the Vedas. Samaveda, one of the four vedas describes music at length.
Chinese classical music is the traditional art or court music of China. It has a long history stretching for more than three thousand years. It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as musical tuning and pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical genres. Chinese music is pentatonic-diatonic, having a scale of twelve notes to an octave (5+7 = 12) as does European-influenced music.
Persian musicis the music of Persia and Persian language countries: "musiqi", the science and art of music, and "muzik", the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). See: Music of Iran, Music of Afghanistan, Music of Tajikistan, Music of Uzbekistan.
Greek written history extends far back into
Ancient Greece, and was a major part of ancient Greek theater. In ancient Greece, mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual reasons. Instruments included the double-reed aulosand the plucked string instrument, the lyre, especially the special kind called a kithara.
Music was an important part of education in ancient Greece, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of development; Greek
music theoryincluded the Greek musical modes, eventually became the basis for Western religious musicand classical music.Later, influences from the Roman Empire, Eastern Europeand the Byzantine Empirechanged Greek music.
The connection of the music environment of Greece with that of the European Renaissance can be traced mainly in Crete until 1669, where its vivid urban music benefited from the creative assimilation with the venetian culture. The most important musical figure of Crete was Fragiskos Leondaritis (Francesco Leondariti or Londariti), organist and composer of sacred and secular music. Another key-figure of that era was Ieronimos o Tragodistis (Hieronymus the Chanter), a Cypriot student of Gios. Zarlino, who flourished around 1571 and, among others, proposed a system that enabled
medievalByzantine chant to correspont to the current contrapuntal practices via the cantus firmusparaphrase. In the 18th centuryart music was mainly cultivated in Ionian Islands, where from 1733 opera became the most distinctive music genre. This dynamic had as a consequence in 19th century, composers like Nikolaos Mantzaros(Niccolo Calichiopulo Manzaro, 1795- 1872), Spyridon Xyndas( 1812- 1896), Pavlos Karrer (Paolo Carrer, 1829- 1896) and Spyridon Samaras( 1861- 1917) to revitalize Greek art music.Instrumental music was also cultivated in 19th century by composers, such as Dionysios Rodotheatos from Ithaca and Dimitris Lialios from Patras, both of them adopting the -with the broader sense-wagnerian novelties in the style and aesthetics. In the first decade of 20th century, the social and historical conditions enabled the revisiting of nationalism in music by the composers of the so-called 'National School'. The prevailing current for 'national music' was that of Manolis Kalomiris, which eventually became wider accepted compared to that of Georgios Lambelet. 'National School' succeeded in concentrating under its aesthetic 'credo' composer with different backgrounds, such as Marios Varvoglis, Petros Petrides, Dimetrios Levidis, Aimilios Riadis or Antiohos Evagellatos. On the other hand, modernism made also its appearance with Nikos Skalkottas, a student of Arn. Schoenberg, being the most notable (and at the same time, neglected) representative. Dimitris Mitropoulosalso contributed to the music literature of Greek modernismbefore committing himself to conducting. After the Second World War modernismbegan to prevail, with considerable difficulty, mainly because of the social and political conditions of the postwar period in Greece, as well as the dominance of the 'National School'. However, composers like Mihalis Adamis, Thodoros Antoniou, Iannis Xenakis, Y.A. Papaioannou and Janni Christousucceeded in giving new perspectives to such aesthetic ways. In the maintime, a strong current of populism related to the political conditions especially after 1949, as well as to the brief change of taste of the urban class and the initiation of the touristic enterprise in 1960s, enabled the gradual promotion of the popular song as the prevalent form, which the last decades has regretably become synonymous to 'Greek music', as a whole.
* Lee, Yuan-Yuan and Shen, Sinyan. (1999). "Chinese Musical Instruments (Chinese Music Monograph Series)". Chinese Music Society of North America Press. ISBN 1-880464039
* Shen, Sinyan (1987), Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells, "Scientific American", 256, 94.
* Merker, Brown, Steven, eds. (2000). "The Origins of Music". The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23206-5.
* Reese, Gustave (1954). "Music in the Renaissance". New York, W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-09530-4.
* Bangayan, Phil, Bonet, Giselle and Ghosemajumder, Shuman (2002) " [http://shumans.com/digital-music/ Digital Music Distribution] " (History of the Recorded Music Industry), MIT Sloan School of Management.
* Hoppin, Richard H. (1978). "Medieval Music". New York, W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-09090-6.
* Schwartz, Elliot and Godfrey, Daniel (1993). "Music Since 1945". United States, Simon & Schuster Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-873040-2
* Kilmer, Crocker, Brown, "Sounds from Silence", 1976, Bit Enki, Berkeley, Calif., LCC 76-16729.
* Helmholtz, "Sensations of Tone" Dover.
* [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/DicHist/analytic/anaIII.html "The Dictionary of the History of Ideas"] see Music and Science, Music as a Demonic Art, Music as a Divine Art
* [http://www.music.ed.ac.uk/euchmi/ Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments]
* [http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/ Essentials of Music] Classical Music eras, composers, glossary "from Sony Music Entertainment"
* [http://www.oddmusic.com/resources/glossary.html Glossary of Musical Instruments & Styles] and [http://www.oddmusic.com/resources/quotes.html Quotes] from [http://www.oddmusic.com/ OddMusic.com]
* [http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/sheetmusic/ Historic American Sheet Music]
* [http://levysheetmusic.mse.jhu.edu/ Lester S. Levy Sheet Music Collection] popular American music, 1780-1960
* [http://www.si.edu/resource/faq/nmah/music.htm Musical History] from the [http://www.si.edu/ Smithsonian Institution] , " [http://www.si.edu/resource/faq/start.htm Encyclopedia Smithsonian] "
* [http://www.geocities.com/papandrew/ Music History Resources] at GeoCities.com
* [http://www.haven.k12.pa.us/Elementary/music/histories.html Music History Time Lines] "from the Schuylkill Haven Elementary Center Music"
* [http://l.webring.com/hub?ring=musichistory The Music History Webring]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/Choir/8989/ The New Baroque and Renaissance Music Website] at GeoCities.com
* [http://www.usd.edu/smm/ National Music Museum] "from the University of South Dakota"
* [http://www.music.ed.ac.uk/russell/ Russell Collection of Early Keyboard Instruments] from the University of Edinburgh
* [http://www.gracyk.com/portable.shtml Tim Gracyk's Phonographs and Old Records]
* [http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0885982.html U.S. popular music timeline]
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