Reciprocity (Canadian politics)

Reciprocity (Canadian politics)

In 19th century Canadian politics, reciprocity was the term used to describe the concept of free trade with the United States of America. Reciprocity and free trade have been emotional issues in Canadian history, as they pitted two conflicting impulses, the desire for beneficial economic ties with the United States against the fear that closer economic ties would lead to American domination and annexation.

1880s to 1910s

Reciprocity was initially promoted as an alternative to John A. Macdonald's National Policy. Reciprocity meant that there would be no protective tariffs on all natural resources being imported and exported between Canada and the United States. This would allow prairie grain farmers access to the larger American market, and allow them to make more money on their exports. In the 1890s, it also meant that Western farmers could obtain access to cheaper American farm machinery and manufactured goods, which otherwise had to be obtained at higher prices from Central Canada.

The Liberal Party of Canada ran and were defeated over their reciprocity platform in the 1891 election. Macdonald won on the nationalist slogan, "The Old Flag, The Old Policy, The Old Leader." The Liberals temporarily shelved the concept. When reciprocity came up again in 1896, it was the Americans who proposed it to Wilfrid Laurier's Liberals. The idea excited them, and they immediately began to campaign for it. The Conservatives feared that they would lose the election again due to the valuable agreement, and despite their general belief that it would do Canada good, began to campaign against it.

The Liberal Party went on to win the 1896 election. It negotiated an elaborate reciprocity agreement with the United States in 1911. However in the 1911 election it became a major issue, with the Conservatives saying that it would be a "sell out" to the US. The Liberals were defeated by the Conservative party whose slogan was "No truck or trade with the Yankees".

Free trade in the 1980s

The concept of reciprocity with the United States was revived in the 1985 when the Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects for Canada headed by former Liberal Minister of Finance Donald S. Macdonald issued a report calling for free trade with the US. The Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney acted on the recommendation by negotiating the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and successfully fighting the 1988 election on the issue.

The downfall of free trade between Canada and the United States of America is that the US companies now had access to Canadian resources as cheap prices through simple transactions. This availability became the appature in which the Canada/ USA Softwood Lumber Dispute would spawn. In this instance, the United States did exactly that; Amercian companies bought softwood lumber taxing it highly while ignoring NAFTA. A fiasco that took over 6 years to resolve.

Online Resources

* [ National Policy and Canadian Federalism]

ee also

* National Policy

*Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty of 1855.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Reciprocity — may refer to: Reciprocity (Canadian politics) Reciprocity (photography), the relationship between the intensity of the light and duration of the exposure that result in identical exposure Traffic violations reciprocity where non resident drivers… …   Wikipedia

  • Canadian nationalism — is a term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which highlight and promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United States. It has also been applied to movements promoting pride… …   Wikipedia

  • Canadian Confederation — 1885 photo of Robert Harris s 1884 painting, Conference at Quebec in 1864, to settle the basics of a union of the British North American Provinces, also known as The Fathers of Confederation. The original painting was destroyed in the 1916… …   Wikipedia

  • Canadian federal election, 1911 — The Canadian federal election of 1911 was held on September 21 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 12th Parliament of Canada. It brought an end to fifteen years of government by the Liberal Party of Prime Minister Wilfrid… …   Wikipedia

  • Canadian federal election, 1891 — The Canadian federal election of 1891 was held on March 5 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 7th Parliament of Canada. It was won by the Conservative Party of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald. The main issue of the 1891… …   Wikipedia

  • Gun politics — A pyre of confiscated smuggled weapons about to be set ablaze in Nairobi, Kenya …   Wikipedia

  • James Young (Canadian politician) — James Young (May 24 1835 ndash; January 29 1913) was an Ontario businessman, journalist and political figure. He represented Waterloo South in the Canadian House of Commons as a Liberal member from 1867 to 1878.He was born in Galt in Upper Canada …   Wikipedia

  • cañada — /keuhn yah deuh, yad euh/, n. Chiefly Western U.S. 1. a dry riverbed. 2. a small, deep canyon. [1840 50; < Sp, equiv. to cañ(a) CANE + ada n. suffix] * * * Canada Introduction Canada Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources …   Universalium

  • Canada — /kan euh deuh/, n. a nation in N North America: a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 29,123,194; 3,690,410 sq. mi. (9,558,160 sq. km). Cap.: Ottawa. * * * Canada Introduction Canada Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural… …   Universalium

  • Charles Tupper — Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper, son of Charles Tupper. The Right Honourable Sir Charles Tupper Bt, GCMG, CB, PC …   Wikipedia

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»