Churches and places of worship in Brighton and Hove


Churches and places of worship in Brighton and Hove

This article describes Christian churches and places of worship of other religious denominations in the English city of Brighton and Hove.

Made up of the adjacent but formerly separate towns of Brighton and Hove along with surrounding villages and estates such as Moulsecoomb, Patcham, Preston and Rottingdean, Brighton and Hove has a long history of Christian worship. There has been a church in Brighton since the 11th century, possibly on the site of the present St Nicholas Church (whose structure still contains 14th-century elements);] there is a weekly Sunday service.cite web|title=Brighton Unitarians Services|url=http://www.brightonunitarianchurch.org.uk/services.html|accessdate=2007-12-09|date=2007|work=Brighton Unitarians website] Rebuilding and refurbishment work was carried out in 1966 and 2004.cite web|title=Brighton Unitarians Building Appeal Fund|url=http://www.brightonunitarianchurch.org.uk/buildingappeal.html|accessdate=2007-12-09|date=2007|work=Brighton Unitarians website]

United Reformed Church

:"Churches of the United Reformed Church."The Hove and Portslade Pastorate includes three churches in the Hove area: Central United Reformed Church in Blatchington Road, Hove; Hounsom Memorial Church in Nevill Road, Hangleton; and Portslade United Reformed Church. The churches share one minister.cite web|url=http://www.centralurchove.com/aboutus.html|title=Central United Reformed Church, Hove: About Us|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher=Central United Reformed Church, Hove|year-2008]

The Central United Reformed Church was formed in 1980 from a merger between Cliftonville and St Cuthbert's Churches. Cliftonville, centrally located in Hove at the junction of Ventnor Villas and Blatchington Road, was built as a Congregational Church in 1867 by H.N. Goulty. It is a stone building in the Early English revival style. St Cuthbert's was a Presbyterian church at the junction of Cromwell Road and Davigdor Road, dating from 1904 and built in the Decorated Gothic style with terracotta dressings.cite web|title=The Churches and Chapels of Brighton & Hove, Sussex ― Past & Present|url=http://www.roughwood.net/ChurchAlbum/EastSussex/Brighton/BrightonChurches.htm|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher=Mark Collins|year=2007|work=The Roughwood website] In 1972, the Congregational Church and the Presbyterian Church of England merged to form the United Reformed Church. The Central United Reformed Church moved into the Cliftonville church premises; the vacant premises of St Cuthbert's were demolished in 1984. In its present form, the church has services on most days of the week,cite web|url=http://www.centralurchove.com/services.html|title=Central United Reformed Church, Hove: Services at Central United Reformed Church, Hove|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher=Central United Reformed Church, Hove|year-2008] and has links to many community groups and organisations, including Boys' and Girls' Brigade companies.cite web|url=http://www.centralurchove.com/organisations.html|title=Central United Reformed Church, Hove: Organisations at Central United Reformed Church, Hove|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher=Central United Reformed Church, Hove|year-2008]

Portslade's first Congregational church was a tin mission hall in 1875. For a time, services were also held on a barge anchored in nearby Shoreham Harbour. A proper church, of flint with red brick dressings, was built near Portslade railway station in 1903; this was superseded by a new brick building with stone facings in 1932. This was built next to the original church, which then became the church hall.cite web|url=http://www.portslade-urc.org.uk/aboutus.html|title=Portslade United Reformed Church: About Us|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher=Portslade URC|year=2006] (In the photograph, its gable end can be seen above the red car.)

The Hounsom Memorial United Reformed Church is on the southern edge of the Hangleton estate. It is a small, modern brown-brick building with a tall, narrow arched window in the main tower, which is flanked by two sets of entrance doors.

In Brighton, many former Congregational churches closed before the founding of the United Reformed Church, but three remain in use. The oldest and most central is the Brighthelm Church and Community Centre in North Road. Although the building currently in use dates from 1987, Presbyterian worship on the site started in 1844.

The first building on the site of the Brighthelm Church and Community Centre, on the corner of the present-day North Road and Queens Road, was the independent Hanover Chapel, opened in 1825 with a capacity of 1,200 and at a cost of £4,000.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p177 ] In 1847 it was taken over on a 99-year lease by the Presbyterian community, which had been established in Brighton since 1698.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p178 ] The chapel had a burial ground in front of it, but no more burials took place after 1854. The congregation bought the freehold (including the burial ground) in 1861, and a parish hall was built within the grounds in 1863. For the next century, the chapel was known as the Brighton Presbyterian Church, although its official name was the Queen's Road Presbyterian Church after the road of that name was built.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p179 ] In 1972, a Congregational church (the Union Chapel) in nearby Queen's Square was closed, and the two churches merged.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p180 ]

In 1987 the new church was opened; it faces north, with its back to the burial ground (now a garden). The original chapel was incorporated as part of the church complex, but was considerably redeveloped internally. It nevertheless retains the Grade II listing which it was awarded in 1952.cite web|url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=480936&mode=quick|title=Images of England: 480936 Brighthelm Church and Community Centre, North Road (South Side)|accessdate=2008-03-23|publisher=English Heritage|year=2007|work=Images of England website] It is a west-facing, two-storey, white stuccoed structure with a symmetrical, twin-pedimented frontage and two entrance doors flanked by columns.cite web|url=http://www.roughwood.net/ChurchAlbum/EastSussex/Brighton/BrightonURCBrighthelm2004.htm|title=Brighthelm Church & Community Centre (United Reformed Church)|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher=Mark Collins|year=2007|work=The Roughwood website] The 1987 structure is of two-tone brick with large textured concrete projections, and has five storeys; along with an an adjacent office block, it hides the original chapel from the street.

Elsewhere, the Lewes Road United Reformed Church is a modern building in Hollingdean, and St Martin's United Reformed Church is based in Saltdean. This started as a Presbyterian church in the 1940s. The church authorities bought some land on the estate in 1940, and the first church was opened on 20 November 1941. The congregation moved to a new building in 1949, and the present church was completed in 1956.cite web|url=http://www.stmartins-urc.org.uk/pottedhistory|title=A Potted History|accessdate=2008-03-21]

Evangelical

:"Churches of the Evangelical tradition."Calvary Evangelical Church is an independent evangelical Christian church, set up in the former Brighton Railway Mission building. [cite web|title=Calvary Evangelical Church, Brighton - Who are we?|url=http://www.calvary-brighton.org.uk/who/] The Brighton Railway Mission itself was founded in 1876 to serve the spiritual needs of workers at the nearby locomotive works, and soon moved into the existing Methodist Church building on Viaduct Road – close to Preston Circus to the north-east of the city centre. Since 2006 the church premises have also housed the Brighton and Hove City Mission. [cite news | url = http://archive.theargus.co.uk/2006/3/31/209424.html | work = The Argus | author = Jan Melrose | date = March 31, 2006 | title = Church to be demolished | accessdate = 2007-06-20 ] The name of the church refers to Calvary, the hill on which Jesus was crucified.

Regular meetings are held in the church on Sundays. There is a morning prayer meeting followed by the main morning service at 11.00am, with a crèche and Sunday School available for children. Another prayer meeting is held in the evening, followed by an evening service. Other events, such as special Eucharists for born-again Christians and monthly lunches are held. Other meetings take place weekly in private houses. [cite web|title=Calvary Evangelical Church, Brighton - What's On|url=http://www.calvary-brighton.org.uk/meetings/] Since April 2006, the church has placed all of its weekly sermons online as Godcasts. Its regular Saturday discussions, sometimes held by guest speakers, are similarly available. [cite web|title=Calvary Evangelical Church, Brighton - Sermons|url=http://www.calvary-brighton.org.uk/sermons/] [cite web|title=Calvary Evangelical Church, Brighton - BeThinking|url=http://www.calvary-brighton.org.uk/bethinking/]

The Church of Christ the King, a Newfrontiers evangelical church serving the city and surrounding areas of Sussex, is based at the Clarendon Centre in Brighton's New England Quarter, near the railway station.cite web|title=Church of Christ the King — Home Page|url=http://www.cck.org.uk/Group/Group.aspx?id=28550|accessdate=2007-12-09|date=2007|publisher=Clarendon Trust Ltd|work=Church of Christ the King, Brighton website] The converted warehouse has housed the congregation since 1991.cite web|title=Church of Christ the King — CCK History|url=http://www.cck.org.uk/group/group.aspx?id=31079|accessdate=2007-12-09|date=2007|publisher=Clarendon Trust Ltd|work=Church of Christ the King, Brighton website] Founded with 38 people in 1978 as the Brighton & Hove Christian Fellowship, with assistance and supervision from Newfrontiers leader Terry Virgo (a native of Brighton), early meetings were held in a [http://www.mybrightonandhove.org.uk/page_id__7427.aspx school in Hove] . A renaming to Clarendon Church took place when the church moved to a mission hall in Clarendon Villas, Hove; the Odeon cinema in the centre of Brighton was also used as a venue until the former electrical warehouse near the A23 London Road was acquired. The building has been converted into a three-storey centre for worship and informal gatherings. As with the Calvary Evangelical Church, sermons and other spoken-word resources are available for download as podcasts.

alvation Army

:"Citadels of the Salvation Army."The Army have been established in Hove since 1879, at a Congress Hall in Conway Street, near Hove station.cite web|title=Park Crescent|url=http://www.mybrightonandhove.org.uk/page_id__8422.aspx|accessdate=2008-01-19|date=2007-09-23|publisher=My Brighton and Hove (c/o QueensPark Books)|work=My Brighton and Hove website] The building has a large, mostly blank western face fronting Sackville Road.

Two Salvation Army places of worship were built in Brighton later in the 19th century; both have been demolished, but a replacement has been built on the site of the earlier building. In 1883, architect E.J. Hamilton was commissioned to design and build a Congress Hall for Brighton's Salvation Army members. A site at Park Crescent, between the London and Lewes Roads, was chosen. Consisting of grey brick and stone dressed with terracotta facings, the building featured towers and battlemented parapets,cite book |last=Elleray |first=D. Robert |title=Sussex Places of Worship |origyear=2004 |publisher=Optimus Books |location=Worthing |isbn=0-95-331-3271 |pages=p13 ] and was considered a landmark of the area. Catherine Booth, husband of the Army's founder William Booth, opened the Hall in 1884.cite web|title=Salvage Army|url=http://archive.theargus.co.uk/2000/3/8/194564.html|accessdate=2008-01-19|publisher=Newsquest Media Group|date=2000-03-08|work=The Argus website] By the end of the 20th century, the Hall was in poor condition, with the slate roof giving particular concern. Residents of Park Crescent, whose houses overlooked the site, raised objections to the closure and demolition, but Brighton and Hove Council authorised it. Many of the decorative internal and external features were saved by the demolition contractors. The 200 members moved to the nearby Preston Barracks site while the demolition, site clearance and construction of the new citadel took place; some of their regular activities and community work had to be stopped temporarily. A new octagonal citadel was built on the site in 2000–2001 by architect David Greenwood. Members of the public were encouraged to donate to the fund by "buying a brick". The new building has several halls, rooms and other facilities.

A second citadel opened in 1884 or 1891 in Edward Street on the edge of Kemptown. Built on the site of a former riding school, it had a central parapet and battlemented towers on each side, and was stuccoed. It was demolished in 1965 and replaced with an office block.

Elsewhere in the city, there is an Army hall in Bevendean. The Brighton Bevendean Corps are based at Leybourne Road at the eastern end of the estate.cite web|title=The Salvation Army: Brighton Bevendean|url=http://www1.salvationarmy.org.uk/uki/www_uki.nsf/vw-sublinks/DB8A445E84D0A60F80256FDB00401EBB?openDocument|accessdate=2008-01-19|publisher=The Salvation Army United Kingdom with the Republic of Ireland|date=2008|work=The Salvation Army United Kingdom with the Republic of Ireland website] The Army also had a presence on the Moulsecoomb estate from the 1930s to the 1950s.

Jehovah's Witnesses

:"Kingdom Halls of the Jehovah's Witnesses."There are three Jehovah's Witnesses Kingdom Halls in use in the city as of 2008. One is at Osmond Road on the Brighton/Hove border near Seven Dials; another is at Reynolds Road in Hove; and there is one in Woodingdean.cite web|url=http://www.escis.org.uk/Entry/View/JehovahAPOSs_Witnesses,_Brighton/430|title=Jehovah's Witnesses, Brighton|accessdate=2008-03-23|publisher=East Sussex County Council Library and Information Services|date=20 April 2007|work=ESCIS: East Sussex Community Information Service website] The three buildings are all modern, of a similar vernacular style, and constructed predominantly in brick.

There is a former Kingdom Hall in Portslade, on Trafalgar Road close to Fishersgate railway station. It was sold in the 1990s, and is now in commercial use by a screen-printing company.cite web|title=Former Kingdom Hall of the Jehovah's Witnesses, Trafalgar Road, Portslade, Sussex|url=http://www.roughwood.net/ChurchAlbum/EastSussex/Portslade/PortsladeFormerKingdomHall2006.htm|accessdate=2008-03-22|publisher=Mark Collins|year=2007|work=The Roughwood website]

Reformed Church of France

:"Churches of the Reformed Church of France."Brighton's French Protestant church is the only one in Britain outside London.cite web|title=Soho Square area: Portland Estate — Nos. 8 and 9 Soho Square|url=http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41034|accessdate=2007-12-05|publisher=University of London & History of Parliament Trust|date=2007|work=British History Online website] Located behind the seafront next to the Metropole Hotel,cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p181 ] it was built in 1887 for £1,535 to serve local and itinerant Francophone worshippers (mostly fishermen from France).cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p183 ] cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p184 ] The building is a small red-brick church in Gothic style.

The size of the Francophone community in Brighton has declined from its early-20th century peak, and in June 2008 it was announced that the church would close and be put up for sale.cite news | url = http://www.theargus.co.uk/search/display.var.2362633.0.end_of_an_era_for_brightons_french_church.php | work = The Argus | author = Lawrence Marzouk | date = 2008-06-25 | title = End of an era for Brighton's French church | accessdate = 2008-06-27 ]

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

:"Churches of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria."St Mary and St Abraam Church in Davigdor Road, Hove is one of nine Coptic churches in the British Isles.cite web|title=Archive of Glastonbury Review: Miscellaneous Articles|url=http://www.britishorthodox.org/bocpress.php|accessdate=2008-01-04|publisher=The British Orthodox Secretariat|date=2007|work=The British Orthodox Church website] It is based in the former church of St Thomas the Apostle, an Anglican church built in 1909cite web|title=St Mary & St Abraam Coptic Orthodox Church, Davigdor Road, Hove|url=http://www.roughwood.net/ChurchAlbum/EastSussex/Hove/HoveStAbraam2005.htm|accessdate=2008-01-17|publisher=Mark Collins|year=2007|work=The Roughwood website] and declared redundant on 20 July 1993.cite web|title=The Church of England Statistics & Information: Lists (by diocese) of redundant church buildings whose futures have been settled as at April 2006|url=http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/churchcommissioners/redchurches/stats/chichester.doc|accessdate=2008-01-17|publisher=Church of England|year=2006|work=The Church of England website] The Coptic Orthodox Church bought the building, and its leader, Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, travelled to Hove and performed a dedication ceremony on 23 September 1994.cite book |last=Middleton |first=Judy |title=The Encyclopaedia of Hove & Portslade |origyear=2002 |series=Volume 12: S Part 1 |publisher=Brighton & Hove Libraries |location=Brighton |pages=p103 ] The red-brick church is in the Early English style.

Greek Orthodox Church

:"Churches of the Greek Orthodox Church."The Greek Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity has also been established in a former Anglican church — St John the Evangelist on Carlton Hill. This was originally a slum district on high ground known as the East Cliff, north of the Kemp Town development and south of Hanover.cite web|title=Greek Orthodox Church|url=http://www.mybrightonandhove.org.uk/page_id__5759_path__0p115p187p782p.aspx|accessdate=2008-01-23|date=2006-03-22|publisher=My Brighton and Hove (c/o QueensPark Books)|work=My Brighton and Hove website]

The church was built as part of Rev. Henry Wagner's drive to provide more places of worship in Brighton's poor districts, in which most of the seats would be free rather than subject to pew rents. The need for such action was urgent in his early years as Vicar of Brighton: by 1830 about 18,000 poor people lived in the town, representing nearly half the population, but only 3,000 rent-free pews were available in the existing churches.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p80 ]

St John the Evangelist was the third church built under Wagner's curacy, after All Souls Church (Eastern Road; built 1833–1834; demolished 1968) and Christ Church (Montpelier Road; built 1837–1838; demolished 1982).cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p81 ] The architects and builders of Christ Church, Brighton-based firm Cheesman & Son, were employed again, with George Cheesman junior being responsible for the design. Unlike its Gothic-inspired predecessor, however, St John the Evangelist was built in the Classical style. Built in brick with some stone dressings, the church has a white-painted southern frontage, facing Carlton Hill; none of the other elevations are easily visible. A deep central recess is flanked by two prominent wings with entrance doorscite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others=School of Architecture and Interior Design, Brighton Polytechnic |title=A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton |origyear=1987 |publisher=McMillan Martin |location=Macclesfield |isbn=1-869-86503-0 |pages=p77 ] and large stone pilasters, above which is a pediment with an embedded clock. The large crucifix above the entrance is a recent addition.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p82 ] Built at a cost of £4,660 (including £908 for purchase of the site), the church was consecrated on 28 January 1840 by the Bishop of Worcester and former Vicar of Brighton Robert James Carr, who was visiting Brighton at the time and stood in for the unwell Bishop of Chichester. More than half of the 1,200 seats were free.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p83 ]

The church always found it difficult to attract a large congregation; reasons claimed for this include the awkward location of the church, the attraction of cheap taverns and gin shops in the area and the controversial introduction of a Ritualist, High Church style of worship in the 1860s and 1870s. A further problem was a long and expensive closure in 1879, while structural repairs were made.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p84 ] It was declared redundant on 11 November 1980 and sold to the Greek Orthodox Church on 13 December 1985. Some interior alterations have been made, including the installation of a new altar screen.

Jewish

:"Synagogues of the Jewish faith."For more than 100 years, the Middle Street Synagogue was the centre of Jewish worship in Brighton and Hove. However, there was a Jewish community in the area for nearly a century before the construction of the synagogue in 1874.cite web|title=English synagogue handed massive government grant|url=http://www.ejpress.org/article/4863|accessdate=2007-12-30|publisher=European Jewish Press|date=2007|work=European Jewish Press website] cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p192 ] A Bavarian settler, Emanuel Hyam Cohen, established a Jewish school on the seafront in the 1780s and a place of worship in 1792. The latter moved from Jew Street (off Bond Street) to West Street in 1808, but there is no record of the nature of the buildings; meetings may in fact have taken place in private houses. A dedicated synagogue was built in 1824 on land leased from a hotel, and enlarged by David Mocatta (architect of Brighton railway station, and member of the prominent Jewish Mocatta family) in 1836. This building was used until the new synagogue was opened in Middle Street in 1875.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p193 ]

Construction started on 19 November 1874, with Chief Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler in attendance. The architect, Thomas Lainson, had been responsible for many buildings in Hove, including a Congregational church. After ten months of work at a cost of £12,000, the dedication ceremony took place on 23 September 1875 and the synagogue was opened.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p194 ] It was much larger than its predecessor, with a capacity of 300.cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others=School of Architecture and Interior Design, Brighton Polytechnic |title=A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton |origyear=1987 |publisher=McMillan Martin |location=Macclesfield |isbn=1-869-86503-0 |pages=p39 ] Architecturally, it was built in the Neo-Byzantine Revival style in pale Sussex brick. The arched windows are surrounded by contrasting red and blue bricks and tiles, and are flanked by red marble columns. There is a large rose window in the west-facing frontage. In 1892, the building became the first synagogue in Britain to be electrically lit.cite web|title=Jewish places of worship|url=http://www.2020community.org/index.cfm?request=c1001439|accessdate=2007-12-30|publisher=Brighton & Hove City Council|year=2003|work=Brighton & Hove Education Online website] In view of its architectural merit (it has been described as Brighton's second most important historic building, behind the Royal Pavilion), it has attained Grade II* listed status.cite web|title=Brighton Festival Fringe 2008|url=http://www.brightonfestivalfringe.org.uk/listings/tours/index.asp?pg=2&|accessdate=2007-12-30|publisher=Brighton Festival Fringe Ltd|date=2007|work=Brighton Festival Fringe website]

Although the Jewish community in the city numbered 4,000 by 2004, the Middle Street synagogue fell out of regular use at that time, although it is still opened occasionally for tours of the interior, especially during the annual Brighton Festival. Urgent structural repairs, including a new roof, were required by that time. A combination of fundraising concerts, auctions and a grant of several hundred thousand pounds from the government agency English Heritage enabled restoration work to take place. The building is now open to the public on some Sundays, and there are regular prayer sessions.

Three more modern synagogues, all in Hove, are now used by worshippers in the city. The Hebrew Congregation Synagogue at the junction of Holland Road and Lansdowne Road was opened in 1938 and was designed in a style reminiscent of the Jugendstil movement, similar to Art Nouveau.cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others=School of Architecture and Interior Design, Brighton Polytechnic |title=A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton |origyear=1987 |publisher=McMillan Martin |location=Macclesfield |isbn=1-869-86503-0 |pages=p99 ] It follows the Ashkenazi tradition.cite web|title=Hove Hebrew Congregation|url=http://www.jewishgen.org/JCR-UK/Community/br2/index.htm|accessdate=2007-12-30|publisher=JCR-UK|date=2005-11-24|work=Jewish Communities & Records United Kingdom website] The Brighton & Hove Progressive Synagogue is a short distance to the east on Lansdowne Road. It was converted to its present use in 1946, having been a gymnasium; meetings had previously taken place in private houses. As well as regular services (including special services for children), a variety of events take place throughout the year, including concerts.cite web|title=Events Diary|url=http://www.brightonandhoveprosynagogue.org.uk/events.htm|accessdate=2007-12-31|publisher=Brighton & Hove Progressive Synagogue|date=2007|work=Brighton & Hove Progressive Synagogue website] The Brighton & Hove Reform Synagogue, on Palmeira Avenue, is part of the Movement for Reform Judaism,cite web|title=Brighton & Hove Reform Synagogue|url=http://www.jewishgen.org/JCR-UK/Community/br4/
accessdate=2007-12-30|publisher=JCR-UK|date=2006-05-22|work=Jewish Communities & Records United Kingdom website
] which represents the Reform Judaism community in the United Kingdom. Reform Judaism is one of two forms of Progressive Judaism. A plaque installed near the entrance door indicates that the foundation stone was laid on 17 July 1966 (or in the Hebrew calendar, 29 Tammuz 5726), and that the synagogue's original name was the Brighton and Hove New Synagogue.

Closed or disused churches

The former Holy Trinity Church (or Holy Trinity Chapel) in Ship Street, one of Brighton's oldest streets, has early 19th-century origins. Thomas Read Kemp, born in nearby Lewes in 1782, was heavily involved in Brighton's political and religious life in the first decades of the 19th century, until he left the country in 1837 to escape his debts. Previously an Anglican, he split from the Church of England in 1816 and founded an independent sect, for which Amon Wilds built a chapel the following year. Situated on the west side of the northern section of Ship Street, which was then a separate entity named Ship Street Lane, it featured a pediment and a square tower, under which was a glass dome which illuminated the interior, and a stuccoed exterior.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p48 ] Although Kemp converted back to Anglicanism in 1823, the chapel remained independent until 1826: a recently ordained priest, Revd Robert Anderson (the brother of the incumbent at St George's Church in Kemp Town) bought it and converted it via a private Act of Parliament into a private Anglican chapel.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p49 ] It was consecrated on 21 April 1826 and altered internally, achieving a seating capacity of 800 by 1829.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p50 ]

The chapel became very fashionable for several decades afterwards, with Revd Anderson and one of his successors, Revd Frederick W. Robertson, being popular and successful preachers. Robertson in particular had a significant impact on life in Brighton, undertaking missionary work in the town, founding a working men's institute and preaching unorthodox but effective sermons.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=pp50-52 ]

The next alteration to the chapel came in 1867, when a chancel was added.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p53 ] The Church of England bought the building for £6,500 in 1878, and it was altered significantly in the following years by Somers Clarke, a Brighton-born architect. The eastern face, fronting Ship Street, was reclad in flint and restyled in Gothic Revival fashion, with a much taller octagonal tower replacing the existing square structure. This contrasted with the stuccoed south face, which had been hidden behind a house until the 1867 rebuilding but which now abutted the newly widened Duke Street.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p54 ]

The church was always unparished, and experienced declining congregations throughout the 20th century. Originally proposed for closure in the middle of the century, it survived until December 1984, although its last perpetual curate had left in 1971.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p55 ] Since 1996, the building has been used as an art gallery by the organisation [http://www.fabrica.org.uk/ Fabrica] .cite web|title=A profile of the gallery staff and programme|url=http://www.fabrica.org.uk/whatisfab.htm|accessdate=2008-01-08|publisher=Fabrica|year=2007|work=Fabrica website]

St Andrew's Church in Waterloo Street, Hove (unrelated to the former parish church of the same name in Church Road) dates from 1828, when the Brunswick estate was built.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p66 ] It remained in use until the late 20th century, but was declared redundant on 14 February 1990 because of declining attendance at services.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p70 ] It was originally a proprietary chapel owned by Rev. Edward Everard, the curate of St Margaret's Church in Brighton; no church had been built in the Brunswick estate, and he owned land on its boundary.cite web|title=St Andrew, Waterloo Street, Hove, Sussex — 4th May 2005|url=http://www.roughwood.net/ChurchAlbum/EastSussex/Hove/HoveWaterlooSt2005.htm|accessdate=2008-01-02|publisher=Mark Collins|year=2007|work=The Roughwood website] Charles Barry, who had started work on St Paul's Church in Brighton in 1824, designed the church, and construction started in April 1827. The exterior, facing west, was the first example in Englandcite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p67 ] of the Italianate style, although the interior was less grand. The Churches Conservation Trust now owns and maintains the building; it is occasionally opened to the public for tours and special services.

St Wilfrid's Church was an Anglican church on Elm Grove, designed in 1932 by H. S. Goodhart-Rendel and built over the next two years.cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others=School of Architecture and Interior Design, Brighton Polytechnic |title=A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton |origyear=1987 |publisher=McMillan Martin |location=Macclesfield |isbn=1-869-86503-0 |pages=p104 ] Goodhart-Rendel was a former president of the Royal Institute of British Architects, who was also responsible for a large office building (Princes House) in the centre of Brightoncite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others=School of Architecture and Interior Design, Brighton Polytechnic |title=A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton |origyear=1987 |publisher=McMillan Martin |location=Macclesfield |isbn=1-869-86503-0 |pages=p57 ] and for various similar buildings in London. He combined his enthusiasm for 19th-century church architecture with modern structural ideas and materials in a way consistent with the architectural concept of Eclecticism. The area which later became the parish of St Wilfrid was from 25 August 1901 served by a tin-built temporary church on the site of the present building, with the congregation having outgrown a series of rented rooms and halls in the area. When the parish was created in 1922, an extra 2,000 people came within its boundaries and a permanent church was required. £15,000 was raised by parishioners and from other sources, and services were held in the nearby parish hall (built in 1927) while the new church was built. This was consecrated on 25 November 1933 by the Bishop of Chichester, George Bell.cite web|title=St Wilfrid's, Brighton|url=http://www.mybrightonandhove.org.uk/page_id__6594_path__0p115p187p951p.aspx|accessdate=2007-12-30|date=2006-03-22|publisher=My Brighton and Hove (c/o QueensPark Books)|work=My Brighton and Hove website] Goodhart-Rendel built the church with double-thickness, two-tone brick walls and a reinforced concrete roof. It achieved Grade II listed status and earned praise from John Betjeman. However, asbestos was discovered in the interior fittings, and after much debate (including the threat of demolition) the church was closed in 1980 and converted into a housing complex.

Another Holy Trinity Church, in Blatchington Road, Hove, is a Grade II-listed building which was recommended for closure in June 2003 in a diocesan review. The building was found to have "no future" within the proposed Central Hove Collaborative Ministry, whose area would incorporate six places of worship in Hove. The nearby Holy Cross church offers a similar type and tradition of worship, and no other church communities in the city were found to be suitable for church planting (i.e. moving one congregation and community wholesale into another building).cite web|title=Strengthening the Church for God's Mission|url=http://www.diochi.org.uk/content/review/brighton-hove/Final-Consult.pdf|accessdate=2008-09-06|format=PDF|publisher=Diocese of Chichester|date=2003-06-21|work=Report from the Brighton and Hove Deaneries Pastoral Strategy Review Group] It was built when the Cliftonville estate was developed from 1852. St Andrew's, the old parish church of Hove, was close to the newly developed streets, but the capacity of the church was often reached at services. Rev. John Fraser Taylor, a curate at St Andrew's, started planning a new church in 1861; a site was found and bought for £250 on Eaton Road (now Blatchington Road). A local architect, Woodman, designed the church, and a builder named Cane constructed it, taking 14 months at a cost of £9,000. The Bishop of Chichester, who laid the foundation stone on 7 April 1863, consecrated the church on 15 June 1864. At that time, it consisted of chancel, nave, side chapels and a south aisle;cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p119 ] its tall tower on the south side was added in 1866.cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p120 ] The intended spire was never added. An entrance porch is incorporated into the base of the tower. The architectural style of the church, built mostly in red brick with stone dressings, is difficult to specify; cases have been made for "Lombardo-Gothic", standard Gothic, Early English and Eclectic. Architect and architecture lecturer Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel criticised the design as "ignorant beyond belief" in 1918.cite web|title=Images of England — detailed record, Holy Trinity Church, Blatchington Road (north side), Hove|url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=365486&mode=quick|work=Images of England|publisher=English Heritage|year=2007|accessdate=2008-09-06] A steady decline in the congregation led to the church being declared redundant, and as at September 2008 it is threatened with demolition; the site would then be used for housing. Local residents, including actor Brian Capron, have campaigned against this.cite web|title=Actor in "Save our Church" campaign|url=http://www.theargus.co.uk/news/3652554.Actor_in__Save_our_Church__campaign/|accessdate=2008-09-08|publisher=Newsquest Media Group|date=2008-09-07|work=The Argus website] The diocesan review in 2003 proposed using the building as second-stage accommodation for homeless people who had lived in the St Patrick's Church homeless shelter. Brighton and Hove City Council has also considered using the land for a new primary school.cite web|title=Threatened Hove church could become school|url=http://www.theargus.co.uk/news/3673660.Threatened_Hove_church_could_become_school/|accessdate=2008-10-07|publisher=Newsquest Media Group|date=2008-09-15|work=The Argus website]

The Elim Free Church (or in full, the Elim Tabernacle of the Church of the Four Square Gospel) in Union Street, in the Lanes, was home to Brighton's Elim Pentecostal Church congregation until 1988.cite web|title=Union Street: First non-conformist chapel erected here c1698|url=http://www.mybrightonandhove.org.uk/page_id__8389_path__0p115p210p762p.aspx|accessdate=2007-12-30|date=2007-09-05|publisher=My Brighton and Hove (c/o QueensPark Books)|work=My Brighton and Hove website] At that time, a new church was built on the site of the former Albion Brewery in the Hanover area.cite web|title=Trades and Businesses: Breweries|url=http://www.mybrightonandhove.org.uk/page_id__7858.aspx|accessdate=2007-12-30|date=2006-12-10|publisher=My Brighton and Hove (c/o QueensPark Books)|work=My Brighton and Hove website] The building has late-17th century origins, with the earliest structure on the site being a chapel which opened in 1683, 1688 or 1698 (sources disagree).cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others=School of Architecture and Interior Design, Brighton Polytechnic |title=A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton |origyear=1987 |publisher=McMillan Martin |location=Macclesfield |isbn=1-869-86503-0 |pages=p38 ] cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p161 ] Originally used for Presbyterian meetings, it was Brighton's first Nonconformist place of worship. It passed through various owners in the next 300 years, becoming an Independent chapel and then the Union Free Church (founded by the merger of two Congregational churches) in the 19th century; in 1905 it became a missionary church for miners; and from 1927 until 1988 it was the base of the Elim Church. The building was altered significantly in an 1825 reconstruction (often attributed to Amon Henry Wilds, but possibly also with Charles Busby's influence),cite book |last=Dale |first=Antony |title=Brighton Churches |origyear=1989 |publisher=Routledge |location=London EC4 |isbn=0-415-00863-8 |pages=p162 ] with a triple-bay stuccoed façade and Doric pilasters below a triglyph and a pediment. This main frontage faces south on to the narrow Union Street; the eastern side wall (on Meeting House Lane) was not given the same architectural treatment, and may date from the original construction, or alternatively from a small-scale enlargement of the building undertaken in 1810. The wall is in a traditional Sussex style: cobbled with stones and flints and surrounded by red-brick dressings. After the Elim congregation vacated the building, it was converted into a large public house, the Font & Firkin — part of the former Firkin Brewery chain.cite web|title=Font & Firkin — The Lanes — Brighton Pub Guide|url=http://www.carling.com/beerfinder/venue_details/903/brighton/Font%20&%20Firkin|accessdate=2007-12-30|date=2007|publisher=Coors Brewers Ltd|work=Carling "Beerfinder" website] The chain closed down, all of its pubs were sold and all in-pub brewing was stopped; the Font & Firkin was the last ex-Firkin pub in Britain to stop, in 2003.cite web|title=The Directory of UK Real Ale Breweries: Firkin Brewery|url=http://www.quaffale.org.uk/breweries/firkin.html|accessdate=2007-12-30|date=2005-06-26|publisher=The Directory of UK Real Ale Breweries|work=The Directory of UK Real Ale Breweries website]

References


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