- Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR ( _ru. Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ) in
Dubna, Moscow Oblast(120 km north of Moscow), Russiais an international research centre for nuclear sciences, involving around 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.D.s from eighteen member states ( Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, China[cite web|url=http://www.costind.gov.cn/n435777/n1146913/n1404058/n1404061/101564.html|title =王淦昌辉煌人生|publisher= 国防科学技术工业网|date=2007-05-24|accessmonthday=August 1|accessyear=2008] [cite web|url=http://www.ihep.ac.cn/gaikuang/lirenSZ/|title =历任所长|publisher= 高能物理研究所网|date=2007-01-25|accessmonthday=August 2|accessyear=2008] , Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Mongolia, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam) as well as some eminent and well-known scientists from UNESCO, CERN, CLAF, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States.
Currently the Institute has seven laboratories, each with its own specialisation:
theoretical physics, high energy physics(particle physics), heavy ionphysics, condensed matter physics, nuclear reactions, neutronphysics, and information technology. The institute also has a division to study radiation and radiobiological research and other ad hoc experimental physics experiments.
Principal research instruments include a nuclotron superconductive
particle accelerator(particle energy: 7 GeV), three isochronic cyclotrons (120, 145, 650 MeV), a phasotron (680 MeV) and a synchrophasotron(4 GeV). The site also has a neutronfast-pulse reactor (1500MW pulse) with nineteen associated instruments receiving neutron beams.
The agreement on the establishment of JINR was signed on
March 26th, 1956in Moscow, with notably Wang Ganchangand Vladimir Veksleramong the founders. [cite web|url=http://newuc.jinr.ru/img_sections/file/pract08/30.06/JINR-eng-2008.pdf|title =International Intergovermental Organization Joint Institute for Nuclear Research|publisher= Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research|date=July 18, 2008|accessdate=August 12|accessyear=2008]
The institute was established on the basis of two research institutes of the
USSR Academy of Sciences: the Institute for Nuclear Problems and the Electrophysical Laboratory.
Although the first research instrument was built at Dubna in
1947, it was not until the creation of CERNin 1954that a countervailing group from the Westwas created—"JINR".
The JINR has 8 Laboratories and University Centre:
Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics(BLTP)
Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies(VBLHE)
*Laboratory of Particle Physics (LPP)
Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems(DLNP)
Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions(FLNR)
Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics(FLNP)
*Laboratory of Information Technologies (LIT)
*Laboratory of Radiation Biology (LRB)
*University Centre (UC) Besides, a number of associate Experimental Physics workshops are also parts of the Institute.
Fields of research
The main fields of the Institute's research are:
elementary particle physics
relativistic nuclear physics
heavy ion physics
* low and
intermediate energy physics
nuclear physicswith neutrons
condensed matter physics
radiation biologyand radiobiological research
networking, computingand computational physics
* educational programme
After half a century, more than 40 major discoveries have been made.
1959– nonradiative transitions in mesoatoms
1960– antisigma-minus hyperon
1963– element 102
1972– postradiative regeneration of cells
1973– quark counting rule
1975– phenomenon of slow neutron confinement
1988– regularity of resonant formation of muonic molecules in deuterium
1999- 2005– elements 114, 116, 118, 115 and 113
2006– chemical identification of element 112
Elements discovered at "JINR":
rutherfordium(1964), seaborgium(1974), bohrium(1976), ununquadium(" Island of stability", 1999), ununhexium(2001), ununtrium(2004), ununpentium(2004), ununoctium(2006).
1961the JINR Prizes were instituted.
* JINR Prize
1961: A group of physicists headed by Wang Ganchang, deputy director from 1958to 1960and the SovietProfessor Vladimir Vekslerwas awarded the first prize for the discovery of antisigma-minus hyperon. The experimental group lead by Professor Wang Ganchang analysing more than 40,000 photographs which recorded tens of thousands of nuclear interactions taken in the propane bubble chamber produced by the 10 GeV synchrophasotronused to bombard a target forming high energy mesons, was the first to discover the anti-sigma minus hyperon particles (反西格马负超子) on March 9th, 1959: [cite web|url=http://lhe.jinr.ru/StaraLesna2003/pdf/malakh.pdf|title =50thAnniversary of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research|publisher= Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research|date=October 27, 2003|accessdate=August 11|accessyear=2008]
:The discovery of this new unstable
antiparticlewhich decays in (1.18±0.07)·10−10 s into an antineutronand a negative pionwas announced in September of that year: cite web|url=http://class.htu.cn/diandonglixue/physics/wangganchang.htm|title =王淦昌的科学贡献|publisher= 电动力学网络教程|date=2006-06-01|accessmonthday=August 4|accessyear=2008]
:No-one doubted at the time that this particle was elementary, but a few years later, this
hyperon, the proton, the neutron, the pionand other hadrons had lost their status of elementary particles as they turned out to be complex particles too consisting of quarks and antiquarks.
* [http://www.jinr.ru JINR Website]
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