Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor

Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor

Infobox_Monarch | name =His Highness Almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar
title =Sultan of Johor

caption =Almarhum Sultan Sir Abu Bakar ibni Almarhum Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim Sri Maharaja Johor
reign =Maharaja of Johor-31 January 1862-29 July 1886
Sultan of Johor-29 July 1886-4 June 1895
coronation =1886
predecessor =Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim
successor =Sultan Ibrahim
suc-type =Tengku Mahkota
heir =Sultan Ibrahim
consort =Sultanah Fatimah
issue =Sultan Ibrahim, 4 daughters
royal house =Bendahara
royal anthem =Lagu Bangsa Johor
father =Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim
descendant of =Bugis ancestry
date of birth =3 February 1833
place of birth =Teluk Belanga
date of death =4 June 1895 (age 62)
place of death =South Kensington, London, United Kingdom
buried =Makam Mahmoodiah |

Almarhum Paduka Sri Sultan Sir Abu Bakar ibn Almarhum Dato Temenggong Sri Maharaja Ibrahim, GCMG, KCSI, (3 February 1833–4 June 1895) was the first sultan of modern Johor in Malaysia. He was also known as 'Bapa Pemodenan Johor' (The Father of Modern Johor) as cited in at least one Malaysian high school textbook. He began to rule Johor in 1862 and he gained the title of Maharaja in 1868 and later the title of Sultan in 1886.

Sultan Abu Bakar was born on 3 February 1833 in Teluk Belanga Singapore. He was from the Temmenggong Daeng Ibrahim family descended from Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah IV, a Bugis.

This Sultan was a wise ruler of the state of Johor. Since he was a child, the Sultan received a Western education and knew a lot about the ways of ruling of Western countries. He made frequent visits to European countries, especially the United Kingdom, to learn how to rule a country. As a result, he enforced "Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor" (Johor State Establishment Constitution) that turned Johor as the first Malay state to adopt constitutional monarchy system.

His wisdom made him a good friend of British traders and rulers. He was also a good friend of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. The queen created him the Sultan of Johor in 1868. Because of this, he need not to go through the British High Commissioner (in Singapore) if he ever wanted an audience with HM The Queen. He was also made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI) and was entitled to the prefix "Sir."

In 1885, Johor signed a treaty with the United Kingdom. Through this treaty, Johor was recognised by the British as an independent state, able to rule itself. Emperor Abu Bakar was also made the Sultan of Johor. He accepted a British officer as a consultant, not an adviser. Unlike other states in the Malay Peninsula, where the Sultan must listen to everything the adviser says, the Sultan of Johor could ignore what a consultant says. The flag of Johor was also flown higher than the British flag, to symbolize that the State of Johor took precedence.

He died on 4 June 1895 at Bailey's Hotel, London. His body was brought back to Johor by the "P&O Bombay" merchant ship from London and laid to rest at the royal mausoleum named Makam Mahmoodiah. He was succeeded by his son, Sultan Ibrahim, after his death.

Further reading

* Wong Ah Fook: Immigrant, Builder and Entrepreneur, by Paduka Lim Pui Huen, Times Edition

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