Carcassonne ( _oc. Carcassona) is a fortified French town in the
Aude"département", of which it is the prefecture, in the former province of Languedoc.It is separated into the fortified "Cité de Carcassonne" and the more expansive lower city, the "ville basse". The folk etymology—involving a châtelaine named " _fr. Carcas", a ruse ending a siegeand the joyous ringing of bells (" _fr. Carcas sona")—though memorialized in a neo-Gothic sculpture of "Mme. _fr. Carcas" on a column near the Narbonne Gate—is of modern invention. The fortress, which was thoroughly restored in 1853 by the theorist and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, was added to the UNESCOlist of World Heritage Sitesin 1997. [ [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/345 "Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne".] " UNESCO". Accessed August 11, 2008.]
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne
State Party = FRA
Type = Cultural
Criteria = ii, iv
ID = 345
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1997
Session = 21st
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/345First signs of settlement in the region have been dated to about 3500 BC, but the hill site of "Carsac"—a
Celtic place-name that has been retained at other sites in the south—became an important trading place in the 6th century BC. The Volcae Tectosagesfortified the " oppidum".
Carcassonne became strategically identified when Romans fortified the hilltop around 100 BC and eventually made it the "colonia" of "Julia Carsaco", later "Carcasum" (the process of swapping consonant is a metathesis). The main part of the lower courses of the northern ramparts dates from Gallo-Roman times.
In 462 the Romans officially ceded
Septimaniato the Visigothic king Theodoric IIwho had held Carcassonne since 453; he built more fortifications at Carcassonne, which was a frontier post on the northern marches: traces of them still stand. Theodoric is thought to have begun the predecessor of the basilicathat is now dedicated to Saint Nazaire. In 508 the Visigoths successfully foiled attacks of the Frankish king Clovis. Saracensfrom Barcelonatook Carcassonne in 725, but King Pippin the Youngerdrove them away in 759.
In 760, Pippin took most of the south of France, although he was unable to penetrate the impregnable fortress of Carcassonne.
In 1067 Carcassonne became the property of
Raimond Bernard Trencavel, viscountof Albiand Nîmes, through his marriage with Ermengard, sister of the last count of Carcassonne. In the following centuries the Trencavelfamily allied in succession either with the counts of Barcelona or of Toulouse. They built the "Château Comtal" and the Basilicaof Saint-Nazaire. In 1096 Pope Urban IIblessed the foundation stones of the new cathedral, a Catholic bastion against the Catharheretics.
Carcassonne became famous in its role in the
Albigensian Crusades, when the city was a stronghold of occitan cathars. In August 1209 the crusading army of Simon de Montfort forced its citizens to surrender. After capturing Raymond-Roger de Trencaveland imprisoning and allowing him to die, Montfort made himself the new viscount. He added to the fortifications. Carcassonne became a border citadel between France and the kingdom of Aragon(Spain).
In 1240 Trencavel's son tried to reconquer his old domain but in vain. The city submitted to the rule of kingdom of France in 1247, and King Louis IX founded the new part of the town across the river. He and his successor Philip III built the outer ramparts. Contemporary opinion still considered the fortress impregnable. During the
Hundred Years' War, Edward the Black Princefailed to take the city in 1355, although his troops destroyed the Lower Town.
In 1659, the
Treaty of Pyreneestransferred the border province of Roussillonto France, and Carcassonne's military significance was reduced. Fortifications were abandoned, and the city became mainly an economic center that concentrated on the woollen textile industry, for which a 1723 source quoted by Fernand Braudelfound it “the manufacturing center of Languedoc” [Fernand Braudel, "The Wheels of Commerce" 1982, vol. II of "Civilization and Capitalism", p 334 ] .
The fortified city
Carcassonne was struck from the roster of official fortifications under Napoleon and the Restoration, and the fortified "cité" of Carcassonne fell into such disrepair that the French government decided that it should be demolished. A decree to that effect that was made official in 1849 caused an uproar. The antiquary and mayor of Carcassonne, Jean-Pierre Cros-Mayrevieille, and the writer
Prosper Mérimée, the first inspector of ancient monuments, led a campaign to preserve the fortress as a historical monument. Later in the year the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, already at work restoring the Basilica of Saint-Nazaire, was commissioned to renovate the place.
In 1853, works began with the west and southwest walling, followed by the towers of the "porte Narbonnaise" and the principal entrance to the "cité". The fortifications were consolidated here and there but the chief attention was paid to restoring the roofing of the towers and the ramparts, where Viollet-le-Duc ordered the destruction of structures that had encroached against the walls, some of them of considerable age. Viollet-le-Duc left copious notes and drawings at his death in 1879, when his pupil Paul Boeswillwald, and later the architect Nodet continued the rehabilitation of Carcassonne. The restoration was strongly criticized during Viollet-le-Duc's lifetime. Fresh from work in the north of France, he made the error of using slates and restoring the roofs as pointed cones, where local practice was traditionally of tile roofing and low slopes, in a snow-free environment. Yet, overall, Viollet-le-Duc's achievement at Carcassonne is agreed to be a work of genius, though not of strictest authenticity.
Fortifications consists of a double ring of ramparts and 53 towers.
Pont Marengo, crosses the Canal du Midi and provides access to the railway station. Lac de la Cavayèrehas been created as a recreational lake and is about five minutes from the city centre.
Historically, the language spoken in Carcassonne and throughout Languedoc-Rousillon was not French, but actually the quite different Occitan.
6 March, 2000, France issued a stamp commemorating the fortress of Carcassonne. [http://www.museedelaposte.fr/Expositions/Vies_de_Chateaux/Une_vie_de_pierre.htm]
Carcassonne was the starting point for a stage in the
2004 Tour de Franceand a stage finish in the 2006 Tour de France.
As in the rest of the south west of France,
rugby unionis popular in Carcassonne. The city is represented by Union Sportive Carcassonnaise, known locally simply as USC. The club have a proud history, having played in the French Championship Final in 1925, and currently compete in Federale 1, the third tier of French rugby. Rugby leagueis also played, by the AS Carcassonneclub. They play in the Elite One Championship. Puig Aubertis the most notable rugby league player to come from the Carcassonne club.
In popular culture
* The history of Carcassonne is re-told in the novel "Labyrinth" by
* A board game and a video game version of it are named after this town.
* Portions of the 1991 film were shot in and around Carcassonne.
Basilica of St. Nazaire and St. Celsus, Carcassonne
* [http://www.carcassonne-tourisme.com/ Official website of the city of Carcassonne] en icon / fr icon / es icon / de icon / nl icon
* [http://www.carcassonne.culture.fr Cité de Carcassonne] , from the French Ministry of Culture
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Carcassonne — Carcassonne … Deutsch Wikipedia
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