- 1928 Summer Olympics
Size = 230px
Name = Games of the IX Olympiad
Optional caption = Logo of the 1928 Summer Olympics
Nations participating = 46
Athletes participating = 2,883 (2,606 men, 277 women)
Officially opened by = Prince Hendrik
Athlete's Oath =
Olympic Torch = "None"
The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an
international multi-sport eventwhich was celebrated in 1928in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but had to give way to war-victim Antwerp, Belgiumand Pierre de Coubertin's Paris, respectively. The only other candidate city for the 1928 Games was Los Angeles, which would host the Olympics four years later.
United States Olympic Committeemeasured the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games in preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics. The committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million for a loss of US$18,000 - much less than that of the previous Games.cite journal | last = Zarnowski | first = C. Frank | year = 1992 | month = Summer | title = A Look at Olympic Costs | journal = Citius, Altius, Fortius | volume = 1 | issue = 1 | pages = 16–32 | url = http://www.aafla.org/SportsLibrary/JOH/JOHv1n1/JOHv1n1f.pdf | accessdate = 2007-03-24]
* For the first time, the
Olympic Flamewas lit during the Olympics. The torch relay, however, would not occur until the 1936 Summer Olympics.
* For the first time, the parade of nations started with
Greece, which holds the origins of the Olympics, and ended with the host country, a tradition which continues today.
* The Games were officially opened by Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina, who had authorised him to deputise for her. This was the first time a head of state had not personally officiated at an Olympic opening ceremony. She refused to return early from her holiday in Norway to open the Games herself, because she was furious at the organizing committee for not consulting with her about the opening date.
* Athletics events were held on a 400 metre track and would become the standard for athletics tracks.
* These games were the first to feature a standard schedule of 16 days, which is still followed. Previously, competition was stretched out over several months.
Johnny Weissmuller, who later appeared in several Tarzanmovies, won two gold medals in swimming.
Paavo Nurmiof Finlandwon his ninth and final gold medal, in the 10,000 m race.
Canada's Percy Williamssurprised everyone by winning both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events.
South American football made a definite breakthrough, as Uruguayretained its title by defeating Argentina.
Indiatook its first ever gold in the sport of field hockey, beginning a streak of six consecutive gold medals in the sport.
* The first appearance of the sponsor
Coca-Colaat the Olympic Games.
* These games were the first to bear the name "Summer Olympic Games".
* Germany returned to the Olympic Games for the first time since 1912, after being banned from the 1920 and 1924 Games. The German team finished second in the 1928 medal count.
election of the host city
Frederik van Tuyll van Serooskerkenfirst proposed Amsterdam as host city for the Summer Olympic Gamesin 1912, even before the Netherlands Olympic Committeewas established. In 1916, the Olympic Games were cancelled due to World War I. In 1919, the Netherlands Olympic Committee abandoned the proposal of Amsterdam in favour of their support of the nomination of Antwerpas host city for the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1921, the city of Pariswas selected for the 1924 Summer Olympicson the condition that the 1928 Summer Olympics would be organized in Amsterdam. This decision, supported by the Netherlands Olympic Committee, was announced by the International Olympic Committeeon June 2, 1921. The decision was disputed by the Americans, but their request to allocate the 1928 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles was without success in 1922 and again in 1923. Los Angeles was eventually selected as host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics.cite book |title=The Ninth Olympiad Amsterdam 1928 Official Report |author=G. van Rossem (ed.) |publisher=J. H. de Bussy |location=Amsterdam |year=1928 |pages=pp. 973–985 |url=http://www.la84foundation.org/6oic/OfficialReports/1928/1928.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2008-03-25]
During the Summer Olympics, there were 15 sports and 109 events in the tournament. In parentheses is the number of events per sport.
* Athletics (27)
* Boxing (8)
* Cycling (6)
* Diving (4)
* Equestrian (6)
* Fencing (7)
* Football (1)
* Gymnastics (8)
* Field hockey (1)
* Modern pentathlon (1)
* Rowing (7)
* Sailing (3)
* Swimming (11)
* Water polo (1)
* Weightlifting (5)
* Wrestling (13)
Women's athletics and
gymnasticsdebuted at these Olympic, in spite of criticism. Halina Konopackaof Polandbecame the first female Olympic track and field champion. The 800 metre run ended with several of the competitors being completely exhausted, so running events for women longer than 200 metres were not included in the Olympics until the 1960s. Tennisdisappeared from the programme, only to reappear in 1968 as a demonstration sport.
These Games also included art competitions, which the IOC no longer considers as official medal events.
A total of 46 nations were represented at the Amsterdam Games.
Malta, Panama, and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) competed at the Olympic Games for the first time. Germanyreturned after having been deliberately not invited in 1920 and 1924.cite book |last=Guttmann |first=Allen |title=The Olympics: A History of the Modern Games |year= 1992 |publisher=University of Illinois Press |location=Urbana and Chicago |isbn=0-252-01701-3 |pages=p. 38]
These are the top ten nations that won medals at these Games.
* [http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/past/index_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=1928 Amsterdam 1928. Games of the IX Olympiad]
* [http://www.la84foundation.org/6oic/OfficialReports/1928/1928.pdf The Ninth Olympiad. Amsterdam 1928. Official Report]
* [http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives/d9443f.htm Louis S. Nixdorff Diary, July 10-August 15, 1928]
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