- Robert Russa Moton Museum
Infobox_nrhp | name =Robert Russa Moton High School
nrhp_type = nhl
location= Jct. of S. Main St. and Griffin Blvd.,
lat_degrees = 37
lat_minutes = 17
lat_seconds = 28
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 78
long_minutes = 23
long_seconds = 52
long_direction = W
locmapin = Virginia
area =5 acres
architecture= Classical Revival
August 05, 1998cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1970743326&ResourceType=Building
title=Robert Russa Moton High School |accessdate=2008-04-15|work=National Historic Landmark summary listing|publisher=National Park Service]
October 24, 1995cite web|url=http://www.nr.nps.gov/|title=National Register Information System|date=2007-01-23|work=National Register of Historic Places|publisher=National Park Service]
governing_body = Local
Robert Russa Moton Museum in the town of Farmville in
Prince Edward County, Virginiais a museum which serves as a center for the study of civil rightsin education.
It is housed in the former R. R. Moton High School, also known as Robert Russa Moton High School or Farmville Elementary School, notable as the site of a historic civil rights action by the students of a poorly-equipped segregated public school. Their initiative ultimately became part of the landmark "
Brown v. Board of Education" case decided by the United States Supreme Courtin 1954.
Both the school and the museum were named for
Robert Russa Moton(1867-1940), a noted African-American educator from central Virginia who was a protégé of Dr. Booker T. Washington. In the early 20th century, he headed the schools which became Hampton Universityand Tuskegee University, important organizations in producing black teachers and other professionals.
Prince Edward County is the source of "
Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County", a case incorporated into " Brown v. Board of Education" which ultimately resulted in the desegregation of public schools in the U.S. Among the fives cases decided under "Brown", it was the only one initiated by students themselves, after they walked out in 1951 to protest overcrowding and poor conditions at their school under Jim Crow laws.
R.R. Moton High School, named after Robert Russa Moton, a noted educator from neighboring Amelia County, did not have a gymnasium, cafeteria, or teachers' restrooms. Due to overcrowding, three plywood buildings had been erected and some students had to take classes in an immobile school bus parked outside. Teachers and students did not have desks or blackboards, The school's requests for additional funds were denied by the all-white school board. In 1951, students, led by Barbara Rose Johns, staged a walkout protesting the conditions. The NAACPtook up their case, however, only when the students—by a one vote margin—agreed to seek an integrated school rather than improved conditions at their black school. Then, Howard University-trained attorneys Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hillfiled suit.
In "Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County", a state court rejected the suit, agreeing with defense attorney
T. Justin Moorethat Virginia was vigorously equalizing black and white schools. The verdict was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Subsequently, it was one of five incorporated into "Brown v. Board of Education", the landmark case which in 1954 overturned school segregation in the United States. As a result of the "Brown" decision, and changes in Virginia laws, in 1959 the Board of Supervisors for Prince Edward County refused to appropriate "any" funds for the County School Board at all, effectively closing all public schools rather than integrate them. Prince Edward County Public Schoolsremained closed for five years.
A new entity, the Prince Edward Foundation, created a series of private schools to educate the county's white children. These schools were supported by tuition grants from the state and tax credits from the county. Prince Edward Academy, the all-white private, was one of the first such schools in Virginia which came to be called segregation academies.
Black students had to go to school elsewhere or forgo their education altogether. Some got schooling with relatives in nearby communities or at makeshift schools in church basements. Others were educated out of state by groups such as the
Society of Friends. In 1963–64, the NAACP-sponsored Prince Edward Free Schoolpicked up some of the slack. But some pupils missed part or all of their education for five years.
When the public schools finally reopened in 1964, they were fully integrated. Historians mark that event as the end of
Massive Resistancein Virginia.
In modern times,
Prince Edward County Public Schoolsnow operates single Elementary, Middle, and High Schools for all students, regardless of race. They are:
Prince Edward Elementary School
Prince Edward Middle School
Prince Edward High School
Many of the segregation academies eventually closed; others changed their missions, and eliminated discriminatory policies. Prince Edward Academy was one of these, and was renamed the
The former R.R. Moton High School building in Farmville became a community landmark. It was selected to house the Robert Russa Moton Museum. In 1998, it was declared a
National Historic Landmark.citation|title=PDFlink| [http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/95001177.pdf National Historic Landmark Nomination: Robert Russa Moton High School / Farmville Elementary School; VDHR File No. 144-53] |32 KB|date=1998|author=Jarl K. Jackson, Julie L. Vosmik, Tara D. Morrison and Marie Tyler-McGraw |publisher=National Park Service and PDFlink| [http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Photos/95001177.pdf "Accompanying 7 photos, exterior and interior, from 1995"] |32 KB] citation|title=PDFlink| [http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/registers/Counties/PrinceEdward/144-0053_Robert_Russa_Moton_High_School_1995_Final_Nomination.pdf National Register of Historic Places Registration: Robert Russa Moton High School / Farmville Elementary School; VDHR File No. 144-53] |32 KB|date=December, 1994|author=Jarl K. Jackson and Julie L. Vosmik |publisher=National Park Service] |32 KB]
* [http://motonmuseum.com/ Robert Russa Moton Museum official site]
* [http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/registers/Counties/PrinceEdward/RobertRussaMotonHighSchool_photo.htm Robert Russa Moton High School, one photo, at Virginia DHR]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/121brown/index.htm "Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America," a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Robert Russa Moton — (August 26, 1867 May 31, 1940) was an African American educator and author. He served as an administrator at Hampton Institute and was named principal of Tuskegee Institute in 1915 after the death of Dr. Booker T. Washington, a position he held… … Wikipedia
Moton Field Municipal Airport — Tuskegee Airport redirects here. For the airport formerly used by the Tuskegee Airmen, see Sharpe Field. Moton Field Municipal Airport NAIP aerial image, 2006 IATA: none – … Wikipedia
R.R. Moton High School — R. R. Moton High School was built in 1939 by Prince Edward County for Negro children, in the colonial revival style common to school buildings in that era. It replaced several smaller one room schools scattered around the County. It had six… … Wikipedia
Prince Edward County, Virginia — Infobox U.S. County county = Prince Edward County state = Virginia map size = 225 founded = 1754 seat = Farmville | area total sq mi =354 area water sq mi =1 area percentage = 0.31% census yr = 2000 pop = 19720 density km2 =22 web = www.co.prince … Wikipedia
Farmville, Virginia — Infobox Settlement official name = Farmville, Virginia settlement type = Town nickname = motto = imagesize = image caption = image mapsize = 250px map caption = Location of Farmville, Virginia mapsize1 = map caption1 = subdivision type = Country… … Wikipedia
List of museums in Virginia — This list of museums in Virginia, United States, contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural,… … Wikipedia
Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — Moton Field redirects here. For the municipal airport, see Moton Field Municipal Airport. Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape) … Wikipedia
Miami-Dade County Public Schools — Address 1450 NE Second Avenue Downtown, Miami, Florida 33132 Information Motto Giving our students the world. Founded … Wikipedia
List of Registered Historic Places in Virginia, Counties N-R — List of Registered Historic Places in Virginia, Counties N–R: NOTOC :: Virginia NRHP date for lists =Nelson County= * Arrington ** Mitchell s Brick House Tavern * Lovingston ** Lovingston High School ** Lovingston Historic District ** Nelson… … Wikipedia
Kennell Jackson Jr. — Kennell Jackson was an African American man born on March 19, 1941, in Farmville, Virginia. His mother, Lottie, was a school teacher and his father, Kennell, was a building contractor. He attended Robert Russa Moton High School and graduated in… … Wikipedia