Spanish Morocco

Spanish Morocco

Infobox Former Country
native_name = "حماية إسبانيا في المغرب"
"Protectorado español de Marruecos"
conventional_long_name = Spanish protectorate of Morocco
common_name = Spanish protectorate of Morocco
continent = Africa
region = Western Africa
country = Morocco
era = Interwar period
status = Protectorate
empire = Spain
life_span = 1913 – 1956
event_start = Treaty of Fez
year_start = 1912
date_start = March 30
event_end = Independence
year_end = 1956
date_end = April 7
event1 = Established
date_event1 = February 27, 1913
event2 =
date_event2 =
event_post =
date_post =
p1 = Morocco
flag_p1 = Red flag of Morocco.svg
p2 = Ceuta
flag_p2 = Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg
p3 = Melilla
flag_p3 = Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg
s1 = Morocco
flag_s1 = Flag of Morocco.svg
s2 = Ceuta
flag_s2 = Flag of Spain 1945 1977.svg
s3 = Melilla
flag_s3 = Flag of Spain 1945 1977.svg

image_map_caption = Map of the northernmost territories belonging to the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco (1912–56)
capital = Tétouan
common_languages = Arabic, Spanish
religion = Catholic, Muslim
leader1 = Felipe Alfau y Mendoza
year_leader1 = 1913
leader2 = Rafael García Valiño y Marcén
year_leader2 = 1951-56
title_leader = High Commissioners
representative1 =
year_representative1 =
representative2 =
year_representative2 =
representative3 =
year_representative3 =
title_representative =
deputy1 =
year_deputy1 =
deputy2 =
year_deputy2 =
title_deputy =
currency = Spanish peseta
footnotes =

Spanish protectorate of Morocco ( _ar. حماية إسبانيا في المغرب) ( _es. Protectorado español de Marruecos) was the area of Morocco under colonial rule by the Spanish Empire, established by the Treaty of Fez in 1912 and ending in 1956, when both France and Spain recognized Moroccan independence.

Territorial borders

The territories of Spanish protectorate of Morocco included northern Morocco (the territory in between the cities of Ceuta and Melilla, which have been Spanish since the 16th century and 15th century respectively), the Tarfaya Strip, and Ifni. The capital of Spanish protectorate of Morocco was "Tetuán" (Tétouan).

The rest of the country was ruled by France, under the name of French Morocco, also from 1912 to 1956.

The city of Tangier was declared an international zone, though this status was suspended during World War II when it was provisionally occupied by Spanish troops, from 14 June 1940, on the pretext that an Italian invasion was imminent [C.R. Pennel, Morocco Since 1830, A History] .

The Republic of the Rif led by the guerilla leader Abd El-Krim was a breakaway state that existed in the Rif region from 1921 to 1926, when it was dissolved by joint expedition of the Spanish Army of Africa and French forces.

panish historical claims

Ceuta had been Portuguese before becoming Spanish in 1580. The city of Melilla had been part of Spain since 1497. As for the rest of territories other than these plazas de soberanía, most of them they were only gained after by the middle of the 19th century and, specially, after 1912 and the First Moroccan Crisis.

In the late 19th century, Queen Isabella II of Spain encouraged the officers of southern Spain to curb the migration of unauthorized poor Spaniards to the new territories.

The protectorate

The Protectorate system was established during the Second Spanish Republic, technically it didn't include the cities of Ceuta and Melilla, which had been part of Spain from an early moment of its history and so were regarded as Spanish proper territory.

The legal Islamic qadis system was formally maintained.

The Moroccan Sephardi Jews—many of them living in this part of the Maghreb after being expelled from Spain and Portugal in 1492 and 1497 respectively after the end of the Reconquista process—flourished in commerce, profiting from the similarity of Spanish and Ladino language and benefitting from the tax-exempt area in Tangier and a flourishing trading activity in the area.

Spanish protectorate of Morocco had a key role at the inception of the Spanish Civil War. The uprising against the Republican Government started there, with the Spanish troops stationed in Spanish protectorate of Morocco becoming the core of the Nationalist Army. The Nationalists also recruited a consierable number of Moroccan troops who were sent over to the battlefields in Spain.

The radical POUM Party advocated an anti-colonialist policy whereby the Republican Government would support the independence of Spanish protectorate of Morocco and in this way touch off a rebellion at Franco's back and disaffection among the Moroccan troops fighting in Spain. However, the Republican Government rejected any such idea - which would have likely resulted in conflict with France, the colonial ruler of the other portion of Morocco - and the Arab troops remained loyal to the Nationalist cause.

After Francisco Franco came to power in Spain, paradoxically, the protectorate enjoyed more political freedom than Franco-era Spain properFact|date=August 2007, allegedly because local Muslim troops were loyal from the very beginning to Franco, who was serving in "África"—as the Protectorate was informally known in the Spanish military parlance. Franco was the military commander of the Spanish protectorate of Morocco at the time of his uprising and from there he started it. He was backed by a noticeable number of Moroccan Muslim troops in the following Spanish Civil War. Franco was based in Tetouan.

Thus, there were political parties in the Protectorate—unlike in the rest of Spain—and the Moroccan nationalist press would criticize the Spanish authorities, contrasting with the Spanish single party and state-controlled press in the rest of the country.Fact|date=August 2007

Morocco gains sovereignty

In 1956, when French Morocco became independent, Spain discontinued the Protectorate and surrendered most of its occupied territories to the newly independent Morocco but retained control of certain regions, including: Ceuta, Melilla and the rest of "plazas de soberanía", Sidi Ifni, Tarfaya and the Spanish Sahara (Saguia el-Hamra and Rio de Oro regions). The Moroccan Army of Liberation waged a war against Spanish forces, that started from Ifni and spread south to Rio de Oro. As a result of this war, Spain in 1958 returned Tarfaya to Morocco. Morocco continued to lay claim over the remaining regions, and in 1969, it obtained the region of Ifni.

Morocco claims Ceuta and Melilla as integral parts of the country, considering them to be under foreign occupation, comparing their status to that of Gibraltar, while Spain regards them as constituent parts of its territory.

List of High Commissioners

*Felipe Alfau y Mendoza (April 3, 1913 to August 15, 1913)
*José Marina Vega (August 17, 1913 to July 9, 1915)
*Francisco Gómez Jordana, 1st term (July 9, 1915 to January 1919)
*Dámaso Berenguer (January 1919 to July 13, 1922)
*Ricardo Burguete Lana (July 15, 1922 to January 22, 1923)
*Luis Silvela y Casado (February 16, 1923 to September 14, 1923)
*Luis Aizpuru (September 25, 1923 to October 16, 1924)
*Miguel Primo de Rivera (October 16, 1924 to November 1925)
*Jose Sanjurjo Sacanell Buenrostro, 1st term (November 1925 to 1928)
*Francisco Gómez Jordana, 2nd term (1928 to 1931)
*Jose Sanjurjo Sacanell Buenrostro, 2nd term (April 19, 1931 to June 20, 1931)
*Luciano López Ferrer (June 20, 1931 to May 1933)
*Juan Moles Ormella, 1st term (May 1933 to January 23, 1934)
*Manuel Rico Avello (January 23, 1934 to March 1936)
*Juan Moles Ormella, 2nd term (March 1936 to July 1936)
*Arturo Álvarez-Buylla, acting (from July 18, 1936)
*Eduardo Sáenz de Buruaga (1936)
*Francisco Franco (1936)
*Luis Orgaz y Yoldi, 1st term (1936 to 1937)
*Juan Beigbeder y Atienza (August 1937 to 1939)
*Carlos Asensio Cabanillas (February 1940 to May 12, 1941)
*Luis Orgaz y Yoldi, 2nd term (May 12, 1941 to March 4, 1945)
*José Enrique Varela Iglesias (March 4, 1945 to March 24, 1951)
*Rafael García Valiño y Marcén (March 1951 to April 7, 1956)

ee also

* History of Morocco
* History of Spain
* Plazas de soberanía
* List of Spanish colonial wars in Morocco
* Spanish Legion
* Regulares
* Spanish Sahara
* Spanish Guinea


Further reading

* ( [ download book] )

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