- Emergency action principles
Emergency action principles are the guiding rules to be employed by the first person, or persons, on the scene of an
emergency. The nature of emergencies is such that it is impossible to prescribe a specific list of actions to be completed before the event happens, so principles form a framework on which to base forward actions.
The adherence to the principles by would be rescuers varies widely based on the training the people involved in emergency have received, the support available from
emergency services(and the time it will take to arrive) and the emergency itself.
There are many overlaps between emergency action principles and principles of
first aid, firefightingand other emergency service activities.
The Key Emergency Principle
The key principle taught in almost all systems is that the rescuer, be they a lay person or a professional, should assess the situation for Danger.
The reason that an assessment for Danger is given such high priority is that it is core to emergency management that rescuers do not become secondary victims of any incident, as this creates a further emergency that must be dealt with.
A typical assessment for Danger would involve observation of the surroundings, starting with the cause of the accident (e.g. a falling object) and expanding outwards to include any situational hazards (e.g. fast moving traffic) and history or secondary information given by witnesses, bystanders or the emergency services (e.g. an attacker still waiting nearby).
Once a primary danger assessment has been complete, this should not end the system of checking for danger, but should inform all other parts of the process.
If at any time the risk from any hazard poses a significant danger (as a factor of likelihood and seriousness) to the rescuer, they should consider whether they should approach the scene (or leave the scene if appropriate).
Principles for assessing an emergency
Once a primary check for danger has been undertaken, a rescuer is then likely to follow a set of principles, which are largely common sense. These assessment principles are the types of information that the emergency services will ask when summoned.
This information usually includes number of Casualties, history of what's happened and at what time, location and access to the site and what emergency services are likely to be required, or that are already on scene. There are several
mnemonics which are used to help rescuers remember how to conduct this assessment, which include CHALET(Casualties, Hazards, Access, Location, Emergency Services, Type of Incident) and ETHANE(Exact Location, Type of Incident, Hazards, Access, Number of casualties, Emergency services required)
For small scale medical incidents (one or two casualties), the rescuer may also conduct a first aid assessment of the
patient(s) in order to gather more information. The most widely used system is the ABC system and it's variations, where the rescuer checks the basics of life on the casualty (primarily their breathing in modern protocols).
In larger incidents, of any type, most protocols teach that casualty assessment should not start until emergency services have been summoned (as multiple casualties are expected).
Accurate reporting of this important information helps emergency services dispatch appropriate resource to the incident, in good time and to the right place.
ummoning Emergency Services
After undertaking a scene survey, the rescuer needs to decide what, if any, emergency services will be required. In many cases, an apparent emergency may turn out to be less serious than first thought, and may not require the intervention of the emergency services.
If emergency services are required, the lay person would normally
call for helpusing their local emergency telephone number, which can be used to summon professional assistance. The emergency dispatcher may well give instructions over the phone to the person on scene, with further advice on what actions to take.
Action whilst awaiting emergency services
The actions following the summoning of the emergency services are likely to depend on the response that the services are able to offer. In most cases, in a metropolitan area, help is likely to be forthcoming within minutes of a call, although in more outlying, rural areas, the time in which help is available increases.
Actions may include:
First Aidfor casualties on scene
* Obtaining further history on the incident to pass on the emergency services
* Checking for further, previously unnoticed, casualties
Or in instances where emergency assistance is delayed, actions may include:
* Moving any casualties away from danger
* Undertaking more advanced medical procedures dependent on training
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Emergency — An emergency is a situation which poses an immediate risk to health, life, property or environment. [cite web|title=UK Government Advice on Definition of an Emergency|url=http://www.ukresilience.info/upload/assets/www.ukresilience.info/15mayshortg… … Wikipedia
Emergency management — Accident preparedness redirects here. For Safety related articles, see Safety. Disaster preparedness redirects here. For other articles related to disaster preparedness, see Category:Disaster preparedness. Emergency management is the generic name … Wikipedia
Action Against Hunger — (known internationally as Action Contre la Faim, or ACF) is an international relief and development organization committed to saving the lives of malnourished children and families while seeking long term, sustainable solutions to hunger.… … Wikipedia
Principles of Intelligent Urbanism — (PIU) is a theory of urban planning composed of a set of ten axioms intended to guide the formulation of city plans and urban designs. They are intended to reconcile and integrate diverse urban planning and management concerns. These axioms… … Wikipedia
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 — This article is about one division of an enacted statute. For the entire statute, see Public Law 110 343. For the enacted rescue program, see Troubled Asset Relief Program. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Division A of Pub.L.… … Wikipedia
Emergency department — Accident and Emergency and Emergency room redirect here. For other uses, see Accident and Emergency (disambiguation) and Emergency room (disambiguation). Resus redirects here. For Resuscitation, see Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A clearly marked … Wikipedia
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 — Plan Paulson Immeuble abritant le Département du Trésor des États Unis Le Plan Paulson, ou TARP[note 1], est l une des mesures mises en place par les États Unis à partir de septembre 2008 pour faire face à la crise financi … Wikipédia en Français
Northern Territory National Emergency Response — Alcohol and Pornography Ban Warning sign … Wikipedia
Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties of India — The Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties are sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the Statefn|° to its citizens and the duties of the citizens to the State … Wikipedia
State of emergency — For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend some normal functions of the executive, legislative and judicial powers, alert citizens to change their normal behaviours … Wikipedia