Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase

Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase

Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase is an enzyme which oxidizes Vitamin K hydroquinone to Vitamin K 2,3 epoxide, while simultaneously adding CO2 to protein-bound glutamic acid (abbreviation = Glu) to form gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (also called gamma-carboxyglutamate, abbreviation = Gla). The carboxylation reaction will only proceed if the carboxylase enzyme is able to oxidize vitamin K hydroquinone to vitamin K epoxide at the same time; the carboxylation and epoxidation reactions are said to be coupled reactions.cite journal | author = Suttie JW | title = Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase | journal = Annu. Rev. Biochem. | volume = 54 | issue = | pages = 459–77 | year = 1985 | pmid = 3896125 | doi = 10.1146/ | issn = ] cite journal | author = Presnell SR, Stafford DW | title = The vitamin K-dependent carboxylase | journal = Thromb. Haemost. | volume = 87 | issue = 6 | pages = 937–46 | year = 2002 | pmid = 12083499 | doi = | issn = ] cite journal | author = Silva PJ, Ramos MJ | title = Reaction mechanism of the vitamin K-dependent glutamate carboxylase: a computational study | journal = J Phys Chem B | volume = 111 | issue = 44 | pages = 12883–7 | year = 2007 | pmid = 17935315 | doi = 10.1021/jp0738208 | issn = ]

Gla domain-containing proteins depend on the carboxylation reaction for posttranslational modification.


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Shin JS, Abraham SN |title=Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor-mediated bacterial endocytosis. |journal=FEMS Microbiol. Lett. |volume=197 |issue= 2 |pages= 131–8 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11313125 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Wong YW, Williams AF, Kingsmore SF, Seldin MF |title=Structure, expression, and genetic linkage of the mouse BCM1 (OX45 or Blast-1) antigen. Evidence for genetic duplication giving rise to the BCM1 region on mouse chromosome 1 and the CD2/LFA3 region on mouse chromosome 3. |journal=J. Exp. Med. |volume=171 |issue= 6 |pages= 2115–30 |year= 1990 |pmid= 1693656 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Del Porto P, Mami-Chouaib F, Bruneau JM, "et al." |title=TCT.1, a target molecule for gamma/delta T cells, is encoded by an immunoglobulin superfamily gene (Blast-1) located in the CD1 region of human chromosome 1. |journal=J. Exp. Med. |volume=173 |issue= 6 |pages= 1339–44 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1827826 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Fisher RC, Thorley-Lawson DA |title=Characterization of the Epstein-Barr virus-inducible gene encoding the human leukocyte adhesion and activation antigen BLAST-1 (CD48). |journal=Mol. Cell. Biol. |volume=11 |issue= 3 |pages= 1614–23 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1847502 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Korínek V, Stefanová I, Angelisová P, "et al." |title=The human leucocyte antigen CD48 (MEM-102) is closely related to the activation marker Blast-1. |journal=Immunogenetics |volume=33 |issue= 2 |pages= 108–12 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1999350 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Vaughan HA, Henning MM, Purcell DF, "et al." |title=The isolation of cDNA clones for CD48. |journal=Immunogenetics |volume=33 |issue= 2 |pages= 113–7 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1999351 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Staunton DE, Thorley-Lawson DA |title=Molecular cloning of the lymphocyte activation marker Blast-1. |journal=EMBO J. |volume=6 |issue= 12 |pages= 3695–701 |year= 1988 |pmid= 2828034 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Garnett D, Barclay AN, Carmo AM, Beyers AD |title=The association of the protein tyrosine kinases p56lck and p60fyn with the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins Thy-1 and CD48 in rat thymocytes is dependent on the state of cellular activation. |journal=Eur. J. Immunol. |volume=23 |issue= 10 |pages= 2540–4 |year= 1993 |pmid= 8104794 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Maruyama K, Sugano S |title=Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. |journal=Gene |volume=138 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 171–4 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8125298 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Solomon KR, Rudd CE, Finberg RW |title=The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=93 |issue= 12 |pages= 6053–8 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8650218 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, "et al." |title=Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library. |journal=Gene |volume=200 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 149–56 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9373149 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, "et al." |title=Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen CD48 in plasma and its elevation in patients with lymphoid leukemias and arthritis. |journal=J. Clin. Immunol. |volume=17 |issue= 6 |pages= 502–9 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9418191 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Latchman Y, McKay PF, Reiser H |title=Identification of the 2B4 molecule as a counter-receptor for CD48. |journal=J. Immunol. |volume=161 |issue= 11 |pages= 5809–12 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9834056 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Nakajima H, Cella M, Langen H, "et al." |title=Activating interactions in human NK cell recognition: the role of 2B4-CD48. |journal=Eur. J. Immunol. |volume=29 |issue= 5 |pages= 1676–83 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10359122 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Tangye SG, Cherwinski H, Lanier LL, Phillips JH |title=2B4-mediated activation of human natural killer cells. |journal=Mol. Immunol. |volume=37 |issue= 9 |pages= 493–501 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11163399 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Suzuki T, Kiyokawa N, Taguchi T, "et al." |title=CD24 induces apoptosis in human B cells via the glycolipid-enriched membrane domains/rafts-mediated signaling system. |journal=J. Immunol. |volume=166 |issue= 9 |pages= 5567–77 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11313396 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Hawash IY, Hu XE, Adal A, "et al." |title=The oxygen-substituted palmitic acid analogue, 13-oxypalmitic acid, inhibits Lck localization to lipid rafts and T cell signaling. |journal=Biochim. Biophys. Acta |volume=1589 |issue= 2 |pages= 140–50 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12007789 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kim D, Hur DY, Kim YS, "et al." |title=CM1 ligation initiates apoptosis in a caspase 8-dependent manner in Ramos cells and in a mitochondria-controlled manner in Raji cells. |journal=Hum. Immunol. |volume=63 |issue= 7 |pages= 576–87 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12072193 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Zhu B, Davies EA, van der Merwe PA, "et al." |title=Direct measurements of heterotypic adhesion between the cell surface proteins CD2 and CD48. |journal=Biochemistry |volume=41 |issue= 40 |pages= 12163–70 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12356317 |doi=


ee also

* Carboxyglutamate

External links


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