Wiener Neustadt

Wiener Neustadt

Infobox Town AT
name=Wiener Neustadt
name_local=
image_coa =Wappen Wiener Neustadt.jpg


image_photo=WrNeustadt HerzogLeopoldStr.jpg
imagesize=220px
image_caption=
state = Lower Austria
regbzk =
district = Statutory city
population =39652
population_as_of = 01.12.2005
population_ref =
pop_dens = 650.5
area = 60.96
elevation = 265
lat_deg=47
lat_min=49
lat_hem=N
lon_deg=16
lon_min=15
lon_hem=E
postal_code = 2700
area_code =02622
licence = WN
mayor = Bernhard Müller (SPÖ)
website = [http://www.wiener-neustadt.gv.at/ www.wiener-neustadt.gv.at]

Wiener Neustadt ( _hu. Bécsújhely) is a town located south of Vienna, in the state of Lower Austria, Austria. It is a self-governed city and the seat of the district administration of Wiener Neustadt-Land.

History

The city was founded by the Babenberger Duke Leopold V in 1194, who financed the construction of the city with the ransom paid for the English king Richard the Lionheart, who had previously been held as a hostage in Austria at Dürnstein. Wiener Neustadt, meaning more or less "New Vienna" ("Viennese Newtown"), first served as a fortress to defend against nearby Hungary. Important privileges were given to the city in order to enable it to prosper. In the 15th century, Wiener Neustadt experienced a population boom, when Emperor Friedrick III took up his residence here and in Graz. The "Wappenwand" (coat of arms wall) at the local castle displays the coats of arms of his possessions in the middle. His son Maximilian I maintained his court in Wiener Neustadt and is buried there in the St. George's Cathedral.

King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary conquered the city in August of 1487 after having laid siege to it for two years. He dedicated the Corvinus Cup to the inhabitants. Maximilian I managed to reconquer his native city in 1490. During the 16th century, Wiener Neustadt lost its status as imperial residence and much of its importance. However, it still fulfilled its function as bulwark against the Turks and the Kuruc. In 1751 it received greater attention when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria decided to dedicate the First Military Academy worldwide inside the imperial castle. In 1752, the Theresian Military Academy took up its operations, which have continued to this day with only a few interruptions. (Erwin Rommel became the commandant in 1938.) In 1768, Wiener Neustadt was destroyed by an earthquake. The castle, which had suffered strongly, was rebuilt using plans made by the architect Nicolò Pacassi. In 1785, Emperor Joseph II transferred the see of the diocese of Wiener Neustadt to St. Pölten.

externalimage|align=right|
http://www.geheimprojekte.at/t_wnhe.html Wiener Neustadt Bombing Damage]
[http://www.geheimprojekte.at/t_wnhe.html Diagram of WWII Wiener Neustadt facilities]
In the 19th century the city became an industrial town, especially after the opening of the Austrian Southern Railway in 1842.

In 1909, the "first official Austrian airfield" was inaugurated north of the city.cite web |title=Cradle of the Austrian aviation |url=http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.stadtmuseum.wrn.at%2Fgeschichte%2Fgeschichte.asp%3FID%3D39&sl=de&tl=en&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 |format=html de icon |accessdate=2009-09-15 |work= [http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.stadtmuseum.wrn.at%2Fgeschichte%2Fgeschichte.asp%3FID%3D39&sl=de&tl=en&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 Wiener Neustadt history] |publisher=stadtmuseum.wm.at ] It later served as a training ground for the flight pioneers Igo Etrich, Karl Illner and Adolf Warchalowski, who conducted their tests there.

Bombing of Wiener Neustadt during World War II

Targets of Strategic bombing during World War II included the city's Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke (WNF) Bf109 factory [cite book |first=Haberfellner |last=Wernfried |otherauther=Schroeder Walter |title=Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke. Entstehung, Aufbau und Niedergang eines Flugzeugwerkes |publisher=Weishaupt Verlag, Graz |isbn=3-7059-0000-5 NOTE: In WWII, WNF manufactured Bf 109s and repaired Junkers bombers and destroyers:

WNF

WNF had absorbed Hirtenburg, which itself had taken over Hopfner. WNF aircraft included the Wn11, 15, & 16 and the Wiener Neustadter (Doblohff) WNF 342 Tip-Jet Helicopter. In 1944, the Doblhof WNF-4 was the first ramjet powered helicopter.Hopfner aircraft] and two Raxwerke plants which used Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp labor. Bombing operations such as Operation Pointblank left [http://www.geheimprojekte.at/t_wnfwerk1.html only 18 of 4,000 buildings undamaged:]

climate chart| [http://www.wetterneustadt.at.tf Wiener Neustadt]
-4|3|26
-3|6|25
0|10|38
4|15|43
9|21|71
12|23|82
14|26|80
14|25|71
10|21|56
5|15|36
0|8|42
-3|4|31
float=right
clear=both
source= [http://www.zamg.ac.at/fix/klima/oe71-00/klima2000/daten/klimadaten/noe/7601.htm ZAMG]

Main sights

*The Late-Romanesque "Dom", consecrated in 1279 and cathedral from 1469 to 1785. The choir and transept, in Gothic style, are from the 14th century. In the late 15th century 12 statues of the Apostles were added in the apse, while the bust of Cardinal Melchior Klesl is attributed to Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
*Former church of "St. Peter an der Sperr", erected in the 13th century and modified in the mid-15th century by the imperial architect Peter von pusica. Secularized in the 19th century, it is now used for exhibitions.
*The Military Academy, a 13th century formerly four-towered castle which was later used as residence by Frederick III of Habsburg. The latter had it enlarged and the St. George Chapel built in the mid-15th century: it has notable glassworks and houses the tomb of Emperor Maximilian I. It became seat of the Academy in 1752. Destroyed during World War II, it has been rebuilt to the original appearance.
*Water tower
*Tower of Tortures (early 13th century), now housing a private weapons collection.
*Mariensäule (a plague column at Hauptplatz)
*Church of the Capuchins, documented from the 13th century. Of the original construction today the Gothic choir (late 14th century) and the statues of St. Mary and St. James can be seen.
*The medieval walls, built using part of the ransom of Richard I of England.
* [http://www.stadtmuseum.wrn.at/service/service_e.asp?cont=oeffnung Communal Museum of Wiener Neustadt]
*City archives
* [http://www.aviaticum.at/indexa_e.htm Flugmuseum Aviaticum]
* [http://www.industrieviertelmuseum.at/ Industrial museum]
*Hospital museum
*Kurt Ingerl-Gedenkraum
*Mineralogical museum
*Tower museum in the cathedral

Transportation

Wiener Neustadt connects to other major centers of population by the Austrian Federal Railway and the Autobahn. The city has two airfields (a military one which was the first airfield in Austria and a civil one owned by Diamond Aircraft) and is the starting point of Austria's only shipping canal, the Wiener Neustaedter Kanal, which was meant to reach out to Trieste but was never finished.

University, professional schools, vocational academies

Austria's first and largest Fachhochschule for business and engineering, the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, is located here.


=City partnerships=

*flagicon|GER Monheim am Rhein, Germany
*flagicon|ITA Desenzano del Garda, Italy
*flagicon|HUN Sopron, Hungary, since 1988
*flagicon|CHN Harbin, People's Republic of China (PRC)

Development of the city

The most recent extension of the city is the " [http://www.civitasnova.at/ CIVITAS NOVA] ", Latin for "new city", an ambitious project for an industrial, research and commercial center. In 2008, on the area of the Civitas Nova, a cancer research center for ion therapy will be opened under the name of [http://www.medaustron.at/ Med Austron] (link in German).

Culture

In 1996 Wiener Neustadt became internationally famous as a [http://www.dade.at/sidewalk/sidew.htm so-called "sidewalk"] designed by a Japanese artist was built around the main square. The [http://www.aerodrome.at/ aerodrome] is a big music venue (link in German).

People

*Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
*Joseph Matthias Hauer, composer.
*Karl Merkatz, actor.
*Kurt Ingerl, sculptor.
*Viktor Gernot, actor and comedian.
*Arnold Grabner, politician and Vice President of the OeOC
*Michael Haneke, film director.

References and Notes


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См. также в других словарях:

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