- Wiener Neustadt
Infobox Town AT
image_coa =Wappen Wiener Neustadt.jpg
population_as_of = 01.12.2005
pop_dens = 650.5
area = 60.96
elevation = 265
postal_code = 2700
licence = WN
mayor = Bernhard Müller (
website = [http://www.wiener-neustadt.gv.at/ www.wiener-neustadt.gv.at]
Wiener Neustadt ( _hu. Bécsújhely) is a town located south of
Vienna, in the state of Lower Austria, Austria. It is a self-governed city and the seat of the district administration of Wiener Neustadt-Land.
The city was founded by the
BabenbergerDuke Leopold V in 1194, who financed the construction of the city with the ransom paid for the English king Richard the Lionheart, who had previously been held as a hostage in Austria at Dürnstein. Wiener Neustadt, meaning more or less "New Vienna" ("Viennese Newtown"), first served as a fortress to defend against nearby Hungary. Important privileges were given to the city in order to enable it to prosper. In the 15th century, Wiener Neustadt experienced a population boom, when Emperor Friedrick III took up his residence here and in Graz. The "Wappenwand" (coat of arms wall) at the local castle displays the coats of arms of his possessions in the middle. His son Maximilian I maintained his court in Wiener Neustadt and is buried there in the St. George's Cathedral.
Matthias Corvinus of Hungaryconquered the city in August of 1487 after having laid siege to it for two years. He dedicated the Corvinus Cupto the inhabitants. Maximilian I managed to reconquer his native city in 1490. During the 16th century, Wiener Neustadt lost its status as imperial residence and much of its importance. However, it still fulfilled its function as bulwark against the Turks and the Kuruc. In 1751 it received greater attention when Empress Maria Theresa of Austriadecided to dedicate the First Military Academy worldwide inside the imperial castle. In 1752, the Theresian Military Academytook up its operations, which have continued to this day with only a few interruptions. (Erwin Rommel became the commandant in 1938.) In 1768, Wiener Neustadt was destroyed by an earthquake. The castle, which had suffered strongly, was rebuilt using plans made by the architect Nicolò Pacassi. In 1785, Emperor Joseph II transferred the see of the diocese of Wiener Neustadtto St. Pölten.
http://www.geheimprojekte.at/t_wnhe.html Wiener Neustadt Bombing Damage]
[http://www.geheimprojekte.at/t_wnhe.html Diagram of WWII Wiener Neustadt facilities] In the 19th century the city became an industrial town, especially after the opening of the
Austrian Southern Railwayin 1842.
In 1909, the "first official Austrian airfield" was inaugurated north of the city.cite web |title=Cradle of the Austrian aviation |url=http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.stadtmuseum.wrn.at%2Fgeschichte%2Fgeschichte.asp%3FID%3D39&sl=de&tl=en&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 |format=html de icon |accessdate=2009-09-15 |work= [http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.stadtmuseum.wrn.at%2Fgeschichte%2Fgeschichte.asp%3FID%3D39&sl=de&tl=en&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 Wiener Neustadt history] |publisher=stadtmuseum.wm.at ] It later served as a training ground for the flight pioneers
Igo Etrich, Karl Illnerand Adolf Warchalowski, who conducted their tests there.
Bombing of Wiener Neustadt during World War II
Strategic bombing during World War IIincluded the city's Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke (WNF) Bf109factory [cite book |first=Haberfellner |last=Wernfried |otherauther=Schroeder Walter |title=Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke. Entstehung, Aufbau und Niedergang eines Flugzeugwerkes |publisher=Weishaupt Verlag, Graz |isbn=3-7059-0000-5 NOTE: In WWII, WNF manufactured Bf 109s and repaired Junkersbombers and destroyers:
WNF had absorbed Hirtenburg, which itself had taken over Hopfner. WNF aircraft included the Wn11, 15, & 16 and the Wiener Neustadter (Doblohff) WNF 342 Tip-Jet Helicopter. In 1944, the Doblhof WNF-4 was the first ramjet powered helicopter.Hopfner aircraft] and two
Raxwerkeplants which used Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camplabor. Bombing operations such as Operation Pointblankleft [http://www.geheimprojekte.at/t_wnfwerk1.html only 18 of 4,000 buildings undamaged:]
climate chart| [http://www.wetterneustadt.at.tf Wiener Neustadt]
source= [http://www.zamg.ac.at/fix/klima/oe71-00/klima2000/daten/klimadaten/noe/7601.htm ZAMG]
*The Late-Romanesque "Dom", consecrated in 1279 and cathedral from 1469 to 1785. The choir and transept, in Gothic style, are from the 14th century. In the late 15th century 12 statues of the Apostles were added in the apse, while the bust of Cardinal
Melchior Kleslis attributed to Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
*Former church of "St. Peter an der Sperr", erected in the 13th century and modified in the mid-15th century by the imperial architect Peter von pusica. Secularized in the 19th century, it is now used for exhibitions.
*The Military Academy, a 13th century formerly four-towered castle which was later used as residence by
Frederick III of Habsburg. The latter had it enlarged and the St. George Chapel built in the mid-15th century: it has notable glassworks and houses the tomb of Emperor Maximilian I. It became seat of the Academy in 1752. Destroyed during World War II, it has been rebuilt to the original appearance.
*Tower of Tortures (early 13th century), now housing a private weapons collection.
Mariensäule(a plague columnat Hauptplatz)
*Church of the Capuchins, documented from the 13th century. Of the original construction today the Gothic choir (late 14th century) and the statues of St. Mary and St. James can be seen.
*The medieval walls, built using part of the ransom of
Richard I of England.
* [http://www.stadtmuseum.wrn.at/service/service_e.asp?cont=oeffnung Communal Museum of Wiener Neustadt]
* [http://www.aviaticum.at/indexa_e.htm Flugmuseum Aviaticum]
* [http://www.industrieviertelmuseum.at/ Industrial museum]
*Tower museum in the cathedral
Wiener Neustadt connects to other major centers of population by the
Austrian Federal Railwayand the Autobahn. The city has two airfields (a military one which was the first airfield in Austria and a civil one owned by Diamond Aircraft) and is the starting point of Austria's only shipping canal, the Wiener Neustaedter Kanal, which was meant to reach out to Triestebut was never finished.
University, professional schools, vocational academies
Austria's first and largest
Fachhochschulefor business and engineering, the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, is located here.
Monheim am Rhein, Germany
Desenzano del Garda, Italy
Sopron, Hungary, since 1988
Harbin, People's Republic of China (PRC)
Development of the city
The most recent extension of the city is the " [http://www.civitasnova.at/ CIVITAS NOVA] ", Latin for "new city", an ambitious project for an industrial, research and commercial center. In 2008, on the area of the Civitas Nova, a cancer research center for
ion therapywill be opened under the name of [http://www.medaustron.at/ Med Austron] (link in German).
In 1996 Wiener Neustadt became internationally famous as a [http://www.dade.at/sidewalk/sidew.htm so-called "sidewalk"] designed by a Japanese artist was built around the main square. The [http://www.aerodrome.at/ aerodrome] is a big music venue (link in German).
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph Matthias Hauer, composer.
Karl Merkatz, actor.
Kurt Ingerl, sculptor.
Viktor Gernot, actor and comedian.
Arnold Grabner, politicianand Vice President of the OeOC
Michael Haneke, film director.
References and Notes
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Wiener Neustadt — Wiener Neustadt … Deutsch Wikipedia
Wiener Neustadt — Blason de Wiener Neustadt … Wikipédia en Français
Wiener-Neustadt — Wiener Neustadt … Wikipédia en Français
WIENER NEUSTADT — WIENER NEUSTADT, city in Lower Austria. Jews were living there soon after the city s foundation in 1192. Gravestones in the Jewish cemetery date from 1252 and 1261. In 1277 the rights of the Jews in the city were somewhat curtailed, but the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Wiener-Neustadt — Wiener Neustadt, Stadt mit eignem Statut in Niederösterreich, 270 m ü. M., nahe der ungarischen Grenze, an der Fischa, an den Linien Wien Triest und W. Groß Kanizsa Barcs der Südbahn, den Eisenbahnen Wien Pottendorf W. und Wien Aspang sowie den… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Wiener Neustadt — Bandera … Wikipedia Español
Wiener Neustadt — Wiener Neustadt, 1) Stadt mit eigenem Statut in Niederösterreich, 265 m über dem Meeresspiegel, im südlichen Wiener Becken, 37 400 Einwohner; Militärakademie, Höhere Technische Bundeslehr und versuchsanstalt für Elektrotechnik, Stadtmuseum. Im… … Universal-Lexikon
Wiener Neustadt — (Neustadt), 1) Bezirk des Unterwienerwaldkreises in Österreich unter der Enns; 2) Stadt u. Hauptort darin, auf dem Steinfeld, an der Kleinen Fischa, dem Rohrbache, dem Neustädter Kanal u. der k. k. Südbahn, mit Zweigbahn nach Ödenburg, ist mit… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Wiener-Neustadt — Wiener Neustadt, Bezirksstadt in Niederösterreich, an der Fischa, (1900) 28.700 E., Theresianische Militärakademie. – Vgl. Boeheim (Chronik, 1863 64) … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Wiener Neustadt — Город Винер Нойштадт Wiener Neustadt Герб … Википедия