Gender of connectors and fasteners


Gender of connectors and fasteners
A male threaded pipe, left, and female threaded elbow.

In electrical and mechanical trades and manufacturing, each half of a pair of mating connectors or fasteners is conventionally assigned the designation male or female. The "female" connector is generally a receptacle that receives and holds the "male" connector.

The assignment is by direct analogy with genitalia and sexual intercourse; the part bearing one or more protrusions, or which fits inside the other, being designated male in contrast to the part containing the corresponding indentations, or fitting outside the other, being designated female. Extension of the analogy results in the verb to mate being used to describe the process of connecting two corresponding parts together.

In some cases (notably electrical power connectors), the gender of connectors is selected according to rigid rules, to enforce a sense of one-way directionality (e.g. a flow of power from one device to another). This gender distinction is implemented to enhance safety or ensure proper functionality by preventing unsafe or non-functional configurations from being set up.

In terms of mathematical graph theory, an electrical power distribution network made up of plugs and sockets is a directed tree, with the directionality arrows corresponding to the female-to-male transfer of electrical power through each mated connection. This is an example where male and female connectors have been deliberately designed and assigned to physically enforce a safe network topology.

In other contexts, such as plumbing, one-way flow is not enforced through connector gender assignment. Flows through piping networks can be bidirectional, as in underground water distribution networks which have designed-in redundancy. In plumbing situations where one-way flow is desired, it is implemented through other means (e.g. gravity flow, one-way check valves), and not through male-female gender schemes.

Contents

Terminology

The gender of a connector is defined by the structure of its primary functional components — e.g., the conductors of an electrical connector, or the load-bearing parts of a fastener — and not by secondary features such as covers, shields or handles that may be installed for environmental protection, safe operation, etc.

Throughout this article, mechanical fasteners (e.g. nuts and bolts) can be considered to be "mechanical connectors" in a manner somewhat analogous to "electrical connectors" or "plumbing connectors".

Screw and pipe threads designated "external" and "internal" usually correspond to "male" and "female," respectively, though use of external and internal to designate male and female connectors is sometimes irregularly applied.

Mechanical fasteners

In mechanical design, the prototypical "male" component is a threaded bolt, but an alignment post, a mounting boss, or a sheet metal tab connector can also be considered as male. Correspondingly, a threaded nut, an alignment hole, a mounting recess, or sheet metal slot connector is considered to be female.

While some mechanical designs are "one-off" custom setups not intended to be repeated, there is an entire fastener industry devoted to manufacturing mass-produced or semi-custom components. To avoid unnecessary confusion, conventional definitions of fastener gender have been defined and agreed upon.

Modular construction toys

Although this aspect is not highlighted in their promotional literature, several common construction toys[1] embody gendered (and in some cases, genderless) mechanical interconnections. This should not be surprising, since these toys feature the nearly infinite flexibility and versatility of shape that a modular interconnect architecture can enable. Mathematicians have begun to classify well-known construction sets using group theory to study the combinatoric possibilities of structures that can be built.

For example, the canonical LEGO plastic blocks have "female" indentations on the lower surface, and "male" bosses or protrusions on the upper surfaces. Meccano and Erector sets are rife with gendered connections, starting with the nut-and-bolt fasteners they use in profusion.

Stickle bricks, using interdigitated plastic protrusions, are effectively genderless. Lincoln logs use a very simple form of genderless connections. Kapla or KEVA planks are extremely simple genderless systems interconnected only by gravity.

Plumbing connectors

In plumbing fittings, the "M" or "F" usually comes at the beginning rather than the end of the abbreviated designation. For example:

  • MIP denotes Male International Pipe thread;
  • FIP denotes Female International Pipe thread.

A short length of pipe having an MIP thread at both ends is sometimes called a nipple.[2] A short pipe fitting having an FIP thread at both ends is sometimes called a coupling.

Hermaphroditic connections, which include both male and female elements in a single unit, are used for some specialized tubing fittings, such as Storz firehose connectors. A picture of such fittings appears in the #Genderless (hermaphroditic) connectors section of this article.

Downspout connectors

Downspouts (downpipes, rain conductors or leaders) are used to convey rainwater from roof gutters to the ground through hollow pipes or tubes. These tubes usually come in sections, joined by inserting the male end (often crimped with a special tool to slightly reduce its size) into the female end of the next section. These connections are usually not sealed or caulked, instead relying on gravity to move the rainwater from the male end and into the receiving female connection located directly below.

Ductwork connectors

Sheet metal ductwork for conveying air in HVAC systems typically uses gendered connections. Typically, the airflow through a ductwork connection is from male to female. However, since one-way flow is implemented by forced-air fans or blowers, "backwards" gendered connections can be seen frequently in some systems, since all connections are typically sealed with duct sealing mastic or tape to prevent leakage anyway. The flow convention is usually loosely adhered to for simplicity of design, and to reduce the number of gender changer fittings required, but exceptions are made whenever expedient.

Electrical and electronic connectors

Although the gender of tubing and plumbing fittings is usually obvious, this may not be true of electrical connectors because of their more complex and varying constructions. Instead, connector gender is conventionalized and thus can be somewhat obscure to the uninitiated. For example, the female D-subminiature connector body projects outward from the mounting plane of the chassis, and this protrusion could be erroneously construed as male. Instead, the "maleness" of the D-subminiature connectors is defined by specific presence of male pins, rather than by the protrusion of the connector, which is also true for many other pin-based connectors like XLR. The male/female distinction is more obvious with ring crimp lug connectors which are placed around a screw post, but again with spade or split ring crimp lug connectors the end alone is not obviously female.

Further confusion can be caused by the term "jack", which is used for both female and male connectors and typically refers to the fixed (panel) side of a connector pair. IEEE STD 100 and ANSI Y32.16 (identical to IEEE 200-1975 and replaced by ASME Y14.44-2008) define "Plug" and "Jack" by location or mobility, rather than gender.[3][4] A connector in a fixed location is a jack, and a moveable connector is a plug. The distinction is relative, so a portable radio is considered stationary compared to the cable from the headphones; the radio has a jack, and the headphone cable has a plug. Where the relationship is equal, such as when two flexible cables are connected, each is considered a plug and annotated with the P reference designator.

It is common practice to use female connectors for jacks, so the informal gender-based usage often happens to agree with the functional description of the technical standards. However, this is not always the case; often-seen exceptions include a computer's AC Power Inlet and EIA232 DE9 Serial Port, or the male coaxial power jacks for connecting external power adapters to portable equipment.

To summarize, it is considered best practice to use "male" and "female" for connector gender, and "plug" and "jack" for connector function or mobility.

Male and Female Connectors
A panel-mounted IEC 60320 C14 male connector jack designed to accept AC line power  
A female VGA connector which serves as a jack.  
A male DE-9 serial port connector which serves as a jack.  
A Null modem cable with a female connector on each end, both of which serve as a plug.  
A male VGA connector which serves as a plug. The pins make this male; the surrounding shield does not change that.  
A male 50 ohm BNC connector plug. Three circular projections (including the central pin) interlock with two rings of the female jack.  
Triaxial BNC connector, another male plug  

Abbreviations and alternate terminology

The standard letters "M" and "F" are commonly used in part numbers to designate connector gender. For example, in Switchcraft XLR microphone or hydrophone connectors, the part numbers are denoted as follows:

  • A3F = Audio 3-pin Female connector;
  • A3M = Audio 3-pin Male connector.

The terms plug, pin, and prong are also often used for "male" connectors, and receptacle, socket, and slot are used for "female" connectors. In many cases these terms are more common than male and female, especially in documentation intended for the non-specialist. These nearly synonymous terms can cause a fair amount of confusion when the designations are shortened in labels.

For example, a female high-density D-subminiature connector with a size 1 shell can be named DE15F or DE15S (see accompanying pictures). Both terms mean the same thing but could be construed to be completely different items. Similarly, a male standard-density D-sub with a size 1 shell can be named DE9M or DE9P; a female standard-density D-sub with a size 2 shell can be named DA15F or DA15S; a male high-density D-sub with a size 3 shell can be named DB44M or DB44P; and so forth.

Gender selection in electronic design

Electronic designers often select female jack connectors for fixed mounting on electronic equipment they design. This is usually done because female connectors are more resistant to damage or contamination, by virtue of their concealed or recessed electrical contacts. A damaged motherboard connector can result in the scrapping of an expensive piece of electronic equipment. The risk of expensive damage is reduced by relegating the more exposed male contacts to connecting cables, which can be repaired or replaced at lower cost.

Such cost and reliability considerations probably drove the design decision to use female jack connectors on many computer terminals (and some personal computers) for the serial port, in direct violation of the connector gender convention specified in the RS-232 standard for "DTE" computer equipment. This confusing reversal of the RS-232 connector gender convention would cause many hours of frustration for ill-informed end users, as they tried to troubleshoot non-functional serial port equipment connections.

In the case of electrical power connections, designers dare not to reverse connector gender in such a casual fashion, since such misuse of AC line power connectors is very unsafe and even illegal. Fortunately, a special male IEC 60320 C14 connector (see Gallery above) is available which is recessed below the surface of a mounting panel, providing the desired protection from mechanical damage while conforming to safety regulations.

Safety and electrical connector gender

Power outlets are female for safety.
Common 5.5×2.5 mm coaxial power connector, male and female. Power is provided by the female plug on the right; the exposed conductor is not hazardous due to the low voltage. See text at left for further explanation.

In electrical connections where voltage or current is sufficient to cause injury, the part connected to the power source is invariably female, with concealed contacts, to prevent inadvertent touching of live conductors. A male plug, with fully exposed protruding contacts, is installed on the cord of (or directly onto) the device receiving the power.

In the case of consumer-level AC power, connector gender is used to implicitly enforce safe use of power connectors. Because of this consideration, it is illegal under electrical code to make or use any gender changers to connect AC line power to consumer-level equipment.

In low-voltage use such as for data communications, electrical shock hazard is not an issue, and male or female connectors are used based on other engineering factors such as convenience of use, cost, or ease of manufacturing. For example, the common "patch cables" used for Ethernet (and the similar cords used for telephones) typically have male modular plugs on both ends, to connect to jacks on equipment or mounted in walls.

As an illustrative example of some design tradeoffs in power connector selection, consider the picture to the right. A commonly seen coaxial power connector is usually set up so that power is fed from the female plug on the right into the male jack on the left (which is typically a part of the electronic device accepting the power). Although the plug is female, with a partially recessed center contact, it is still possible for casual accidental contact with a metallic object to short-circuit the power source. Depending on the design of the power adapter, it may react to a short circuit by shutting down temporarily, or instead by blowing out an internal safety fuse.

In this example, the marginal reliability of the connector choice was deemed to be acceptable by the equipment designer, since the power adapter supplies low voltage that does not pose an electric shock hazard. The potential fire hazard from accidental short-circuiting is addressed by the internal safety fuse, although this requires that a failed power adapter must be completely replaced. In a different design, if the power adapter were intended to supply a voltage sufficient to cause electrical shock, the semi-exposed center contact of the female plug would be considered unacceptably hazardous, requiring a different choice of power connector.

Ambiguous gender assignment

As a side issue, some electrical connectors are hermaphroditic because they include both male and female elements in a single unit intended to interconnect freely, without regard for gender. See the discussion of Genderless connectors elsewhere in this article for more detailed information.

As an additional complication, certain electronic connector designs may incorporate combinations of male and female pins in a single connector body, for mating with a complementary connector with opposite gender pins in corresponding positions.. In these unusual cases, gender is often defined by the shape of the connector body, rather than the mixed-gender connector pins and sockets. These types of connectors are not strictly speaking hermaphroditic, since mating connectors are not freely interchangeable. An informal term that has been used for these connectors is "bisexual", in addition to the more official terminology, mixed-gender. Thus, for example, one can have a mixed-gender female plug that connects to a mixed-gender male jack (though a reversed gender assignment of connectors would be a more typical design choice in this example).

Male connector pins are often protected by a shell (also called a shroud, surround, or shield), which may envelop the entire female connector when mated. RF connectors often have multiple layers of interlocking shells to properly connect the shields of coaxial and triaxial cable. In such cases, the gender is assigned based on the innermost connecting point.

Another ambiguous situation arises with the connectors used for USB, FireWire (IEEE-1394), and Thunderbolt serial data bus connections. Close examination of these connectors reveals that the contact "pins" are not actually pins, but instead are conductive surfaces that slide past each other when they mate. Therefore, the traditional pin and socket nomenclature is not applicable. Instead, most computer hardware people fall back to referring to the wrap-around metal shield on the plug connector as if it were a connector pin. By this convention, the connectors on serial bus cables are "male plugs", and the corresponding connectors on equipment are "female jacks".

A casual glance at a USB "Type A" plug connector may give the false impression that it is hermaphroditic. However, a physical attempt to mate two USB "Type A" cables with each other reveals the fact that the connectors will not interconnect (at least not without interposing the appropriate USB gender changer). Classifying according to mathematical graph theory, USB buses are directed trees, whereas FireWire buses have a true bus network topology. This difference is reflected in the bus connectors used, in that USB cables are asymmetrical (one end Type A, other end Type B) while FireWire cables may have identical connectors at both ends.

Genderless (hermaphroditic) connectors

By definition, a hermaphroditic connector includes mating surfaces having simultaneous male and female aspects, involving complementary paired identical parts each containing both protrusions and indentations. These mating surfaces are mounted into identical fittings which can freely mate with any other, without regard for gender (provided that the size and type are already matched). Alternative names include hermaphrodite, genderless, sexless, combination (or combo), two-in-one, two-way, and other descriptive terms. Several of these latter alternate names are ambiguous in meaning, and should not be used unless carefully defined in context. True hermaphroditic connectors should not be confused with mixed gender connectors, which are described elsewhere in this article.

Another closely related type is the stackable connector for electronics, which typically has male pins on one surface, and complementary female sockets on the opposite surface, allowing multiple units to be stacked up like plastic milk crates. Examples of this include stackable banana plugs, and interconnect cables specified for the IEEE-488 instrumentation bus. Stackable mezzanine bus connectors are used on some modular microcomputer accessory boards for systems such as the Arduino add-on daughterboards called "shields". The older PC/104 embedded PC modules use a similar stackable format for interconnection. Stackable connectors are not classified as hermaphroditic in the strictest sense, but are often described as such in looser usage.

The hermaphroditic design is useful when multiple complex or lengthy components must be arbitrarily connected in various combinations. For example, if hoses have hermaphroditic fittings, they can be connected without having to pull a lengthy hose and reverse it because it has the wrong gender to connect to another hose. Some military fiber optical cables also have hermaphroditic connectors to prevent "wrong gender" connector problems in field deployments.[5][6]

In the absence of genderless connectors, gender changer fittings might be used to enable certain connections. The designer of a connection system may use one or both schemes to allow arbitrary connectivity, or even combine both schemes into a single system.

Genderless connectors and/or gender changers tend to break down any sense of one-way unidirectionality in a network of connections, facilitating instead a "pandirectional" flexibility of connections. Therefore, when an enforced sense of unidirectionality or "one-way flow" is required for safety or other reasons (e.g. AC electrical power connections), a strict assignment of connector genders is implemented instead, to disallow many undesired configurations.

Some commonly seen examples of hermaphroditic connectors include the SAE connector for 12VDC power, jackhammer air hose connectors, and the Anderson Powerpole series of modular high-current power connectors. The IBM token ring connector was another widespread example, but it has become obsolete and is being phased out. The General Radio Corporation (GenRad) developed a hermaphroditic coaxial radio frequency connector often called the "GR connector".

Some audio multicore cables are fitted with hermaphroditic multipin quick-disconnect connectors for ease of use in the field. One style of this audio signal cable is fitted on both ends with connectors that are each populated half with pins and half with sockets.[7] The advantage to the user is that it does not matter which end connects to the stage and which to the audio mixer, facilitating faster set up.[8] Another style of connector uses hybrid male/female pins with a receiving slot fitted in the center of each two-tine pin, and relies on 90-degree rotation of the pin axes to mate. The connector housings themselves are sexed male and female.[9]

Genderless connectors
Hermaphroditic Storz firehose connector  
Hermaphroditic or genderless hose connectors  
IBM token ring hermaphroditic connector with locking clip  
4-conductor hermaphrodite connector for token ring attachment  
Detail of mating surfaces of hermaphrodite connector  
SAE hermaphroditic connector used for 12VDC power  
General Radio GR-874 hermaphrodite coaxial RF connector  

Gender changers

Devices used for mating two connectors of the same gender have a wide variety of terms, including for example: "gender changer", "gender mender", "gender bender", "gender blender", "sex changer", and "homosexual adapter".[10] A specific gender changer can be referred to by either the gender of its connectors, or the gender which it is designed to connect to, resulting in a thoroughly ambiguous terminology. Thus a "male gender changer" might have female connectors to mate two male ends, or male connectors to mate two female ends.

Gender changers
DA15 and DB25 D-subminiature gender changers.  
A female to female BNC connector.  

Examples

Male coaxial Type N connector.
  • A power cord on an appliance terminates in a (male) plug; it connects to a (female) socket in a wall or on an extension cord.
  • Co-axial cables used for video or other high-frequency signals are normally terminated, at both ends, in a connector comprising an inner pin and an outer fixed or rotating shell; these are conventionally reckoned as male.
  • A threaded nut is female and a bolt is male.
  • Connectors for air brake hoses on heavy trucks and railroad equipment use genderless "gladhand" connectors. In railroad air brake use, this makes the orientation of rolling stock irrelevant, and is used with the standard North American railroad coupler that connects cars together, also genderless.
  • Piping and plumbing fittings
  • The Talmud (c. 500 CE) describes arrow heads and mating shafts as being male and female, i.e. a prong on a male arrow head fits into a hollowed out shaft and vice versa.[11]

See also

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gender (disambiguation) — Gender most commonly refers to the differences between men and women.Gender may also refer to: * Grammatical gender, a type of noun class system * Gender of connectors and fasteners, in electrical and mechanical trades, each of a pair of mating… …   Wikipedia

  • Male and Female (disambiguation) — Male and Female may refer to: Male and Female, a 1919 silent film directed by Cecil B. DeMille Male and Female (book), a 1949 comparative anthropology work by Margaret Mead Male and Female Since Adam and Eve, a 1961 Argentine film See also Sex… …   Wikipedia

  • Electrical connector — Back of an audio amplifier features a variety of electrical connectors An electrical connector is an electro mechanical device for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly. The connection may be temporary, as for… …   Wikipedia

  • DC connector — A DC connector (or DC plug, for one common type of connector) is an electrical connector for supplying direct current (DC) power. Unlike domestic AC power plugs and sockets, DC connectors are not generally standardized. The dimensions and… …   Wikipedia

  • Coaxial power connector — Most common coaxial power connector, male and female, 5.5 x 2.5 mm …   Wikipedia

  • D-subminiature — DA, DB, DC, DD, and DE sized connectors The D subminiature or D sub is a common type of electrical connector. They are named for their characteristic D shaped metal shield. When they were introduced, D subs were among the smaller connectors used… …   Wikipedia

  • Screw thread — Internal and external threads illustrated using a common nut and bolt. The screw and nut pair can be used to convert torque into linear force. As the screw (or bolt) is rotated, the screw moves along its axis through the fixed nut, or the non… …   Wikipedia

  • Screw — This article is about the fastener. For other uses, see Screw (disambiguation). Screws come in a variety of shapes and sizes for different purposes. U.S. quarter coin (diameter 24 mm) shown for scale. A screw, or bolt, is a type of fastener… …   Wikipedia

  • Mating connection — Internal and external threads illustrated using a common nut and bolt, as an example of a mating connection. A mating connection is any method of assembling of two or more component parts with mutually complementing shapes that, with some… …   Wikipedia

  • Male (disambiguation) — Male may refer to: male, in biology, the half of a reproduction system that produces sperm cells male plant man, in the social sciences, the gender role to which men in most human cultures are expected to conform in hardware and electronics, a… …   Wikipedia