Symbol = Glutaredoxin
Name = Glutaredoxin
SCOP = 1kte
OPM family= 139
OPM protein= 1z9h
PDB=PDB3|1ykaA:17-81 PDB3|1wikA:250-314 PDB3|2cq9A:69-131PDB3|2flsA:69-131 PDB3|1jhb :15-80 PDB3|1b4qA:15-80PDB3|1kte :15-80 PDB3|1nm3B:172-230 PDB3|3grx :4-63PDB3|1ilbA:4-63 PDB3|1fovA:4-63 PDB3|1ego :3-69PDB3|1egr :3-69 PDB3|1grx :3-69 PDB3|1qfnA:3-69PDB3|1aazB:2-76 PDB3|1de2A:2-76 PDB3|1de1A:2-76PDB3|1aba :2-76 PDB3|1nhoA:5-66 PDB3|1fo5A:6-67PDB3|1j08A:138-162 PDB3|1a8l :138-162 PDB3|1r7hB:3-61PDB3|1h75A:3-61 PDB3|1z9hB:102-152 PDB3|1hyuA:155-181PDB3|1zypB:155-181 PDB3|1zynB:155-181
Glutaredoxinscite journal |author=Holmgren A, Gleason FK |title=Thioredoxin and related proteins in procaryotes |journal=FEMS Microbiol. Rev. |volume=4 |issue=4 |pages=271–297 |year=1988 |pmid=3152490] cite journal |author=Holmgren A |title=Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin: small multi-functional redox proteins with active-site disulfide bonds |journal=Biochem. Soc. Trans. |volume=16 |issue=2 |pages=95–96 |year=1988 |pmid=3286320] cite journal |author=Holmgren A |title=Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=264 |issue=24 |pages=13963–13966 |year=1989 |pmid=2668278] are small
redoxenzymes of approximately one hundred amino-acid residues which use glutathioneas a cofactor. Glutaredoxins are oxidised by substrates, and reduced non-enzymatically by glutathione. In contrast to thioredoxins, which are reduced by thioredoxin reductase, no oxidoreductase exists that specifically reduces glutaredoxins. Instead, oxidized glutathione is regenerated by glutathione reductase. Together these components compose the glutathione systemcite journal |author=Holmgren A, Fernandes AP |title=Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system |journal=Antioxid. Redox. Signal. |volume=6 |issue=1 |pages=63–74 |year=2004 |pmid=14713336 |doi=10.1089/152308604771978354] .
Glutaredoxins function as electron carriers in the glutathione-dependent synthesis of
deoxyribonucleotidesby the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. Like thioredoxin, which functions in a similar way, glutaredoxin possesses an active centre disulfide bondcite journal |author=Nilsson L, Foloppe N |title=The glutaredoxin -C-P-Y-C- motif: influence of peripheral residues |journal=Structure |volume=12 |issue=2 |pages=289–300 |year=2004 |pmid=14962389] . It exists in either a reduced or an oxidized form where the two cysteine residues are linked in an intramolecular disulfide bond.
Glutaredoxin has been sequenced in a variety of species. On the basis of extensive sequence similarity, it has been proposedcite journal |author=Johnson GP, Goebel SJ, Perkus ME, Davis SW, Winslow JP, Paoletti E |title=Vaccinia virus encodes a protein with similarity to glutaredoxins |journal=Virology |volume=181 |issue=1 |pages=378–381 |year=1991 |pmid=1994586 |doi=10.1016/0042-6822(91)90508-9] that "
Vaccinia virus" protein O2L is most probably a glutaredoxin. Finally, it must be noted that " Bacteriophage T4" thioredoxin seems also to be evolutionary related. In position 5 of the pattern T4 thioredoxin has Val instead of Pro.
*Glutaredoxin subgroup InterPro|IPR014025
Human proteins containing this domain
GLRX; GLRX2; GLRX3; GLRX5; PTGES2; TXNL3;
[http://www.expasy.org/enzyme/188.8.131.52 Enzyme database entry]
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