- Black Ball Line (trans-Atlantic packet)
:"This article refers to the trans-Atlantic packet shipping company, for other uses see
Black Ball Line"
The Black Ball Line was a fleet of
packet ships running between Liverpool, Englandand New York, the first scheduled trans-Atlanticservice, founded in 1817. In operation for some 60 years, it took its name from its flag, a black ball on a red background. The line was founded by a group of New York Quakermerchants headed by Jeremiah Thompson, and included Isaac Wright & Son, Francis Thompson and Benjamin Marshall. In 1851, James Baines & Co.of Liverpool entered the packet tradeusing the same name and flag as the New York company, despite its protests. Thus, for about twenty years, two "Black Ball lines" under separate ownership were operating in direct competition on the transatlantic packet trade. James Baines & Co. also operated ships running between Liverpool and Australia, including famous clipperships such as " Champion of the Seas", "James Baines", "Lightning", "Indian Queen", "Marco Polo" and "Sovereign of the Seas".
*Stephen Fox, "Transatlantic: Samuel Cunard, Isambard Brunel, and the Great Atlantic Steamships", Harper Collins (2003) ISBN 0060195959, pp. 3-16 (introductory chapter on sailing packets).
* [http://www.wnyc.org/books/18589 Transatlantic] WNYC Reading Room (reproduces chapter referred to above)
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