- Ask and Embla
Norse Mythology, Ask and Embla (Old Norse: "Askr ok Embla") were the first two humans created by the gods. The pair are attested in the " Poetic Edda", compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the " Prose Edda", written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, three gods find Ask and Embla, bestow upon them various gifts, and one of the gods is Odin. However, the two gods that accompany Odin differ per source. A number of theories surround the figures, and the two are sometimes referenced in popular culture.
Old Norse"askr" literally means " ash tree" but the etymologyof "embla" is uncertain, and two possibilities of the meaning of "embla" are generally proposed. The first meaning, "elm tree", is problematic, and is reached by deriving "*Elm-la" from "*Almilōn" and subsequently to "almr" ("elm").Simek (2007:74).] The second suggestion is " vine", which is reached through "*Ambilō", which may be related to the Greek term "ámpelos", itself meaning "vine, liana".Simek (2007:74).] The latter etymology has resulted in a number of theories.
In section 17 of the "Poetic Edda" poem "
Völuspá", Hœnir, Lóðurrand Odinare described as finding Ask and Embla on land. They are described as being capable of little, lacking in fate, missing breath, spirit, "vital spark", and "fresh complexions".Larrington (1999:6).] Odin gives them breath, Hœnir gives them spirit, and Lóðurr gives them "vital spark" and "fresh complexions".
According to chapter 9 of the "Prose Edda" book "
Gylfaginning", the three brothers Vili, Vé, and Odin, are the creators of the first man and woman. The brothers were once walking along a beach and found two trees there. They took the wood and from it created the first human beings; Ask and Embla. One of the three gave them the breath of life, the second gave them movement and intelligence, and the third gave them shape, speech, hearing and sight. Further, the three gods gave them clothing and names. Ask and Embla go on to become the progenitors of all humanity and were given a home within the walls of Midgard.Byock (2006:18).]
A Proto-Indo-European basis has been theorized for the duo based around the etymology of "embla" meaning "vine." In Indo-European societies, an analogy is derived from the drilling of fire and
sexual intercourse. Vines were used as a flammable wood, where they were placed beneath a drill made of harder wood, resulting in fire. Further evidence of ritual making of fire in Scandinaviahas been has been theorized from a depiction on a stone plate on a Bronze Agegrave in Kivik, Scania, Sweden.
A figure named Æsc (Old English "ash tree") appears as the son of
Hengestin the Anglo-Saxon genealogy for the kings of Kent. This has resulted in an amount of theories that the figures may have had an earlier basis in pre-Norse Germanic mythology.Orchard (1997:8).]
Connections have been proposed between Ask and Embla and the Vandal kings Assi and Ambri, attested in
Paul the Deacon's 7th century CE work " Origo Gentis Langobardorum". There, the two ask the god Godan (Odin) for victory. The name "Ambri", like Embla, likely derives from "*Ambilō".
A preceding stanza to the account of the creation of Ask and Embla in "Völuspá" provides a catalog of dwarves, and stanza 10 has been considered as describing the creation of human forms from the earth. This may potentially mean that dwarves formed humans, and that the three gods gave them life.Lindow (2001:62-63).]
Ask and Embla have been the subject of a number of references and artistic depictions. A sculpture depicting the two stands in the southern Swedish city of
Sölvesborg, created in 1948 by Stig Blomberg. Ask and Embla are depicted on two of the sixteen wooden panels found on the Oslo City Hallin Oslo, Norwayby Dagfin Werenskjold.cite web |url=http://www.oslo.kommune.no/losartikler/article23199-7726.html?articleID=23199&categoryID=7726&tip=1 |title=Yggdrasilfrisen |author=Municipality of Oslo |date=2001-06-26 |accessdate=2008-09-08 |language=Norwegian] In 2003, Faroese artist Anker Eli Petersenincluded a depiction of the couple in his series of Faroe Islands stamps.
Líf and Lífthrasir, two humans who survive the events of Ragnarökand repopulate the reborn world in Norse mythology.
* Byock, Jesse (Trans.) (2006). "The Prose Edda".
Penguin Classics. ISBN 0140447555
* Larrington, Carolyne (Trans.) (1999). "The Poetic Edda".
Oxford World's Classics. ISBN 0192839462
* Lindow, John (2001). "Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs".
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515382-0
* Orchard, Andy (1997). "Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend".
Cassell. ISBN 0 304 34520 2
* Simek, Rudolf (2007) translated by Angela Hall. "Dictionary of Northern Mythology". D.S. Brewer. ISBN 0859915131
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