- Pre-Roman Iron Age
The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe (5th/
4th century BC- 1st century BC) designates the earliest part of the Iron Agein Scandinavia, northern Germany, and the Netherlandsnorth of the Rhine River, all of them regions that feature many extensive archaeological excavation sites, which have yielded a wealth of artifacts. Objects discovered at the sites suggest that the Pre-Roman Iron Age cultures evolved without a major break out of the Nordic Bronze Age, but there were strong influences from the Celtic Iron-Age Hallstatt culturein Central Europe. During the first century BC, Roman influence began to be felt even in Denmark. [Dina P. Dobson, "Roman Influence in the North" "Greece & Rome" 5.14 (February 1936:73-89). ]
Archaeologists first made the decision to divide the Iron Age into distinct pre-Roman and
Roman Iron Ages after Emil Vedel unearthed a number of Iron Age artifacts in 1866 on the island of Bornholm. [Vedel, "Bornholms Oldtidsminder og Oldsager", (Copenhagen 1886).] They did not exhibit the same permeating Roman influence seen in most other artifacts from the early centuries AD, indicating that parts of northern Europehad not yet come into contact with the Romans at the beginning of the Iron Age.
It is markedly distinct from the Celtic
La Tène culturesouth of it, whose advanced iron-working technology exerted a considerable influence, when, around 600 BC northern people began to extract bog ironfrom the orein peat bogs, a technology which they had acquired from their Central European neighbours. The oldest iron objects found have been needles, but edged tools, swords and sickles, are found as well. Bronze continued to be used during the whole period, but was mostly used for decoration.
Funerary practices continued the Bronze Age tradition of burning the corpses and placing the remains in
urns, a characteristic of the Urnfieldculture. During the previous centuries, influences from the Central European La Tène culturespread to Scandinavia from North-Western Germany and there are finds from this period from all the provinces of southern Scandinavia.
Archaeologists have found swords, shieldbosses, spearheads, scissors, sickles, pincers, knives, needles, buckles, kettles, etc. from this time. Bronze continued to be used for torques and kettles, the style of which were a continuity from the Bronze Age. Some of the most prominent finds are the Gundestrup silver cauldron and the Dejbjerg wagons from
Jutland, two four-wheeled wagons of wood with bronze parts.
The cultural change that ended the Bronze Age was affected by the expansion of Hallstatt culture from the south and accompanied by a deteriorating climate, which caused a dramatic change in the flora and fauna. [ [http://odin.dep.no/odin/english/norway/environment/032005-990402/dok-bn.html] .] In Scandinavia, this period is often called the "Findless Age" due to the lack of finds. While the finds from Scandinavia are consistent with a loss of population, the southern part of the culture, the
Jastorf culture, was in expansion southwards. It consequently appears that the climate change played an important role in the southward expansion of the tribes, considered Germanic, into continental Europe [http://www.stanford.edu/~moore/Boon_To_Man.html] . There are differing schools of thought on the interpretation of geographic spread of cultural innovation, whether new material culturereflects a possibly warlike movement of peoples (" demic diffusion") southwards or whether innovations found at Pre-Roman Iron Age sites represents a more peaceful cultural diffusion. The current view in the Netherlands hold that Iron Age innovations, starting with Hallstatt (800 BC), did not involve intrusions and feature a local development from Bronze Age culture. [Op Zoek naar de Kelten, Nieuwe archeologische ontdekkingen tussen Noordzee en Rijn - Leo Verhart, ISBN 90 5345 303 2, 2006, p67] Another Iron Age nucleus considered to represent a local development is the Wessenstedtculture (800 - 600 BC).
The bearers of this northern Iron Age culture were likely speakers of Germanic languages. The stage of development of this Germanic is not known, although
Proto-Germanichas been proposed. The late phase of this period sees the beginnings of the Germanic migrations, starting with he invasions of the Teutonsand the Cimbriuntil their defeat at the Battle of Aquae Sextiaein 102 BC, presaging the more turbulent Roman Iron Ageand Age of Migrations.
Timeline of Prehistoric Scandinavia
*J. Brandt, "Jastorf und Latène". Internat. Arch. 66 (2001)
*John Collis, "The European Iron Age" (London and New York: Routledge) 1997. The European Iron Age set in a broader context that includes the Mediterranean and Anatolia.
* W. Künnemann, "Jastorf - Geschichte und Inhalt eines archäologischen Kulturbegriffs", Die Kunde N. F. 46 (1995), 61-122.
*Herwig Wolfram, "Die Germanen", Beck (1999).
*Ove Eriksson , B, Sara, O. Cousins , and Hans Henrik Bruun, "Land-use history and fragmentation of traditionally managed grasslands in Scandinavia" "Journal of Vegetation Science" pp. 743–748 ( [http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&issn=1100-9233&volume=013&issue=05&page=0743 On-line abstract] )
* [http://www.homeatfirst.com/prehisto.htm "Tracing Prehistoric man in Scandinavia"]
*Iron Age stone circles
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