- 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings
Infobox civilian attack
title=Samjhauta Express bombings
caption=The Samjhauta Express engulfed in flames after the bombings
Panipat, Haryana, India
date=18 February 2007
Improvised explosive devices
injuries=50The 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings were an alleged terrorist attack that occurred around midnight on 18 February 2007 on the
Samjhauta Express, a twice-weekly train service connecting Delhi, India, and Lahore, Pakistan.cite news|title=Dozens dead in India train blast|work= BBC News|date=2007-02-19|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6374377.stm|accessdate=2007-02-19 ] cite news|title=66 Die in India-Pakistan Train Attack |first=Muneeza|last=Naqvi|work= Associated Press|date=2007-02-19 |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/18/AR2007021801136.html |accessdate=2007-02-19 ] Bombs were set off in two carriages, both filled with passengers, just after the train passed Diwana station near the Indian city of Panipat, 90 kilometres (50 miles) north of New Delhi.cite news|title=66 killed as Samjhauta Express becomes terror target|first=Hitender|last=Rao|work= Hindustan Times|date=2007-02-19 |url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=8dda2692-f3f2-4096-aa7d-3c3b81c80791 |accessdate=2007-02-19 ] Sixty-eight people were killed in the ensuing fire and dozens more were injured. [cite news|title=Toll reaches to 68 in Samjhauta Express explosions |work= Islamic Republic News Agency|date=2007-02-20|url=http://www2.irna.ir/en/news/view/menu-239/0702206010190550.htm|accessdate=2007-02-20] Of the 68 fatalities, most were Pakistani civilians, but the victims included some Indian civilians and Indian military personnel guarding the train.cite news|title=At least 66 killed in India-Pakistan train blast |first=Y. P.|last=Rajesh|work= Reuters|date=2007-02-19|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSDEL34195220070219|accessdate=2007-02-19 ]
Investigators subsequently found evidence of suitcases with
improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and flammable material, including three undetonated IEDs. Inside one of the suitcases containing the undetonated IEDs, a digital timer encased in transparent plastic was packed alongside a dozen plastic bottles containing fuel oils and chemicals. After the bombings, eight unaffected carriages were allowed to continue onwards to Lahore with passengers.
Both the Indian and Pakistani governments condemned the attack, and officials on both sides speculated that the perpetrators intended to disrupt improving relations between the two nations, since the attack came just a day before Pakistani Foreign Minister
Khurshid Mahmud Kasuriwas to arrive in New Delhi to resume peace talks with Indian leaders. There have been a number of breaks in the investigation of the bombings, but as of May 2008, nobody has been charged for the crime.
Since their formation resulting from the
Partition of Indiain 1947, India and Pakistan have had a conflict-ridden relationship. In their plan for the partition, the British allowed all 565 princely states to decide which country they wanted to join.cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1762146.stm|title=Kashmir: The origins of the dispute|date=2002-01-16|work= BBC|accessdate=2008-05-16] Most Hindu-majority princely states acceded to the Republic of India, while most Muslim-majority princely states joined the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The decision made by the leaders of some of these princely states has been a source of conflict and tension between the two countries. Kashmiris one of these princely states—its population was mostly Muslim, but the Hindu ruler Hari Singhof the state decided to join India. The countries have fought three wars over this disputed region: the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947 and 1965 and the Kargil Warin 1999. [cite book|last=Wirsing|first=Robert|title=Kashmir in the Shadow of War: Regional Rivalries in a Nuclear Age|publisher=M. E. Sharpe, Inc.|location=New York|date=2003|pages=p. 4|isbn=0-7656-1090-6] Since the 1980s, militants in Jammu and Kashmir have targeted attacks on civilians, members of the government and the Indian Army. Some groups, like the Islamist militant organisations Lashkar-e-Toibaand Jaish-e-Mohammed, believe that Kashmir should be integrated into Pakistan, while others—such as the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front—believe it should become an independent state. All told, thousands of civilians have died due to the insurgency. [cite news|url=http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/SP241652.htm|title=Thousands protest civilian deaths in Indian Kashmir|date=2007-04-16|work= Reuters|accessdate=2008-05-19] [cite book|last=Kapur|first=S. Paul|title=Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia|publisher= Stanford University Press|location=Stanford|date=2007|pages=p. 102|isbn=0-8047-5550-7]
In recent years, the Indian and Pakistani governments have made attempts to bring peace or to at least calm the tensions between the countries. One such attempt in the peace process came with launch of the
Samjhauta Express, so-named because the word "samjhauta" means "accord" and "compromise" in Hindi and Urdu, the national languages of India and Pakistan, respectively. This twice-weekly train service runs between Delhiand Attariin India and Wagahand Lahorein Pakistan. [cite news|url=http://www.expressindia.com/news/ie/daily/20000416/ina16011.html|title=Samjhauta only between Attari and Wagah|date=2000-04-16|work= United News of India|accessdate=2008-05-16] Launched in 1976, the Samjhauta Express served as the only rail connection between the two countries until the launch of the Thar Express. Given the nature of the transnational service and the ongoing violence in the region, the Samjhauta Express was always heavily guarded, as it was a high-risk target for terrorist attacks. Weeks after the Indian Parliament terrorist attack on 13 December 2001, the train service was discontinued amid security concerns. [cite news|url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/2003/12/19/stories/2003121905561100.htm|title=Samjhauta Express from December 25?|last=Bhardwaj|first=P. K.|date=2003-12-19|work= The Hindu|accessdate=2008-05-16] Although it resumed service on 15 January 2004, the train was placed on high security. Just days before the attack, Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuriannounced that he was going to Delhi on 21 February 2007 to meet with Indian government officials to continue peace talks and to sign a nuclear risk reduction agreement.cite news|title=Terror on agenda: Kasuri arrives, visits Samjhauta blast victims|work= The Times of India|date=2007-02-20 |accessdate=2007-07-01|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1646561.cms]
Twin blasts shook two coaches of the Samjhauta Express travelling between India and Pakistan at around 23:53 IST (18:23 UTC) on Sunday, 18 February 2007, as the train was passing through the railway station in the village of Diwana, near the Indian city of
Panipat.cite news |title=Train bombing tests India-Pakistan ties |first=Somini |last=Sengupta |work= International Herald Tribune|date=2007-02-19 |url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/19/news/india.php|accessdate=2007-02-19] One railway employee manning the level crossingat the time stated:
It was about 11.52 when I showed the signal lantern to the Attari [Samjhauta] Express which was coming in very fast, probably at over 100 kilometers an hour (62.1 mph). Just as reached near the home signal, I could hear two loud explosions from the coaches near the guards' van at the rear.
After the explosions, both carriages were engulfed in flames and many passengers were incapacitated by the smoke. Witnesses claim to have seen passengers screaming and attempting to escape, but since most of the train's windows were barred for security reasons, many could not escape in time. The injured were pulled out of the burning carriages and onto the track by fellow passengers and local residents.
In the end, the terrorist attack left 68 people dead and 50 injured. Most of the dead and injured were Pakistani nationals, though some Indians, including railway workers, were also killed. Initial identification of the victims was hindered by the fact that many of the bodies were charred beyond recognition. The rest of the train, which was left undamaged by the attack, continued on to the border town of
Attari, before being transferred to a Pakistani train that took passengers to their destination in Lahore.
Indian Minister of Railways,
Lalu Prasad Yadav, condemned the incidentcite news|title=Cross border tragedy: Samjhauta Express blasts kill 66|last=Pandey|first=Alok|coauthors=Rati R, Sushmit Sengupta, and Vikram Chowdhury|work= NDTV|date=2007-02-19 |url=http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20070002287|accessdate=2007-02-19 ] and went on to say that the attack was "an attempt to derail the improving relationship between India and Pakistan."He also announced compensation payments of Rs. 10,00,000 (approx. €17,500 or US$22,750) for the next-of-kin of each of the deceased and Rs. 50,000 for those injured.cite news|title=Samjhauta Express firebombed, 67 killed|last=Swami|first=Praveen|work= The Hindu|date=2007-02-19 |url=http://www.hindu.com/2007/02/20/stories/2007022012520100.htm|accessdate=2007-02-19 ]
Shivraj Patilclaimed that "whoever is behind the incident is against peace and wants to spoil our growing relationship with other countries". Prime Minister Manmohan Singhexpressed "anguish and grief" at the loss of life, and vowed that the culprits would be caught. India's foreign ministry also promised to issue visas for Pakistani relatives of those killed or injured in the blasts.cite news|title=India offers visas after train attack |work= Press Trust of India|date=2007-02-19 |url=http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20070002256|accessdate=2007-02-19 ] Indian journalist Siddharth Varadarajanargued that the peace process should stay on track and that any wavering would be tantamount to surrendering to terrorism.cite news|title=Keep the peace process on track |last=Varadarajan|first=Siddharth|authorlink=Siddharth Varadarajan|work= The Hindu|date=2007-02-19 |url=http://www.hindu.com/2007/02/20/stories/2007022005101000.htm|accessdate=2007-02-19 ]
Bharatiya Janata Partycondemned the attacks and petitioned the ruling Indian National Congressto ask Pakistan to comply with its 2004 promise to crack down on cross-border terrorism. The party also argued for a harsher anti-terror bill to take a "zero tolerance" approach to terrorism in India.cite news|title=BJP seeks anti-terror bill in budget session|work= The Times of India|date=2007-02-19 |url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1639890.cms |accessdate=2007-02-19]
government of Pakistanreacted in the same vein, through its Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri, proclaiming that this was an act of terrorism that should be investigated by Indian authorities. Kasuri said that the terrorist attack would not halt his trip to India, as he "will be leaving tomorrow for Delhi to further the peace process." He went on to say that "we should hasten the peace process."cite news|title=Musharraf says train blasts won't sabotage peace|work= Reuters|date=2007-02-19|url=http://www.thedailystar.net/2007/02/20/d70220130182.htm|accessdate=2007-02-19 ] In response to the terrorist attack, President Pervez Musharrafstated "such wanton acts of terrorism will only serve to further strengthen our resolve to attain the mutually desired objective of sustainable peace between the two countries." Musharraf also said that there must be a full Indian investigation of the attack. In regards to the upcoming peace talks, he stated "we will not allow elements which want to sabotage the ongoing peace process to succeed in their nefarious designs."
United Kingdom, Foreign Office minister Kim Howellscondemned what he termed "utterly shameful" attacks, offered his "condolences to the family and friends of those killed and injured", and offered "the Governments of India and Pakistan whatever assistance they require, to bring to justice the perpetrators of this brutal attack." [cite news|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/feb/19blast.htm|title=68 killed as blasts rock Indo-Pak special train|date=2007-02-20|work= Press Trust of India|accessdate=2008-05-16] [cite news|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article1405283.ece?token=null&offset=0|title=India and Pakistan unite to condemn train bombing|last=Page|first=Jeremy|coauthors=Devika Bhat|date=2007-02-19|work= The Times|accessdate=2008-05-16] Leaders in the British Pakistani community called the terrorist attack a "despicable act" and urged for a speedy investigation into the tragedy so that those responsible could be arrested and jailed.cite news|title=British Government condemns bomb attack on India–Pakistan train |work= Pakistan Press International|date=2007-02-19 |accessdate=2007-02-19 |url=http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-29691164_ITM ]
The Bush administration condemned those responsible for the bomb explosions aboard the Samjhauta Express. On behalf of the
United Statesgovernment, White House spokesmanDavid Almacy stated:
We express our deepest sorrow for this tragedy and extend condolences to the families of the victims. We appreciate the leadership of Indian Prime Minister (Manmohan) Singh and Pakistani President (Pervez) Musharraf, and condemn those who seek to undermine the progress in relations between the two countries.cite news|title=White House condemns those behind India train bombing|work=
Reuters|date=2007-02-19|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN1934135020070219|accessdate=2007-02-19 ] [cite news|title=US condemns attack on Samjhauta Express|work= Press Trust of India|date=2007-02-20|url=http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200702201823.htm|accessdate=2007-02-20]
On 23 February, a Pakistani Air Force C-130 plane landed in New Delhi to evacuate Pakistanis injured in the train bombings. Of the ten people to be evacuated, three were missing, all from the same family. Pakistan's Foreign Office spokesperson, Tasneem Aslam, claimed that the father, Rana Shaukat Ali, was harassed by Indian intelligence agency personnel at the
Safdarjung Hospital. Aslam also said that Pakistan High Commission officials were denied entrance into the hospital. An Indian External Affairs Ministry spokesperson, Navtej Sarna, denied these allegations and stated that the patients would be taken to the airport. Sarna told the press that Ali's family was not missing, and that hospital doctors had decided not to allow Pakistani officials access into the hospital.cite news|title=Pakistani plane waits for hours|work= The Hindu|date=2007-02-23|last=Baruah|first=Amit|url=http://www.hindu.com/2007/02/23/stories/2007022308480100.htm|accessdate=2007-07-09] He also stated that the C-130 plane had developed a problem and could not take off. Later, Aslam told press correspondents that the " [C-130] aircraft was still at the airport" and that Mr. Ali chosen to travel back to Pakistan via a land route.cite news|title=Train attack probe: plea to Pakistan|work= The Hindu|date=2007-02-24|accessdate=2007-07-09|last=Baruah|first=Amit|url=http://www.hindu.com/2007/02/24/stories/2007022404911200.htm] Despite the tensions between the two countries' External Affairs ministries, the C-130 aircraft took off from New Delhi at around 21:00 local time. After the incident, Ali criticized the media, who asked him for "stories for their publications at a time when I am not in my senses because of the death of my five children."cite news|title=Adieu to Pakistani brethren|work= The Hindu|date=2007-02-25|url=http://www.hindu.com/2007/02/25/stories/2007022520110800.htm|accessdate=2007-07-09] He also stated that Indian officials showed him sketches of suspects, but he could not identify them.
The day after the bombings, Indian police stated that the suitcase bomb attack was the work of at least four or five people with a possible militant connection.cite news|title=Police release sketches of bomb suspects|work=
Reuters|date=2007-02-20|first=Simon|last=Denyer|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSDEL34195220070221|accessdate=2007-02-20] The police also released sketches of two suspects who the police Inspector Generalsaid had left the train just fifteen minutes before the explosions. The police say that one of the men was around 35 or 36 years old, "plumpish" and dark, with a moustache, and the second was around 26 or 27, wearing a scarfwrapped around his head. The police also stated that both men were speaking Hindi.cite news|title=Images Of Bomb Suspects|work= Sky News|date=2007-02-20 |accessdate=2007-02-20 |url=http://news.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30000-1252387,00.html] Another man, a Pakistani national who was drunk at the time, was being questioned because he said he threw one of the bomb-containing suitcases off the train. A senior Haryana state railway police official said that the man's "account has been inconsistent and we have no definite conclusions yet." [cite news|title=Indian police release sketches of 2 suspects in bombing of India-Pakistan train|work= Associated Press|date=2007-02-20 |url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2007-02-18-india-train_x.htm|accessdate=2007-07-04] Later, the Inspector General said "the suitcase was thrown on the track" and that the Pakistani national "was there and said he had thrown it."
In early March,
Haryanapolice arrested two people from the city of Indorewho allegedly sold the suitcases used in the bombings. [cite news|title=Two held over Indian train blast|work= BBC News|date=2007-03-14 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6448671.stm |accessdate=2007-03-14] No charges were pressed on the individuals. A probe conducted by the commissioner of Railway Safety officially determined that the explosions and fire on the Samjhauta Express had been caused by bombs located in the upper compartments in coaches GS 03431 and GS 14857. [cite news|title=Samjhauta Express fire caused by bombs: Railway probe|work= Press Trust of India|date=2007-03-26 |url=http://ushome.rediff.com/news/2007/mar/26samblast.htm |accessdate=2007-07-01] The probe also showed that the train slowed down to a speed of convert|20|km/h|mph|sigfig=3 just before it was going to pass the Diwana train station. The results strengthened the belief that the suspects got off the train before the explosions. [cite news|title=Samjhauta Express slowed down before blasts|work= Press Trust of India|date=2007-03-28 |accessdate=2007-07-01|url=http://sify.com/news/fullstory.php?id=14419091] On 31 March, a 25-year-old man was interrogated after being arrested in Amritsarafter jumping off a moving train under suspicious circumstances. [cite news|title=Man interrogated in Samjhauta Express bomb blast case|work= The Indian Express|date=2007-03-13|url=http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=226465 |accessdate=2007-07-01]
No major developments have taken place in the investigation since late March 2007. Meanwhile, the Indian and Pakistan governments have agreed a bilateral pact to extend passenger train and freight services between the two countries until 2010. [cite news|title=India, Pak to continue running Samjhauta, Thar Express trains|work=
Press Trust of India|date=2007-04-09|url=http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200704091614.htm|accessdate=2007-07-01] In late April, the Indian and Pakistan governments initiated steps for safety and security measures for the Samjhauta Express. The two countries started sharing information on passengers travelling on the trains. The train is now under a reservation system, and as one Railway Ministry source said, " [w] ith no unreserved coaches, we now have complete passenger details from their ticket reservation data a few hours prior to their boarding, and departure of the train." [cite news|title=Safety measures initiated for Samjhauta Express|work= Press Trust of India|date=2007-04-28 |accessdate=2007-07-01 |url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/apr/28samblast.htm] Also in late April, three new coaches equipped with India's most advanced fire fighting systems were added to the Samjhauta Express. Indian Railway Ministry sources commented that the system acts with brake pressure, and this glass-encased system could throw water up to convert|15|m|ft|sigfig=3. [cite news |last=Vasuki|first=K. G.|title=Coaches with fire fighting system for Samjhauta Express|work= United News of India|date=2007-04-25 |url=http://samjhauta-express-news.newslib.com/story/9881-170/ |accessdate=2007-07-01] Indian and Pakistani members of the Anti-Terror Mechanism (ATM) group met on 22 October 2007 to update each other regarding the status of the investigation. [cite news|last=Dikshit|first=Sandeep|title=India to seek data on terror suspects|work= The Hindu|date=2007-10-22 |url=http://www.hindu.com/2007/10/22/stories/2007102251990100.htm|accessdate=2008-05-14]
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