Szolnok


Szolnok

Infobox Settlement


image_caption = Aerial view
image_shield = WĘG Szolnok COA.jpg
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = HUN
timezone=CET
utc_offset=+1
timezone_DST=CEST
utc_offset_DST=+2
pushpin_

pushpin_label_position =
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Szolnok
pushpin_mapsize =
official_name=Szolnok


subdivision_type1=County
subdivision_name1=Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok
area_total_km2=187.23
population_total=75 474
population_footnotes=
population_as_of=2007
population_density_km2=403
postal_code_type=Postal code
postal_code=5000
area_code=56
latd=47.17471
longd=20.17626

Szolnok (approximate pronunciation, Solnok) is the capital of the county of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok in central Hungary.

History

The area has been inhabited since ancient times. Before the Conquest of Hungary, it was inhabited by Celts, Slavs (Slovaks) and Avars. The Hungarians settled in the area in the 10th century.

The town, named after the steward of its castle, was first mentioned in 1075. At that time, it was the capital of the comitatus Szolnok. During the Mongol invasion, the town became deserted; King Béla IV moved new settlers there, but it remained a small village for a long time.

In 1550–51, when the Ottoman Empire threatened to invade the country, the castle was fortified and a town wall was built. The Ottomans besieged the castle, which was surrendered to them on September 4, 1552. The Ottomans built a mosque, a public bath, and a minaret in the town, most of which have since been destroyed. The only Turkish codex made in Hungary was copied in Szolnok.

The town was freed from Ottoman rule in 1685, but it was completely destroyed during the revolution led by Prince Rákóczi in the early 18th century. The comitatus of Outer Szolnok was temporarily annexed to Comitatus Heves.

Szolnok started to prosper again in the 18th century. Control of the river Tisza and steamship traffic increased the town's importance. From 1847 Szolnok was connected to Pest by railway.

Its citizens took part in the revolution against Habsburg rule in 1848-49. In the Battle of Szolnok, the Austrians were defeated by the armies of General János Damjanich.

After the Ausgleich, the population and importance of Szolnok grew. In 1876, Szolnok became capital of the comitatus again. By 1879, it already had 16,001 residents.

The town suffered a lot during World War I and World War II. It experienced heavy bombing in 1944, and the liberating Soviet army found only a few people left in the town.

During the Socialist era, Szolnok began to prosper again. Factories were built, and touristic importance grew when a thermal bath was opened.

Szolnok was granted the rank of city with county rights on November 13, 1990.

Tourist sights

* Bath
* Museum of Hungarian Aviation
* Damjanich János Museum

Famous people

Born in Szolnok

* Arpád Račko (1930) Czech sculptor
* Zoltán Jeney (1943) composer
* Csaba Horváth (1930–2004) chemical engineer and inventor of HPLC
* Szabó Gábor - Architect

Lived in Szolnok

* Gábor Szegő mathematician
* Bertalan Farkas (1949) cosmonaut
* Martin Nedić (1810–1895) Croatian poet
* Viktor Orbán (1963) prime minister

ister cities

*flagicon|Romania - Baia Mare, (Maramureş), Romania
*flagicon|Poland - Bielsko-Biala (flagicon|Silesia Silesia), Poland
*flagicon|United Kingdom - Eastwood (flagicon|England England), United Kingdom
*flagicon|Italy - Forlì (flagicon|Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna), Italy
*flagicon|United States - Portsmouth (flagicon|New Hampshire New Hampshire), United States
*flagicon|Finland - Riihimäki, Finland
*flagicon|Germany - Reutlingen, (flagicon|Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg), Germany
*flagicon|Israel - Shoham, Israel
*flagicon|Japan - Yuza, Japan
*flagicon|Estonia - Rakvere, Estonia

External links

* [http://www.szolnok.hu Official site] (Hungarian, English and German)
* [http://www.civertan.hu/legifoto/legifoto.php?page_level=715 Aerial photography: Szolnok]
* [http://www.repulomuzeum.hu Museum of Hungarian Aviation]
* [http://www.waniewski.de/id433.htm Transmitter station Szolnok]


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