11th Army (Germany)


11th Army (Germany)

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=11th Army


caption=
dates=5 October 1940 - 21 November 1942
26 November 1944 - 21 April 1945
country=Germany
allegiance=
branch=Heer
type=Field Army
role=
size=
command_structure=
current_commander=
garrison=
ceremonial_chief=
colonel_of_the_regiment=
nickname=
patron=
motto=
colors=
march=
mascot=
battles=World War II
notable_commanders=Erich von Manstein
anniversaries=
The 11th Army (German: "11. Armee") was a World War I and a World War II field army.

World War I

The 11th Army was formed in early 1915. It briefly fought on the Western Front during the Battle of Ypres holding the line against the allied attack. On April 22nd, it was transferred and placed with Austrian 4th Army under Mackensen's command behind the Gorlice-Tarnow gap, south of the Vistula River. In July 1915, the 11th Army advanced into Russian territory in a general German offensive. It continued to fight on the Eastern Front when after armistice in 1917, it was then re-deployed to the Western Front and took part in the German spring offensive in 1918. After the German surrender in November 1918, the Army was disbanded.

World War II

The Army was activated in 1940 to prepare for the forthcoming German attack on the Soviet Union.

The 11th Army was part of Army Group South when it invaded Russia in Operation Barbarossa. In September 1941, Erich von Manstein was appointed commander of 11th Army. Its former commander, Colonel-General Eugen Ritter von Schobert, had perished when his plane landed in a Russian minefield.

Before the start of Barbarossa operation the 11th Army included:

Army Staff
*54th Corps :Corps Staff
**22nd infantry division
**24th infantry division
**50th infantry division
**132nd infantry division
**4th mountain rifle division (Rum.)

:190th battalion assault guns :197th battalion assault guns

**306th artillery division :division Staff :138th artillery brigade :Staff 138th artillery brigade

:49th artillery regiment :Staff 49th artillery regiment :battery 147th artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :battery 148th artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :502nd separate artillery battery :741st separate artillery battery (280- mm howitzer) :742nd separate artillery battery (280- mm howitzer) :743rd separate artillery battery (280- mm howitzer) :744th separate artillery battery (280- mm howitzer)

:781st heavy artillery regiment:Staff 781st heavy artillery regiment :31st battalion artillery reconnaissance :556th battalion artillery reconnaissance :627th platoon artillery fire correction:513th meteorological platoon :459th separate artillery battery (420- mm howitzer Gamma) :672nd artillery railroad battalion (800- mm gun Dora) :688th artillery railroad battery (280- mm gun Bruno)

:787th artillery regiment :Staff 787th artillery regiment :battery 54th heavy artillery battalion (150- mm howitzer 105- mm guns) :battery 77th heavy artillery battalion (150- mm howitzer) :battery 111th heavy artillery battalion (150- mm howitzer) :battery 2nd heavy artillery regiment (210-mm howitzer)

:458th separate heavy artillery battery (420- mm howitzer) :624th heavy artillery battalion (305- mm howitzer) :641st heavy artillery battalion (305- mm and 355- mm howitzer) :737th heavy artillery battalion (150- mm howitzer) :767th heavy artillery battalion (150- mm guns) :2 batteries 814th heavy artillery battalion (240-mm howitzers) :battery 818th heavy artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :815th heavy artillery battalion (305- mm howitzer) :833rd battalion heavy self-propelled guns (600- mm howitzer Carl) :857th heavy artillery battalion (210-mm howitzers) :917th separate battery self-propelled guns (194- mm guns)

:1st missile brigade :brigade Staff :1st rocket regiment (280 mm launchers ) :battery 1st regiment rocket mortars (150- mm) :battery 54th battalion rocket mortars (150- mm) :4th separate mortar battalion (105-mm mortars)

:46th combat engineer battalion :744th combat engineer battalion :905th combat engineer company (assault floating craft) :88th mobile construction column :620th mobile construction column

:454th Corps signal battalion :737th battalion special-connection :791st motor transport company :872nd motor transport company :316th gendarme company
*30th Corps :Corps Staff
**72nd infantry division
**170th infantry division
**28th light infantry division

:249th battalion assault guns :610th anti-aircraft artillery battalion :70th battalion rocket mortars (150- mm mortars 280 mm guns)

**110th artillery brigade :brigade Staff :29th battalion artillery reconnaissance :battery 2nd heavy artillery regiment (210-mm howitzer 150- mm guns) :154th heavy artillery battalion (150- mm howitzer) :battery 624th heavy artillery battalion (305- mm howitzer) :battery 767th heavy artillery battalion (150- mm guns) :battery 818th heavy artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :battery 147th artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :battery 772nd artillery battalion (150- mm guns) :battery 601st artillery battalion

:690th field-engineer regiment :Staff regiment :70th combat engineer battalion :741st combat engineer battalion :902nd combat engineer company (assault floating craft) :176th mobile construction column

:430th Corps signal battalion :430th Corps battalion supply :430th Corps cartographic battalion :430th field post company :430th gendarme company
*Mountain-rifle Corps (Rum.) :Corps Staff
**1st mountain rifle division (Rum.)
**18th infantry division (Rum.):7th Corps artillery regiment (Rum.):regiment Staff :? th artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :? th artillery battalion (150- mm guns) :52nd separate artillery battalion :54th separate artillery battalion :57th separate artillery battalion
*42nd Corps
*7th Corps (Rum.)

Army assets
*Rail road operations command:control Staff :19th construction brigade :Supply service

:300th tank battalion :223rd tank company :617th cartography battalion :756th traffic controllers battalion

:766th artillery regiment :regiment Staff :147th artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :148th artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :284th artillery battalion (150- mm guns) :747th artillery battalion (150- mm guns) :774th artillery battalion (150- mm guns) :789th artillery battalion (105- mm guns) :battery 601st artillery battalion

:926th construction command:173rd mobile construction column :1st department 403rd mobile construction column :1st department 410th mobile construction column :2nd department 427th mobile construction column :2nd department 430th mobile construction column :536th mobile construction column :558th army communications regiment :693rd propaganda company :521st cartographic platoon :542nd cartographic command:647th field gendarme detachment :15th field communications detachment

The 11th Army was tasked with invading the Crimea and the pursuit of enemy forces on the flank of Army Group South during its advance into Russia.

The 11th Army order of battle included two Corps: 30th Corps, composed of 22nd, 72nd, and Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, and LIXth Mountain Corps, consisting of 170th Infantry Division and the 1st and 4th Mountain Divisions, and LIVth Corps, consisting of 46th, 73rd, and 50th Infantry Divisions. The latter Corps had been in charge of the advance into the Crimean peninsula earlier in September. The Romanian 3rd Army, three Mountain brigades and three cavalry brigades, were also under von Manstein's command.

Battle of Sevastopol

The 11th Army fought in southern Russia from 1941 until mid-summer 1942 and laid siege to Sevastopol. It did not take part in Operation Blue when Army Group South attacked in Southern Russia towards Stalingrad. The 11th Army cut off the Russians from the sea thus sealing the fate of the remaining Russian defenders. An estimated 100,000 prisoners marched into captivity. For his achievements in this battle, Manstein was promoted to Field Marshall. A grateful Adolf Hitler also authorized the Crimean Shield to commemorate the efforts of 11th Army. Manstein recommended that the 11th Army either cross the straits of Kerch and push into the Kuban to aid in the capture of Rostov or be placed into Army Group South reserve. Instead, part of 11th Army, along with the heavy siege train was transferred to Army Group North. Ordered to oversee Leningrad's reduction, Manstein transferred with them. The remainder of 11th Army was parceled out to Army Group Center and Army Group South. Headquarters, 11th Army was inactivated on November 21, 1942, and used to form the newly created Army Group Don.

Order of Battle During the Battle for Sevastopol

The German 11th Army during the battle of Sevastopol had 9 German infantry divisions (including 2 received during the battle) in two corps, and two Romanian rifle corps, plus various supporting elements including 150 tanks, several hundred aircraft, and one of the heaviest concentrations of artillery fielded by the Wehrmacht.

*LIVth Corps
**22nd Infantry Division - commanded by General der Infanterie Ludwig Wolff
**24th Infantry Division
**50th Infantry Division
**132nd Infantry Division
*XXXth Corps - commanded by General der Infanterie Hans von Salmuth
**28th Light Division
**72nd Infantry Division
**170th Infantry Division
*Romanian Mountain Corps
**1st Mountain Division
**4th Mountain Division
**18th Infantry Division

October 1944 to April 1945

The 11th SS Panzer Army ("SS panzer-Armeeoberkommando 11." ), was not much more than a paper army formed between November 1944 and February 1945 by "Reichsführer-SS" Heinrich Himmler while he was commander of Army Group Vistula.The military historian Antony Beevor wrote that when the Eleventh SS Panzer Army was created the available units at best could constitute a corps, "'But panzer army' observed Eismann 'has a better ring to it'". It also allowed Himmler to promote SS officers to senior staff and field commands within the formation. "Obergruppenführer" Felix Steiner, probably the best SS officer available, was named its commander. [Beevor p.88] The Army was officially listed as the 11th Army but it was also known as "SS Panzer-Armeeoberkommando 11." [Tessin p.??] and is often referred to in English as the "11th SS Panzer Army".After fighting east of the Oder River during February 1945 the 11th was assigned to OB West and reorganized (and given the command of new units) for combat against the Western Allies in March 1945. After defending the Weser River and the Harz mountains, the Eleventh surrendered to the Western Allies on 21 April. [Tessin p.??]

Army Detachment Steiner, fought in the Battle of Berlin, and because Steiner commanded that paper army it can easily be confused with the Eleventh SS Panzer Army.

Commanders

*Generaloberst Eugen Ritter von Schobert (October 5, 1940 – September 21, 1941)
*Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein (September 21, 1941 – November 21, 1942)
*General der Artillerie Anton Graßer (October 1944 – March 1945)
*General der Infanterie Otto Hitzfeld (March 1945 – March 1945)
*General der Artillerie Walter Lucht (March 1945 – April 10, 1945)

References

* Beevor, Antony. "Berlin: The Downfall 1945", Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5.
* Tessin, Georg "Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS 1939 - 1945", Volume 3, Biblio Verlag, 1974, ISBN 3-7648-0942-6.

Footnotes


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