- Shanty town
Shanty towns (also called
squattercamps or favelas) are settlements (sometimes illegal or unauthorized) of impoverished people who live in improvised dwellings made from scrap plywood, corrugated metal, and sheets of plastic. Shanty towns, which are usually built on the periphery of cities, often do not have proper sanitation, electricity, or telephoneservices.
Shanty towns are mostly found in developing nations, or partially developed nations with an unequal distribution of wealth. In extreme cases, shanty towns have populations approaching that of a city.
This page is not in reference to the city of Shantytown, located in Marathon county, Wisconsin, USA [ [http://www.thebubbler.com/communities/Shantytown Shantytown, Wisconsin in Marathon County Wisconsin - Wisconsin Information Source - theBubbler ] ] .
Shanty towns tend to develop on the outskirts of cities. During the
Great Depressionof the 1930s, shanty towns, often called "Hobo jungles,", "favelas" or "Georgie Slums" appeared in cities across North Americabecause of massive unemployment. Some were nicknamed " Hoovervilles" because the residents blamed the economic conditions on then President Herbert Hoover, whose decisions were popularly thought to have caused the depression. Similarly in Canada, hobo jungles were dubbed "Bennettville" after Prime Minister Bennett.Fact|date=May 2007
The first recorded use of the word "shanty", as meaning a crude dwelling, was in
Ohioin 1820.Fact|date=May 2007 It may have been derived from the French Canadian word "chantier", meaning hut in a lumber camp, from the French word for timberyard. Alternatively, it could have been derived from the Irish "sean tí", meaning "old house" or from the Nahuatlword chantli "home".
Shanty town residences are almost always built without a license. Since construction is informal and unguided by
urban planning, there is a near total absence of formal street grids, numbered streets, sanitationnetworks, electricity, or telephones. Even if these resources are present, they are likely to be disorganized, old or inferior. Shanty towns also tend to lack basic services present in more formally organized settlements, including policing, medical services, and fire fighting. Fires are a particular danger for shanty towns because of the close proximity of buildings and flammability of materials used in construction. [ [See the report on shack fires in South Africa by Matt Birkinshaw at http://abahlali.org/files/Big_Devil_Politics_of_Shack_Fire.pdf as well as the wider collection of articles in fires in shanty towns at http://www.abahlali.org/taxonomy/term/841] ]
Stereotypes present shanty towns has inevitably having high rates of
crime, suicide, drug use, and disease. However the observer Georg Gersterhas noted (with specific reference to the "invasões" of Brasilia), "squatter settlements [as opposed to slums] , despite their unattractive building materials, may also be places of hope, scenes of a counter-culture, with an encouraging potential for change and a strong upward impetus." [Georg Gerster, "Flights of Discovery: The Earth from Above", 1978, London: Paddington, p. 116]
Shanty towns are present in a number of countries including
South Africa(where they are often called " squattercamps") or imijondolo, Canada(known as "Bidonvilles" in Quebec), Australia(mainly in Aboriginal areas), the United States(mainly in Indian reservations or in the rural areas of Appalachia) the Philippines(often called "squatter areas"), Argentina(where they are referred to as villas miseria), Venezuela(where they are known as barrios), Brazil( favelas), West Indiessuch as Jamaicaand Trinidad and Tobago(Where they are known as shanty town), Peru(where they are known as pueblos jóvenes), and Haiti, where they are referred to as bidonvilles".
In many countries there are now large movements of shanty town residents which often face severe state repression. For example in South Africa
Abahlali baseMjondolohave become a significant political force in the cities of Durbanand Pietermaritzburgand in Brazilthe Movement of Workers Without a Roof(MTST) is very strong.
Many countries have a name for marginal settlements:
Asentamientos" (settlements) in Guatemala
*"Bidonvilles" in French-speaking countries
*"Ciudades perdidas" (lost cities) or "Jacales" in
*"Colonias" or "Migrant camp" along the Mexican-American border
Favelas" in Brazil
Gecekondu" in Turkey
*"Katavlismos" (campaments, referring to Roma settlements) in
*"Invasiones" (invasions) in
*"Khoshash" in the
Kachi abadi" in Pakistan
*"Poblaciones Callampas" (mushroom settlements), "Poblas" or "Campamentos" in
*"Chabolas", "rancheríos" in
Pueblos jóvenes" (young towns) or "barriadas" in Peru
*"Ranchos" or "
barrios" in Venezuela
*"Squatter camps" or "imijondolo" in
*"Villas miseria" (poverty towns) or just "Villas" in
*"Bairro de Lata" in
*"El Ghetto" in
*"Precario" or "tugurrio" in
*"Setinggan" or "Rumah Kongsi" in
Malaysia(A local movie changed its name to 'Sting Garden', to the plot that a poor girl living in setinggans trying to attract a wealthy boy's heart)
Kartonsko naselje" (cardboard settlement) in Serbia
*"Invasión" (Invasion) in
*"Korogocho" (Kenya) see [http://www.korogocho.org korogocho.org]
*"Karyan" in Morocco
* [http://www.slate.com/id/2140224/entry/2140206/ Slate article about an economist proposing New Orleans to be reconstructed with shanties]
* [http://deputy-dog.com/index.php/2007/09/19/extreme-rich-poor-divides/ Extreme Rich-Poor divides on Deputy-dog.com]
* [http://www.citiesalliance.org Cities Alliance]
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Look at other dictionaries:
shanty town — UK US [ˈʃænti ˌtaʊn] noun [countable] [singular shanty town plural shanty towns] an area where very poor people live in shanties Thesaurus: areas in towns or citieshyponym … Useful english dictionary
shanty town — shanty towns also shantytown N COUNT A shanty town is a collection of rough huts which poor people live in, usually in or near a large city … English dictionary
shanty town — ► NOUN ▪ an impoverished area consisting of large numbers of shanty dwellings … English terms dictionary
shanty town — UK / US [ˈʃæntɪ ˌtaʊn] noun [countable] Word forms shanty town : singular shanty town plural shanty towns an area where very poor people live in shanties … English dictionary
shanty town — noun a deprived area consisting of large numbers of shanty dwellings … English new terms dictionary
shanty town — a collection of ice fishing shacks … Dictionary of ichthyology
shanty town — noun a suburb consisting of mean, roughly constructed dwellings inhabited by poor people … Wiktionary
shanty town — an area of informal housing built by its residents on the edge of a city. The building materials are often waste from other sources and the land is occupied illegally. There are no services and all quality of life indicators are very low … Geography glossary
shanty town — [ˈʃænti ˌtaʊn] noun [C] an area where very poor people live in houses made from sheets of wood, metal, or other thin material … Dictionary for writing and speaking English
In a Shanty in Old Shanty Town — is a popular song written by Ira Schuster and Jack Little with lyrics by Joe Young, published in 1932. Ted Lewis performed it with his orchestra in the film The Crooner in 1932. His version was released as a single and it went to number one,… … Wikipedia