- Kambojas in Kautiliya's Arthashastra
The Kambojas, an ancient
Ksatriya clanof Indo-Iranianaffinities [Vedic Index I, p 138, Dr Macdonnel, Dr Keith.] [Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata – 1970, p 107, Dr Ram Chandra Jain.] [The Journal of Asian Studies – 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.).] [ Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt – 1989, p 2, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī.] [ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī – 1953, p 49, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.] [Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet.] [ Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311 etc.] [Iran, 1956, p 53, Herbert Harold Vreeland, Clifford R. Barnett.] [Geogramatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Revisions of the Best Books..., 1953, p 49, Dr Peggy Melcher, Dr A. A. McDonnel, Dr Surya Kanta, Dr Jacob Wackmangel, Dr V. S. Agarwala.] , find numerous references in a host of ancient Sanskritand Palitexts including the Sama Veda, Atharvaveda, Yajurveda, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranictexts, Yasaka's Nirukta, Mahabhashya of Patanjali, Katyayana’s Varttika (an elaboration on Panini's grammar), Buddhist Jatakas, Jaina Canons, numerous ancient plays as also in many ancient inscriptions etc. In addition, the Kambojas also find references in Arthashastraof Achariya Kautiliya--("also known as Vishnu Gupta as well as Chankya"), whom tradition attests to have been the Prime Ministerof Chandragupta Maurya(fourth/third Century BCE). Besides attesting splendid war horses of the Kambojas, their Kshatriya Srenis ("Corporations of warriors") as well as their "Nation-in-arms" or "Martial republican" constitution ("Varta-Sastropajivinah"), this "book of political realism" also touches upon the economic aspects of the Kambojas and attests a kind of silver called Kambuka, extracted from mountain Kambu, stated to have been located in "Andrab" in Badakshan, which region had formed an indispensable part of ancient Parama Kamboja.
Kamboja Horses in Arthashastra
Arthashastralists war horses from several countries including the Kamboja and puts the Kamboja horses at the head of the list of the best horses. [:Sanskrit::"prayogyanam uttamah Kambhoja.Saindhava.Aratta.Vanayujah", :"madhyama Bahliika.Papeyaka.Sauviraka.Taitalah", :"shesah pratyavarah" :(Kautiliya Arathashastra, II.13.10).]
War horses of Chandra Gupta's
cavalry, considering its numerical strength, had to be recruited from various countries which are thus graded by Kautiliya(II.13.10):
:"The (horse) breed of Kámbhoja, Sindhu, Aratta, and Vanáyu countries are the best; those of Báhlíka, Pápeya, :Sauvira, and Taitala, are of middle quality; and the rest ordinary (avaráh)". [Kautiliya's Arathashastra, 1956, Book II, Dr R. Shamashastri [http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/Arthashastra/BookII.htm] .] Thus, we see that the war horses of Kambojas have been "placed at the head of the list of the best horses", which therefore, clearly attests that Kamboja horses formed a superiormost breed for cavalry [History of civilizations of
Central Asia, 1999, p 404, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco.; Archieves d'etudes Orientales, 1910, p 321; Public Finance in Ancient India, 1978, p 159, K. R. Sarkar; Aryatarangini, the Saga of the Indo-Aryans, 1969, p 324,Ayyaswami Kalyanaraman; Amaravati Sculptures in the Madras Government Museum, 1942, p 123, C. Sivaramamurti; The National Geographical Journal of India , 1955, p 211, National Geographical Society of India; The Greco-Sunga Period of Indian History, Or, the North-West India of the Second Century B.C. -, 1973, p 24, Prof Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan; Dr. Modi Memorial Volume: Papers on Indo-Iranian and Other Subjects, 1930, p 354, Sir Jivanji Jamshedji Modi;The Modern Review, p 135, Ramananda Chatterjee; Cultural History from the Kurma Puraana, 1975, p 302 G. K. Pai; Main Currents in the Ancient History of Gujarat, 1960, p 4, Bhasker Anand Saletore, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Dept. of History; Amaravati Sculptures in the Madras Government Museum, 1942, p 123, C. Sivaramamurti; Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, 1960, p 173, Dr Radhakumud Mookerji; History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, p 404, Dr Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco; cf: Tribes in the Mahabharata: A Socio-cultural Study, 1987, p 292, Krishna Chandra Mishra.] .
Dr A. H. Dani also notes: "Kautiliya‘s Arthashastra mentions the Kamboja horse as one of the best breeds for war and also speaks of Kambojas’ military organization and their warlike way of life" [History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, p 404, Dr Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco – Central Asia.] .
Kamboja Republics of Arthashastra
Arthashastra also attests for us that the Kambojas had followed
republican constitutionof governanace. Kautiliya applies the "Samgha" as well as the "Sreni" republican terms to the Kambojas, which fact amply verifies that the Kambhojas were indeed a democratic people. The term "Sreni" has been used in the Arthashastra in the sense of workers' Guilds [ Arthashastra Book I, Ch IV.] as well as "Corporation of Kshatriyas (Kshatriya.sreni), Military Corporations or Corporate body of Troops etc". [ Arthashastra II.XXXIII; Book II, Ch. IV & XXXIII; Book IV Ch. II, Ch. III; Book VII, Ch. I, VIII, XIV & XVI; Book VIII Ch. IV; Book IX Ch. II; Book IX Ch. I; Book XII Ch. II; and Book XIII Ch. III etc .] . Kautiliyalists two types of "Samghas" or Republics in the Arthashastra viz.:
(1). Raja.shabd.opajivin Sanghas "i.e those living by the title of Raja like Licchivika, Vrjika, Mallaka, Madraka, Kukura, Kuru and Panchala etc". (They had the provision for king consul in their constitution).
(2). Varta.sastr.opajivin Samghas "i.e the corporations of warriors (Kshatriya Srenis) of the Kambojas and Surastras living by agriculture, trade, cattle-breeding and wielding weapons". (They did not have the provision for king-consul in their constitution. In other words, they were pure democracies) [:Sanskrit::"Kamboja.Suraastra.Ksatriya.shreny.aadayo"vartasastra.upajiivinah"
:"Licchivika.Vrjika.Mallaka.Madraka.Kukura.Kuru.Panchala.adayo "raaja.shabda.upajiivinah"|| :(Kautiliya Arathashastra, 11.1.03).]
e.g.: "The corporations of warriors (Kshatriya shrenis) of the Kamboja and Surashtra and some other nations live by agtriculture, trade and by wielding weapons. The corporations of Lichchhivika,Vrijika, Mallaka, Mudraka, Kukura, Kuru, Pánchála and others live by the title of a Rája " ". [ Kautiliya's Arathashastra, 1956, p 407, Dr R. Shamashastri [http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/Arthashastra/BookXI.htm] .] [ Studies in Ancient Indian Seals: A Study of North Indian Seals and Sealings from Circa Third ..., 1972, p 238, Thaplyal, Kiran Kumar.] [The Mauryan Polity, 1932, p 70, V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar.] [ Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas by Romila Thapar, Oxford University Press, 1960 p 94, Dr Romila Thapar.] [Caste Class and Occupations, 1961, p 81, G. S. Ghurye.] [The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 403.] [Chandragupta Maurya and His Times: Madras University, Sir William Meyer Lectures, 1940-41, p 168, Dr Radha Kumud Mookerji.] [FEW MORE REFERENCES: The Military History of Bengal, 1977, p 47, P. Sensarma; Indological Studies, 1950, p 9, Dr B. C Law; Public Administration in India: Retrospect and Prospects, 1993, p 276, C. P. Barthwal; Main Currents in the Ancient History of Gujarat, 1960, p 24, Bhasker Anand Saletore, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Deptt. of History; Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 238, Dr B, C. Law; Sovereignty in Ancient Indian Polity: A Study in the Evolution of Early Indian State, 1938, p 68, Dr Har Narain Sinha; Material and Ideological Factors in Indian History, 1966, p 37, Tara Chand; Historical and Cultural Chronology of Gujarat, 1960, p 33, Dr M. R. Majmudar; Caste and Race in India, 1932, p 75; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 403, Ancient Indian Republics: From the Earliest Times to the 6th Century A.D. / by Shive Nandan, 1976, p 157, Misra, Shivenandan; Public Finance in Ancient India, 1978, p 159, K. R. Sarkar; The Rural-urban Economy and Social Changes in Ancient India, 300 B.C. to 600 A.D., 1974, p 242, Jaimal Rai etc etc.]
tyled as Nation-in-arms or Martial Republics
Scholars have styled the Varta-Sastropajivin Samghas of the Kambojas and Surashtras as "Nations-in–arms" or "Martial Republics" [ Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of Hindu India, 1978, pp 31, 51-52, 163-64, Dr K. P. Jayswal; The Mauryan Polity, 1993, p 70, V.R.Ramachandra Dikshitar; Juristic Concepts of Ancient Indian Polity, 1980, p 79; Nagendra Singh; Kautilya's Political Ideas and Institutions, 1971, p 149,
Radha Krishna Choudhary; cf: The Geographical Data in Early Puranas, a Critical Study, 1978, pp 164, 165, 322, Dr M. R. Singh; A Primer of Hindu Polity, 1969, p 68; Substance of Hindu Polity, 1959, p 75, Chandra Prakash Bhambhri; Ancient Indian Republics: From the Earliest Times to the 6th Century A.D. / by Shive Nandan ..., 1939, p 157, Dr Misra, Shivenandan; Kautilya's Political Ideas and Institutions, 1971, p 227, Dr Radha Krishna Choudhary; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 263-65, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī etc]
It is also notable that Kautiliya contrasts the "Varta.sastropajivinah" Samghas ("Martial Republics") with the "Raja.shabd.opajivinah" Samghas ("King-Council Republics"). The "varta-Sastropajivinah" Samghas (or Martial Republics) of Kautiliya are equivalent to the "Ayudhajivinah" Samghas of Panini [Panini's Ashtadhyayi 5.3.114, 4.3.97] [Kautilya's Political Ideas and Institutions, 1971, p 220, Choudhary, Radhakrishna.] [Republics in Ancient India, Ancient India, 2003, p 830, Dr V. D. Mahajan.] [Ancient Indian Republics: From the Earliest Times to the 6th Century A.D., 1976, p 20, Misra, Shivenandan.] [Origin of the Rajputs, 1975, p 65, Ram Bali Singh.] [The Rural-urban Economy and Social Changes in Ancient India, 300 B.C. to 600 A.D., 1974, p 31, Jaimal Rai.] [kanda-Kārttikeya: A Study in the Origin and Development, 1967, p 21, Prithvi Kumar Agrawala.] or the "Yodhajivas" of
Paliliterature. [Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, 1960, p 168, Radhakumud Mookerji.] [Ancient Indian Republics: from the earliest times to the 6th century A.D., 1976,p 20, Shivenandan Misra; Kautilya's Political Ideas and Institutions, 1971, p 224, Radhakrishna Choudhary.]
Characteristics of Nation-in-Arms Republics
Contrasted with the "King Consul" Republics (Raja-shabdopajivinah), the "Nation-in-arms" or "Military Republics" of the
Kambojasand Surashtras had no "King-Consul" -- in other words, they were pure democraciesas contrasted to Oligarchies. They especially emphasized on their citizens the duty to acquire military skill. The whole communitywas their army and therefore, immeasurably superior to the hired levies of monarchies or the army of "Raja-shabdopajivinah Samghas". And when they formed an offensive or defensive league, they were considered virtually invincible. These Nation-in-arms Republics, however did not became purely military, for their constitution also required their citizens to devote attention to industry and agriculture. On the evidence of Greek witnesses, they were not only good soldiers maintaining a very high tradition of bravery and skill in war, but also a good agriculturists. The hand which wielded the sword successfully, was accutomed to use the scythe with equal facility. According to Arthashastraand Buddhistdocuments, they were both agricultural and industrial ("Varta-Sastropajivinah"). Hence they were found rich as well as strong. [ Hindu Polity, A Constututional History of Hindyu India, 1978, p 51, 52, 163, 164, Dr K. P. Jayswal.] [ Kautilya's Political Ideas and Institutions, 1971, p 227, Radhakrishna Choudhary.]
Aristocratic Corporations and Warriors
Scholars have further styled the "Corporations of Warriors" ("Kshatriya Srenis") of the Kambojas and Surashtras, living by varta and warfare ("Varta-Sastropajivinah"), as constituting essentially the "aristocratic class of warriors" of the age. [Main Currents in the Ancient History of Gujarat, 1960, pp 25-26, Bhasker Anand Saletore, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Dept. of History.]
Most Heroic Bands of Kshatriyas
History and Culture of Indian People (Vol I, p 57) observes: "It is interesting to note that, according to the Arathasastra, the army is to be recruited from the following five classes":
"(1) Choras or Pratirodhikas of the day, robbers and bandits;"
Mlechchas such as the Kiratahighlanders;"
"(3) Choraganas, organized gangs of brigands;"
"(4) Ativikasas, foresters and"
"(5) Sastropajivini-Srenis (i.e "Corporations of Warriors"), the warrior clans, who were the most heroic (Pravira). Elements like these formed the army of Chandragupta". [ History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, p 57, Editors: Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; cf: History of the Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 256, Editors: Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh.] [:tesam alabhe bandhu.mitra.kulebhyah samaarjanam || 26 ||
:utsaaha.hiinah shreni.praviira.purusanam:cora.gana.atavika.mleccha.jatinam para.apakarinam:gudha.purusanam ca yathaa.labbham upacayam kurvita || 27 ||
:para.mishra.apratikaaram abaliyasam vaa paresu prayujita || 28 ||
(Arthashastra 7.14.26-28).] [ Dr R. K. Mukerjee writes: " "Kautiliya, in his Arthashastra, also lists six classes of soldiery forming the king’s army viz: (1). Maula-bala: troops in charge of the Mula, the root, or centre of provincial administration known as Stathniya …a provincial garrison (Mula-Raksnam in IX.2). They were from the close relations and followers of the king; (2). Bhrita-bala : the mercenary troops engaged on pay; (3). Sreni-bala: gild-levies, the troops recruited from the warrior clans belonging to countries such as Kamboja, Surashtra and the like [XI. i] ; and also interpreted to mean soldiers pursuing the military art as a means of livlihood in the province (Janapada.vartyayudhiyaganah (I.33; IX.2; X.1); (4). Mitra-bala: army supplied by an ally; (5). Amitra-bala: troops recruited from the enemy country; (6). Atavi bala: the troops recruited from the forest tribes under the Warden of forests (Atavipala) (Ib.). Of these six classes of soldiers, those coming from the warrior-clans (i.e. SRENI-BALA) took to arms as a profession and are called by Kautilya as Sastropajivinah (XI.1). Kautilya mentions the
Kambojasand Surastras as examples of such military clans forming the Sastropajivinah class of troops. He also mentions a class of Ayudhiya villages which were like colonies of professional soldiers censussed by the rural officers (II.35). It is interesting to note that Panini also mentions military communities called Ayudhajivi". The Ayudhajivi of Panini are equivalent to the Sastropajivinah of Kautiliya" (Chandragupta Maurya and His Times: Madras University, Sir William Meyer Lectures, 1940-41, p 168, Dr Radha Kumud Mookerji; cf: Raja Poros, 1990, p 42, Publication Buareau, Punjabi University Patiala).]
It is remarkable to observe that
Kautiliyarefers in several places to the "Srenis" ("guilds-levies") known for their military strength and further notes that these "Sastropajivinah Srenis" ("Kshatriya Srenis") are the most heroic ("Sreni.praviira.purusanam") [ Arthashastrta VII.XIV.26-28; VII.10; VII.14; IX.2; See also: Chandragupta Maurya and His times, 1966, p 22, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; History and Culture of Indian People, Age of Imperial Kanauj, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 57, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A,. D. Pusalkar.] and therefore, a best source for military recruitment [An Introduction to the Study of Indian History, 1996, p 231-232, D.D. Kosambi .] [History and Culture of Indian People, Age of Imperial Kanauj, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 57, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A,. D. Pusalkar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 263, 290, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 141-142, K. S Dardi; cf: Chandragupta Maurya and His Times: Madras University, Sir William Meyer Lectures, 1940-41, p 168, Radha Kumud Mookerji; Cf Also: Comprehensive History of India, Vol II, p 3, Dr Nilkanta Shasteri.] and singles out those of Kamboja and Surastra people as the sole Military Republics of this "Sastropajivinah" category [Arthashastra 11.1.1-4; Local Government in Ancient India, 1958, p 214, Radhakumud Mookerji.] [ "When the king is desperate (utsahahina), as a last source of strength, he is advised to turn to an army recruited from the fearless warriors of the "Srenis" (Sreni-pravira-purashanam) i.e those from Corporations of the Kambojas, Surashtras etc (Arthashastra XI.1); the gangs of brigands (Choraganas); the forresters (Atavikas); and the Mlechcha tribes (like the Kiratas")---in that order (Arathashastra VII.14)" (See: op cit. p 168, Dr Radha Kumud Mookerji).] .
Confederated Ganas/Sanghas virtually invincible
Kautiliya's Arthashastra emphatically states that, these Samghas when confederated or united, are virtually invincible [:samgha.laabho danda.mitra.laabhaanaam uttamah || 1 || :samghaa hi samhatatvaad adhrsyaah paresaam || 2 || :taan anugunaan bhujjiita saama.daanaabhyaam, vigunaan bheda.dandaabhyaam || 3 || :(Arthashas:tra 11.1.01-03).] [Conquest of Samghas is more desirable than an alliance of goodwill or military aid. Those which are united (in league) should be treated with the policy of subsidy and peace, for they are otherwise invincible. Those which are not united should be conquered by army and disunion (Arthashastra 11.1.1-4)] [SEE ON LINE ARTHASHASTRA: [ http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/Arthashastra/BookXI.htm] .] and it is advisable either to befriend them or else to destroy them by disunion or divisions. According to
Mahabharataalso, the confederated Ganas (Samghas) were noted as "very wealthy, heroic, well-versed in the sastras (learning) and accomplished in the art of weaponry" [ dravyavantashcha shurashcha sastragyah sastraparagah || MBH 12/107/21.] and it was almost impossible to crush them since they were "immune to subjugation by prowess or cleverness or by temptations or by beauty, except that through the policy of division and subsidy". [ MBH 12/107/31; 12/107/32, MBH 12.107.13.]
"Therefore, Kautilya recommends that the acquisition (conquest) of a Samgha is more desirable than an alliance of good will or military aid. Those (Sanghas) which are united (in league) should be treated with the policy of subsidy and peace, for they are invincible. Those which are not united should be conquered by army and disunion. [Hindu Polity, 1978, p 115, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India: 4th Ed. (rev. and Enl.), 1968, p 199, Vidya Dhar Mahajan - History.] [Kautilya's Political Ideas and Institutions, 1971, p 227, Radhakrishna Choudhary - Political science.] [Encyclopaedia of Indian Culture, 1984, p 1377, Rajaram Narayan Saletore.] . Kautiliya specifically mentions the Samghas of the Kambojas, Surashtras, Lichchhivikas, Vrijikas, Mallakas, Mudrakas, Kukuras, Kurus, Pánchálas [ Kautiliya's Arathashastra, 1956, p 407, Dr R. Shamashastri.] .
"The outsiders were always eager to seek alliance with these confederated martial entities (Ganas or Sanghas) and the latter took special delight in reducing their foes and saw to it their own prosperity" [ Mahabharata 12.107.15.] .
Chanakya[Kulasya vaa bhaved raajyam kula.samgho hi durjayah: Arthashastra 1, 17.53] : "A corporation of clans (Kula-samgha) is invincible and therefore can form a State (Rajya). The Kambhojas, Madrakas, Vrijikas, Lichchhivikas, the Kurusand the Panchalas were some of the ruling corporations (of clans) in ancient India" [Arthashastra XI.1; India's Might, 1943, p 51, Published by B. Pirojsha.] [Cf: Main Currents in the Ancient History of Gujarat, 1960, p 26, Bhasker Anand Saletore, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Dept. of History, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda.] . Dr K. P. Jayaswal writes: "The Martial Republics named in the Arthashastraare headed by the Kambojas"". [Hindu Polity, p 52 1978, Dr K. P. Jayaswal.]
Kamboja Republics from other sources
republicanism of the Kambojas is also attested from the Rock Edicts of king Ashoka[araja-vishaya...Rock Edict XIII; Hindu Polity, 1978, pp 130-131; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, Dr V. D. Mahajan.] as well as from great epic Mahabharata, [See: State and Government in Ancient India, 1992, pp 118, 399, Dr A. S Altekar.] which refers to many Ganas or Sanghas of the Kambojas fighting on Kauravasside. [:Sanskrit::"Narayanashcha Gopalah Kambojana.n cha ye ganah "|.:"Karnena vijitah purva.n sangrame shura sammatah"|| :(MBH 7.91.39).]
e.g: ......."the numerous Ganas/Samghas of the Kambojas all of whom were regarded as very brave and accomplished in the battle field and whom
Karnahad earlier fought with and vanquished...." [MBH 7.91.39.] .
From Panini, we also learn that the Kambojas were republican people and their constitution, around this period, matched that of the "Raja-sabdopajivinah" ("king-consul") type of Kautiliya’s Arthashastra. [cf: Hindu Polity, Part I & II, p 52, Dr K. P. Jayswalcf; Ancient Kambojas, 1981, pp 264-65, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Kautilya's Political Ideas and Institutions, 1971, p 224, Radhakrishna Choudhary.]
Kamboja Srenis or Corporations in Mauryan Army
Chandragupta Mauryaconstituted his army based on the principles and recommendations of Arthashastra. [Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 263, 290, Dr J. L. Kamboj; cf: History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, p 57, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 141-142, K. S. Dardi.] This is evident from the fact that the martial clans of Kambojas find prominent mention in Maurya army as is attested by Mudrarakshasaplay of "Visakhadutta". Both Mudrarakshasa as well as Jaina work "Parisishtaparvan" refer to Chandragupta Maurya's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka. This alliance gave Chandragupta a composite army made up of the Republican Kambojas besides also of other warrior clanssuch as Yavanas, Sakas, Kiratas, Parasikas and Bahlikas( Bactrians)("Mudrarakshas", II). [:Sanskrit::asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parsika-Bahlika parbhutibhih:Chankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvara:balairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad uprudham Kusumpurama:(See: Mudrarakshasa II).]
With the help of these frontier warlike republican
clansfrom the northwest, whom Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus) brands as "a band of robbers", Chandragupta Mauryawas able to defeat the Macedonian straps of Punjab and Afghanistanand later following this, the corrupt Nanda ruler of Magadha, thus laying the foundations of a great Maurya Empirein northern and north-western India. [Chandragupta Maurya and His Times: Madras University, Sir William Meyer Lectures, 1940-41, p 168, Radha Kumud Mookerji.]
Other Kamboja references in Arthashastra
Arthashastra[ Arathashastra, 02.13.10.] informs us that "Kambuka" silver was extracted from mountain "Kambu". [
:Sanskrit::tuttha.udgatam gaudikam "Kambukam" cakravalikam ca rupyam |. :Kautiliya Arathashastra, 02.13.10.]
e.g: "Tutthodgata, what which is extracted from the mountain, Tuttha; gaudika, that which is the product of the country known as Gauda; Kámbuka, that which is extracted from the mountain Kambu; and chákraválika, that which is extracted from the mountain Chakravála are the varieties of silver". [Kautiliya's Arathashastra, 1956, Book II, Dr R. Shamashastri.]
The "Kambuka" of Arthashastra is simply a variant of Kambuja/Kamboja (or
Kambojika). The silver from Mountain Kambu (in Kamboja in Afghanistani.e Ancient Kamboj country), has been referred to as Kambuka or Kambu (= Kamboj). [Sixty years of the Numismatic Society of India, 1910-1971, History and Presidential Address, Numismatic Society of India, 1973. ] [Tribes Coins & Study, 1972, p 274, Dr Mahesh Kumar Sharma, University of Magadha.] [The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 76, K. S. Dardi.] [Kushāna Silver Coinage, 1982, p 61, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee.] [Technology of Indian Coinage, 1988, p 72, P. K. D. Lee, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee, Indian Museum.] [Kushāna Silver Coinage, 1982, p 61, Dr Bratindra Nath Mukherjee.] [ The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 1939, p 10, Numismatic Society of India - Numismatics.] .
The Silver mines of
Badakshan, which formed an integral part of ancient Kamboj, have been famous since Ancient times. The Arabhistorians also refer to silver mines of Anderab/Wakhan. [Geog. & Economic Studies in Mahabharata, J.U.P.H.S. Vol XVI, Pt II, p 46, Dr Moti Chandra.] [ Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, p 246, Dr Kamboj.] [ Sindhaant Kaumudhi, Arthaprakashaka, Acharya R. R. Pande, 1966, pp 20-22.]
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Kambojas in Indian literature — The Kamboja peoples are referenced in numerous Sanskrit and Pali literature including Sama Veda, Atharvaveda, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, Kautiliya s Arthashastra, Yasaka s Nirukata, Buddhist Jatakas, Jaina Canons, ancient grammar books and… … Wikipedia
Kambojas — The Kambojas were a Kshatriya tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in ( post Vedic ) Sanskrit and Pali literature, making their first appearance in the Mahabharata and contemporary Vedanga literature (roughly from the 7th century BCE).… … Wikipedia
Kambojas of Panini — Pāṇini (पाणिन) was an ancient Sanskrit grammarian born in Shalātura, modern Lahur of North West Frontier province of Pakistan. The place is situated at a distance of four miles from Ohind near Attock on the right bank of Indus River in the… … Wikipedia
Kambojas and Cambodia — Cambodia or Kambodia is the English transliteration of the French name Kambodge , which name stands for Sanskrit Kamboja (Persian Kambujiya or Kambaujiya ). In Chinese historical accounts, the land was known as Chenla. The ancient inscriptions of … Wikipedia
Republican Kambojas — There are several ancient literary and inscriptional references which testify that the ancient Kambojas were a republican people. References in Sanskrit and Pali literature attest terms like e Gana , Samgha , Shreni and other similar bodies… … Wikipedia
Migration of Kambojas — References to Kambojas abound in ancient literature, and this may have been just the expansion of an Indo Iranian tribe with both Indic and Persian affinities from their homeland in the present day Afghanistan Pakistan region along the foothills… … Wikipedia
Alexander's Conflict with the Kambojas — Greek historians refer to three warlike peoples viz. the Astakenoi, the Aspasioi [Other classical names are Assaceni, Aseni, Aspii and Hippasii etc.] and the Assakenoi [ Other classical names are Assacani, Asoi, Asii/Osii etc.] [ Asoi is also a… … Wikipedia
Scholarship among Ancient Kambojas — The Kambojas are an ancient people of the north western Indian subcontinent (Central Asia), frequently mentioned in ancient Indian texts (though not directly in the Rig Veda). They spoke an Indo Iranian derived language, an Indo European family… … Wikipedia
Mahajanapadas — Mahā Janapadas ← 700s–300s … Wikipedia
Kamboja cavalry — The Kambojas had been famous throughout all periods of history for their excellent breed of horses as well as as famous horsemen or cavalry [The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103; Some Kṣatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 239, Dr B. C … Wikipedia