Hawaiian Bobtail Squid

Hawaiian Bobtail Squid

name = Hawaiian Bobtail Squid

image_caption =
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Mollusca
classis = Cephalopoda
ordo = Sepiolida
familia = Sepiolidae
subfamilia = Sepiolinae
genus = "Euprymna"
species = "E. scolopes"
binomial = "Euprymna scolopes"
binomial_authority = Berry, 1913
synonyms =
__NOTOC__The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid ("Euprymna scolopes") is a species of bobtail squid native to the central Pacific Ocean, where it occurs in shallow coastal waters off the Hawaiian Islands and Midway Island.Reid, A. & P. Jereb 2005. Family Sepiolidae. "In:" P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper, eds. "Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date. Volume 1. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae)". FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 4, Vol. 1. Rome, FAO. pp. 153–203.] [ [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/biogeo/eez.cfm?CephID=140 Countries' Exclusive Economic Zones with "Euprymna scolopes"] ]

"E. scolopes" grows to 30 mm in mantle length. Hatchlings weigh 0.005 g and mature in 80 days. Adults weigh up to 2.67 g. [Wood, J.B. & R.K. O'Dor 2000. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/6374.pdf Do larger cephalopods live longer? Effects of temperature and phylogeny on interspecific comparisons of age and size at maturity.] |134 KiB "Marine Biology" 136(1): 91.]

In the wild, "E. scolopes" is known to feed on various species of shrimp, including "Halocaridina rubra", "Palaemon debilis", and "Palaemon pacificus". [Shears, J. 1988. The Use of a Sand-coat in Relation to Feeding and Diel Activity in the Sepiolid Squid "Euprymna scolopes". R.T. Hanlon (ed.) "Malacologia" 29(1): 121-133.] In the laboratory, "E. scolopes" has been successfully reared on a varied diet of animals, including mysids ("Anisomysis" sp.), brine shrimp ("Artemia salina"), mosquitofish ("Gambusia affinis"), prawns ("Leander debilis"), and octopuses ("Octopus cyanea"). [Boletzky, S.v. & R.T. Hanlon. 1983. A Review of the Laboratory Maintenance, Rearing and Culture of Cephalopod Molluscs. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Biology and Resource Potential of Cephalopods, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 March, 1981, Roper, Clyde F.E., C.C. Lu and F.G. Hochberg, ed. 44: 147-187.]

"E. scolopes" is known to be preyed upon by the Hawaiian Monk Seal ("Monachus schauinslandi") in northwestern Hawaiian waters. [Goodman-Lowe, G.D. 1998. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7308.pdf Diet of the Hawaiian monk seal ("Monachus schauinslandi") from the northwestern Hawaiian islands during 1991 and 1994.] |294 KiB "Marine Biology" 132: 535-546.]

"E. scolopes" lives in a symbiotic relationship with the bioluminescent bacteria "Vibrio fischeri", which inhabits a special light organ in the squid's mantle. The bacteria are fed a sugar and amino acid solution by the squid and in return hide the squid's silhouette when viewed from below by matching the amount of light hitting the top of the mantle. "E. scolopes" serves as a model organism for animal-bacterial symbiosis and its relationship with "V. fischeri" has been the subject of much research. [DeLoney, C.R., T.M. Bartley & K.L. Visick 2002. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7468.pdf Role for phosphoglucomutase in "Vibrio fischeri"-"Euprymna scolopes" symbiosis.] |221 KiB "Journal of Bacteriology" 184(18): 5121-5129.] [Dunlap, P.V., K. Kitatsukamoto, J.B. Waterbury & S.M. Callahan 1995. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7159.pdf Isolation and characterization of a visibly luminous variant of "Vibrio fischeri" strain ES114 form the sepiolid squid "Euprymna scolopes".] |105 KiB "Archives of Microbiology" 164(3): 194-202.] [Foster, J.S., M.A. Apicella & M.J. McFall-Ngai 2000. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7360.pdf "Vibrio fischeri" lipopolysaccharide induces developmental apoptosis, but not complete morphogenesis, of the "Euprymna scolopes" light organ.] |610 KiB "Developmental Biology" 226(2): 242-254.] [Hanlon, R.T., M.F. Claes, S.E. Ashcraft & P.V. Dunlap 1997. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7724.pdf Laboratory culture of the sepiolid squid "Euprymna scolopes": A model system for bacteria-animal symbiosis.] |2.38 MiB "Biological Bulletin" 192(3): 364-374.] [Lee, K.-H. & E.G. Ruby 1995. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/4338.pdf Symbiotic role of the viable but nonculturable state of "Vibrio fischeri" in Hawaiian coastal seawater.] |249 KiB "Applied and Environmental Microbiology" 61(1): 278-283.] [Lemus, J.D. & M.J. McFall-Ngai 2000. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7610.pdf Alterations in the protoeme of the "Euprymna scolopes" light organ in response to symbiotic "Vibrio fischeri".] |2.10 MiB "Applied and Environmental Microbiology" 66: 4091-4097.] [Millikan, D.S. & E.G. Ruby 2003. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7850.pdf FlrA, a s54-Dependent Transcriptional Activator in "Vibrio fischeri", is required for motility and symbiotic light-organ colonization.] |382 KiB "Journal of Bacteriology" (American Society for Microbiology) 185(12): 3547-3557.] [Montgomery, M.K. & M. McFall-Ngai 1998. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/5803.pdf Late postembryonic development of the symbiotic light organ of "Euprymna scolopes" (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae).] |6.10 MiB "Biological Bulletin" 195: 326-336.]

The type specimen was collected off the Hawaiian Islands and is deposited at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.. [http://www.mnh.si.edu/cephs/newclass.pdf Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda] ]

ee also

* Reflectin


Further reading

*Callaerts, P., P.N. Lee, B. Hartmann, C. Farfan, D.W.Y. Choy, K. Ikeo, K.F. Fischbach, W.J. Gehring & G. de Couet 2002. PDFlink| [http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7087.pdf HOX genes in the sepiolid squid "Euprymna scolopes": Implications for the evolution of complex body plans.] |465 KiB "PNAS" 99(4): 2088-2093.

External links

* [http://web.uconn.edu/mcbstaff/graf/VfEs/VfEssym.htm The Light-Organ Symbiosis of "Vibrio fischeri" and the Hawaiian squid, "Euprymna scolopes"]

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