List of rulers of Wales


List of rulers of Wales

Before the Norman Conquest of Wales was completed in 1282, Wales consisted of a number of independent kingdoms, the most important being Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth (originally Seisyllwg and Dyfed), Gwent and Morgannwg. Boundary changes and the equal division of patrimony meant that few princes ever came close to ruling the whole of Wales.

The names of those known to have ruled over one or more of the kingdoms are listed below (those in heavy type ruled over a large portion of Wales).

Deheubarth

In 909, Dyfed was merged with Seisyllwg to become Deheubarth. The following is a list of kings of the two former kingdoms, followed by the kings of the combined Deheubarth (beginning with Hywel Dda).

Dyfed

* Cloten (dates unknown) "married Ceindrech of Brycheiniog, uniting the two kingdoms"
* Rhain (to 740) "also king of Brycheiniog; on his death, his kingdoms were divided again by his sons"
* Maredydd ap Rhain (740-797)
* Rhain ap Maredydd (797-808)
* Owain ap Maredydd (808-811)"It is unclear whether kingship passed directly from Owain to Hyfaidd, although the span of time involved suggests that it did not."
* Hyfaidd ap Bledrig (to 893)
* Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893-904)
* Rhodri ap Hyfaidd (904-905)
* Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) (905-909)

eisyllwg

* Seisyll (7th century, eponymous ruler)
* Gwgon (to 872)
* Rhodri Mawr (872-878)
* Cadell ap Rhodri (878-909)
* Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) (909)

Deheubarth

* Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) (909-950)
* His son, Owain ap Hywel (950-986) "the principality being divided for a period between him and his brothers",
** Rhodri ap Hywel (950-953) "and"
** Edwin ap Hywel (950-954)
* Owain ap Hywel's son, Maredudd ab Owain (986-999)
* Cynan ap Hywel, prince of Gwynedd (999-1005)
* Maredudd ab Owain's son, Edwin ab Einion (1005-1018) "who co-ruled with his brother",
** Cadell ab Einion (1005-1018)
* Llywelyn ap Seisyll, prince of Gwynedd (1018-1023)
* Rhydderch ap Iestyn, prince of Gwent (1023-1033)
* Edwin ab Einion's son, Hywel ab Edwin (1033-1044)
* Rhydderch ap Iestyn's son, Gruffydd ap Rhydderch (1047-1055)
* Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, prince of Gwynedd (1055-1063)
* Edwin ab Einion's grandson, Maredudd ab Owain ab Edwin (1063-1072)
* his brother, Rhys ab Owain (1072-1078)
* his second cousin, Rhys ap Tewdwr (1078-1093)

"Deheubarth was in the possession of the Normans from 1093 to 1155"

* Gruffydd ap Rhys (1116-1137) "ruled a portion of Deheubarth with Norman permission"
* his son, Anarawd ap Gruffydd (1136-1143)
* his brother, Cadell ap Gruffydd (1143-1151)
* his brother, Maredudd ap Gruffydd (1151-1155)
* his brother, The Lord Rhys (Rhys ap Gruffydd) (1155-1197)
* his son, Gruffydd ap Rhys (1197-1201) "who for a time ruled jointly with his brother,"
* Maelgwn ap Rhys (1199-1230) "who disputed the territory with his brother,"
* Rhys the Hoarse (Rhys Gryg) (1216-1234)

"From 1234 to 1283, Deheubarth was subject to the princes of Gwynedd"

* Rhys the Hoarse's son, Rhys Mechyll (1234-1244) "ruled a portion of Deheubarth"
* his brother, Maredudd ap Rhys (1244-1271) "ruled a portion of Deheubarth"
* his son, Rhys ap Maredudd (1271-1283) "ruled a portion of Deheubarth"

Gwynedd

Kings of Gwynedd

* Cunedda "Wledig" ap Edern (Cunedda the Imperator) ("c."450-"c."460)
* Einion "Yrth" ap Cunedda (Einion the Impetuous) ("c."470-"c."480)
* Cadwallon "Lawhir" ap Einion (Cadwallon Long Hand) ("c."500-"c."534)
* Maelgwn "Hir" ap Cadwallon (Maelgwn the Tall) ("c."520-"c."547)
* Rhun "Hir" ap Maelgwn (Rhun the Tall) ("c."547-"c."580)
* Beli ap Rhun ("c."580-"c."599)
* Iago ap Beli ("c."599-"c."613)
* Cadfan ap Iago ("c."613-"c."625)
* Cadwallon ap Cadfan ("c."625-634)
* Cadafael "Cadomedd" ap Cynfeddw (Cadfael the Battle-Shirker) (634-"c."655)
* Cadwaladr "Fendigaid" ap Cadwallon (Cadwallader the Blessed) ("c."655-"c."682)
* Idwal "Iwrch" ap Cadwaladr (Idwal Roebuck) ("c."682-"c."720)
* Rhodri "Molwynog" ap Idwal (Rhodri the Bald and Gray) ("c."720-"c."754)
* Caradog ap Meirion ("c."754-"c."798)
* Cynan "Dindaethwy" ap Rhodri ("c."798-816)
* Hywel ap Rhodri Molwynog (814-825)
* Merfyn "Frych" ap Gwriad (Merfyn the Freckled) (825-844)
* Rhodri "Mawr" ap Merfyn (Rhodri the Great) (844-878)
* Anarawd ap Rhodri (878-916) (establishes the Aberffraw dynasty, the senior branch of descendants from Rhodri Mawr)
* Idwal Foel ab Anarawd (Idwal the Bald) (916-942)
* Hywel "Dda" ap Cadell (Howell the Good) (942-950) (Dinefwr dynasty of Rhodri Mawr's descendants usurp from Aberffraw.)
* Iago ab Idwal (950-979) (returns to the Aberffraw branch)
* Ieuaf ab Idwal (950-969)
* Hywel ab Ieuaf (974-985)
* Cadwallon ab Ieuaf (985-986)
* Maredudd ab Owain (986-999) Dinefwr dynasty seizes Gwynedd
* Cynan ap Hywel (999-1005) Returns to the Aberffraw dynasty briefly
* Aeddan ap Blegywryd (1005-1018) (usurpes Gwynedd from the Aberffraw dynasty))
* Llywelyn ap Seisyll (1018-1023) (cadet branch of Mathrafal dynasty from Powys usurps from Aeddan ap Blegywryd)
* Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig (1023-1039) (Aberffraw dynasty returns)
* Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (1039-1063) (Llywelyn's son Gruffydd usurps from Aberffraw dynasty)
* Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (1063-1075) (Mathrafal dynasty of Powys "receives" Gwynedd from the English King)
* Trahaearn ap Caradog (1075-1081)
* Gruffydd ap Cynan (1081-1137) (Aberffraw dynasty returns)
* Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd (1137-1170) (After Owain rulers of Gwynedd are styled "Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon")

Princes of Aberffraw & Lords of Snowdon

* Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd (1170-1173)
* Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (1170-1195) "(in the east)"
* Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd (1170-1190) "(in the west)"
* Llywelyn "Fawr" ap Iorwerth (Llywelyn the Great) (1195-1240)
* Dafydd ap Llywelyn (1240-1246) (First acknowledged "Prince of Wales")
* Owain Goch ap Gruffydd (Owen the Red) (1246-1255)
* Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (Llywelyn the Last) (1246-1282) (Second acknowledged "Prince of Wales")
* Dafydd ap Gruffydd (1282-1283) (not crowned but claimed the title)
* Madog ap Llywelyn (1294-1295) (not crowned but claimed the title)
* Owain ap Tomas ap Rhodri (Owen the Red Hand) (1372-1378) (in exile but claimed the title)

Morgannwg

Glywysing

* Glywys, Son of Solar (about c.470-c.480), who gave his name to the kingdom.
** Gwynllyw, son of Glywys, ruler of Gwynllwg (c.480-523), cantref of Glywysing
** Pawl, son of Glywys, ruler of Penychen (c.480-540), cantref of Glywysing
** Mechwyn, son of Glywys, ruler of Gorfynydd (c.480-c.500), cantref of Glywysing
* Cadoc, son of Gwynllyg, ruler of Glynllwg (523-560) and Penychen (540-560), died without heirs
* Meurig King of Gwent is left Glynllwg and Penychen by Cadoc (560 - ?)

* Glywysing is ruled by the Kings of Gwent until Rhys ap Ithel
* Rhys ap Ithel, son of the kingdom of Gwent (c.755-785)
* Arthfael Hen ap Rhys, ("Hen" the Old) (785-c.825)
* Rhys ap Arthfael, (c.830-c.840)
* Hywel ap Rhys, (c.840-886)
* Owain ap Hywel (886-c.930)
** Gruffydd ap Owain (c.930-934) King of Gower
** Cadwgan ap Owain (c.930-950) King of West Glywysing

Morgannwg

* Morgan the Old (Morgan Hen or Morgan ab Owain or Moragn Hen Fawr) (930-974) "united the former kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing in 942 under the name of Morgannwg, but they were broken up again immediately after his death, remaining separate until about 1055"
* Morgan the Old's son, Owain ap Morgan (974-about 983)
* brothers of Owain ap Morgan (dates unknown)
* his son, Rhys ab Owain (about 990-about 1000) "who ruled Glywysing jointly with his brothers,"
* Hywel ab Owain (about 990-about 1043) "and"
* Iestyn ab Owain (about 990-about 1015)
* his brother, Rhydderch ap Iestyn (about 1015-1033)
* his son, Gruffydd ap Rhydderch (1033-1055)

Gwent

* Nowy ap Gwriad "ruled Gwent" (about 950-about 970) "while Glywysing was ruled jointly by brothers of Owain ap Morgan (dates unknown)"
* his son, Arthfael ap Nowy (about 970-983)
* his cousin, Rhodri ap Elisedd (983-about 1015) "who ruled jointly with his brother,"
* Gruffydd ap Elisedd (983-about 1015)
* his ?cousin, Edwyn ap Gwriad (1015-1045)
* Hywel ab Owain's son, Meurig ap Hywel (1045-1055) "who ruled jointly with"
* his son, Cadwgan ap Meurig (1045-1074) "who for a time ruled jointly with"
* Gruffydd ap Rhydderch's son, Caradog ap Gruffydd (1063-1081)
* Iestyn ap Gwrgan(t) (1081-1091)"Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan"

Powys

Kings of Powys

House of Gwertherion

* Gwrtheyrn (High-King Vortigern)
* Cadeyern Fendigaid c.430 - 447 Reputed eldest son of Gwrtheyrn, blessed by Saint Germanus
* Cadell Ddyrnllwg c. 447 - 460
* Rhyddfedd Frych c. 480
* Cyngen Glodrydd c. 500
* Pasgen ap Cyngen c. 530
* Morgan ap Pasgen c. 540
* Brochwel Ysgithrog c. 550
* Cynan Garwyn (? – 610)
* Selyf ap Cynan (610 – 613)
* Manwgan ap Selyf (613)
* Eiludd Powys (613 – ?)
* Beli ap Eiludd vers 655
* Gwylog ap Beli (695? – 725)
* Elisedd ap Gwylog (725 – 755?)
* Brochfael ap Elisedd (755? – 773)
* Cadell ap Elisedd (773 – 808)
* Cyngen ap Cadell (808 – 854) Throne usurped by Gwynedd and exiled to Rome where the family endured

House of Manaw

* Rhodri Mawr (854 – 878) of Gwynedd, inheriting through his mother
* Merfyn ap Rhodri (878 – 900)
* Llywelyn ap Merfyn (900 – 942)
* Hywel Dda (942 – 950) Usurped from the Aberffraw line
* Owain ap Hywel (950 – 986) Ruled thereafter by a cadet branch of the House of Dinefwr, establishing the Mathrafal dynasty of rulers
* Maredudd ap Owain (986 – 999)
* Llywelyn ap Seisyll (999 – 1023), son of Anghered by her first husband. Anghered is the daughter of Maredudd ab Owain
* Rhydderch ap Iestyn (1023 – 1033)
* Iago ap Idwal (1033 – 1039)
* Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (1039 – 1063)

Mathrafal Princes of Powys

* Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (1063 – 1075)
* Iorwerth ap Bleddyn 1075 - 1103 (part)
* Cadwgan ap Bleddyn (1075 - 1111 (part)
* Owain ap Cadwgan (1111 - 1116 (part)
* Maredudd ap Bleddyn (1116 – 1132)
* Madog ap Maredudd (1132 – 1160)

From 1160 Powys was split into two parts. The southern part was later called Powys Wenwynwyn after Gwenwynwyn ab Owain "Cyfeiliog" ap Madog, while the northern part was called Powys Fadog after Madog ap Gruffydd "Maelor" ap Madog

ee also

* Owain Glyndŵr
* Edward I of England
* Prince of Wales
* List of British monarchs
* Kings of the Britons


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