Bleomycin


Bleomycin

Drugbox
IUPAC_name = rel-(3-{ [(2'-{(5R,8R,9R,10S,13R)-15-{6-Amino-2- [(1R)-3-amino-1-{ [(2R)-2,3-diamino-3-oxopropyl] amino}-3-oxopropyl] -5-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl}-13- [{ [(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-{ [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6S)-4-(carbamoyloxy)-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl] oxy}-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl] oxy}(1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl] -9-hydroxy-5- [(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl] -8,10-dimethyl-4,7,12,15-tetraoxo-3,6,11,14-tetraazapentadec-1-yl}-2,4'-bi-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)carbonyl] amino}propyl)(dimethyl)sulfonium
CAS_number=11056-06-7
ATC_prefix=L01
ATC_suffix=DC01
PubChem=456190
DrugBank=APRD00453
C=55 | H=84 | N=17 | O=21 | S=3
molecular_weight = 1415.56
smiles = NC(=O) [C@@H] (N)CN [C@@H] (CC(N)=O)c1nc(N)c(C)c(n1)C(=O)N [C@@H] (C(O [C@@H] 3O [C@@H] (CO) [C@@H] (O) [C@H] (O) [C@@H] 3O [C@H] 2O [C@H] (CO) [C@@H] (O) [C@H] (OC(N)=O) [C@@H] 2O)c4cncn4)C(=O)N [C@H] (C) [C@@H] (O) [C@H] (C)C(=O)N| [C@H] (C(=O)NCCc5nc(cs5)c6nc(cs6)C(=O)NCCC [S+] (C)C) [C@@H] (C)O
bioavailability= well absorbed
metabolism = ?
elimination_half-life= 2 hours
excretion = renal (60-70%)
pregnancy_US = D
pregnancy_category =
legal_status = ?
routes_of_administration= intramuscular and subcutaneous

Bleomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic produced by the bacterium "Streptomyces verticillus". Bleomycin refers to a family of structurally related compounds. When used as an anti-cancer agent, the chemotherapeutical forms are primarily bleomycin A2 and B2. Bleomycin A2 is shown in the image. The drug is used in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (as a component of the ABVD regimen), squamous cell carcinomas, and testicular cancer, pleurodesis as well as plantar warts.

History

Bleomycin was first discovered in 1962 when the Japanese scientist Hamao Umezawa found anti-cancer activity while screening culture filtrates of "S. verticullus". Umezawa published his discovery in 1966. The drug was launched in Japan by Nippon Kayaku in 1969. In the US bleomycin gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in July 1973. It was initially marketed in the US by the Bristol-Myers Squibb precursor Bristol Laboratories under the brand name Blenoxane.

uppliers

Bristol-Myers Squibb still supplies Blenoxane. There are also generic versions of bleomycin available from APP Pharmaceuticals, Bedford, Sicor (Teva) and Mayne Pharma.

Mechanism of action

Bleomycin acts by induction of DNA strand breaks. Some studies suggest that bleomycin also inhibits incorporation of thymidine into DNA strands. DNA cleavage by bleomycin depends on oxygen and metal ions, at least "in vitro". It is believed that bleomycin chelates metal ions (primarily iron) producing a pseudoenzyme that reacts with oxygen to produce superoxide and hydroxide free radicals that cleave DNA. In addition, these complexes also mediate lipid peroxidation and oxidation of other cellular molecules.

=Biosynthesis=Bleomycin is a nonribosomal peptide that is a hybrid peptide-polyketide natural product. The peptide/polyketide/peptide backbone of the bleomycin aglycon is assembled by the bleomycin megasynthetase, which is made of both nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) modules. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides are synthesized from amino acids and short carboxylic acids by NRPSs and PKSs, respectively. These NRPSs and PKSs use similar strategies for the assembly of these two distinct classes of natural products. Both NRPs and type I PKSs are organized into modules. The structural variations of the resulting peptide and polyketide products are determined by the number and order of modules on each NRPS and PKS protein.

The biosynthesis of the bleomycin aglycon can be easily visualized in three stages (see Figure 2):
#NRPS-mediated formation of P-3A from Ser, Asn, His, and Ala
#PKS-mediated elongation of P-3A by malonyl CoA and AdoMet to yield P-4
#NRPS-mediated elongation of P-4 by Thr to P-5 that is further elongated by &szlig-Ala, Cys, and Cys to get P-6m.

On the basis of the bleomycin structure and the deduced functions of individual NRPS and PKS domains and modules, a linear model for the bleomycin megasynthetase-templated assembly of the bleomycin peptide/polyketide/peptide aglycon was proposed from nine amino acids and one acetate.

ide effects

The most serious complication of bleomycin is pulmonary fibrosis and impaired lung function. It has been suggested that bleomycin induces sensitivity to oxygen toxicitycite web | author=Dr Malcom Thompson | date=2003-07-25 | title=Bleomycin and Anaesthesia | url= http://ctec.uwa.edu.au/anaesthesiawa/bleomycin.pdf | accessdate=2008-04-10] , and past history of treatment with bleomycin should therefore always be disclosed to the anaesthetist prior to undergoing a procedure requiring general anaesthesia.

Other side effects include fever, rash, dermatographism, hyperpigmentation, alopecia and Raynaud's phenomenon.

ee also

* Testicular cancer
* Hodgkin lymphoma
* Chemotherapy regimen
* History of cancer chemotherapy
* ABVD

References

# cite journal
author = Claussen, C.A.; Long, E.C.
title = Nucleic Acid Recognition by Metal Complexes of Bleomycin
journal = Chem. Rev.
year = 1999
volume = 99
pages = 2797–2816
pmid = 11749501
doi = 10.1021/cr980449z

## cite journal
author = Shen, B.; Du, L.C.; Sanchez, C.; Edwards, D.J.; Chen, M.; Murrell, J.M.
title = The biosynthetic gene cluster for the anticancer drug bleomycin from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 as a model for hybrid peptide-polyketide natural product biosynthesis
journal = Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
year = 2001
volume = 27
pages = 378–385
pmid =
doi =


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • bleomycin — bleomycin. См. блеомицин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Bleomycin — Strukturformel Allgemeines Freiname Bleomycin Summenformel …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bleomycin — Ble|o|my|cin [Kunstw., ↑ mycin], das; s, e: aus mehreren Komponenten zusammengesetztes cytostatisch wirksames Glykopeptid Antibiotikum aus Streptomyces verticillus. * * * Bleomycin   [zu griechisch bállein »treffen«] das, s, aus dem Strahlenpilz… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • bleomycin — Any of a group of glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus. Blocks cell division in G2: used to synchronize the division of cells in culture and as an antiproliferative agent in oncology …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • bleomycin — /blee euh muy sin/, n. Pharm. a cytotoxic antibiotic, C55H84N17O21S3, derived from the fermentation product of the bacterium Streptomyces certicillus, used in the management of certain epithelial cell and testicular carcinomas and malignant… …   Universalium

  • bleomycin — noun A particular drug used in chemotherapy …   Wiktionary

  • bleomycin — bleo·my·cin .blē ə mīs ən n a mixture of glycoprotein antibiotics derived from a streptomyces (Streptomyces verticillus) and used in the form of the sulfates as an antineoplastic agent * * * n. an antibiotic with action against cancer cells (see… …   Medical dictionary

  • bleomycin — [ˌbli:əʊ mʌɪsɪn] noun Medicine a bacterial antibiotic used to treat Hodgkin s disease and other cancers. Origin 1960s: an arbitrary alt. of earlier phleomycin, a related antibiotic …   English new terms dictionary

  • bleomycin — bleo·my·cin …   English syllables

  • bleomycin — n. an antibiotic with action against cancer cells (see cytotoxic drug), used in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, germ cell cancer that has spread to other sites, and non Hodgkin s lymphoma. It is administered by injection and can cause… …   The new mediacal dictionary


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