- Operations support systems
Operations Support Systems (also called Operational Support Systems or OSS) are computer systems used by telecommunications service providers. The term OSS most frequently describes "network systems" dealing with the telecom network itself, supporting processes such as maintaining network inventory, provisioning services, configuring network components, and managing faults. The complementary term
Business Support Systemsor BSS is a newer term and typically refers to "business systems" dealing with customers, supporting processes such as taking orders, processing bills, and collecting payments. The two systems together are often abbreviated BSS/OSS or simply B/OSS.
The term OSS was historically used to include both network and business systems. It is still sometimes used in this sense, which can cause some confusion. When used in this way, the term OSS may be seen as inclusive of BSS. For more detail about the use of other terms such as "network management", see the section on architecture below.
History and development of OSS
Before about 1970, many OSS activities were performed by manual administrative processes. However, it became obvious that much of this activity could be replaced by
computers. In the next 5 years or so, the telephone companies created a number of computer systems (or software applications) which automated much of this activity. This was one of the driving factors for the development of the Unixoperating system and the C programming language. The Bell Systempurchased their own product line of PDP 11 computers from Digital Equipment Corporationfor a variety of OSS applications. OSS systems used in the Bell System include AMATPS, CSOBS, EADAS, RMAS, SCCS, SES, TIRKS, and many more. OSS systems from this era are described in the Bell System Technical Journal, Bell Labs Record, and [http://telecom-info.telcordia.com/site-cgi/ido/index.html SR-2275 Notes on the Networks] .
Many OSS systems were initially not linked to each other and often required manual intervention. For example, consider the case where a customer wants to order a new telephone service. The ordering system would take the customer's details and details of their order, but would not be able to configure the
telephone exchangedirectly - this would be done by a switch management system. Details of the new service would need to be transferred from the order handling system to the switch management system - and this would normally be done by a technician re-keying the details from one screen into another - a process often referred to as "swivel chair integration". This was clearly another source of inefficiency, so the focus for the next few years was on creating automated interfaces between the OSS applications - OSS integration. Cheap and simple OSS integration remains a major goal of most telecom companies.
A brief history of OSS architecture
A lot of the work on OSS has been centred on defining its architecture. Put simply, there are four key elements of OSS:
**the sequence of events
**the information that is acted upon
**the components that implement processes to manage data
**how we implement the applications
During the 1990s, new OSS architecture definitions was done by the ITU-T in its TMN model. This established a 4-layer model of TMN applicable within an OSS:
*Business Management Level (BML)
*Service Management Level (SML)
*Network Management Level (NML)
*Element Management Level (EML)
(Note: a fifth level is mentioned at times being the elements themselves, though the standards speak of only four levels)This was a basis for later work. Network management was further defined by the
ISOusing the FCAPSmodel - Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance and Security. This basis was adopted by the ITU-T TMN standards as the Functional model for the technology base of the TMN standards M.3000 - M.3599 series. Although the FCAPS model was originally conceived and is applicable for an IT enterprise network, it was adopted for use in the public networks run by telecommunication service providers adhering to ITU-T TMN standards.
A big issue of network and service management is the ability to manage and control the network elements of the access and core networks. Historically many efforts have been spent in standardization fora (ITU-T, 3GPP) in order to define standard protocol for network management, but with no success and practical results. On the other hand
IETF SNMPprotocol (Simple Network Management Protocol) has become the de-facto standard for internet and telco management, at the EML-NML communication level.
From 2000 and beyond, with the growth of the new broadband and VoIP services, also the management of the home networks is entering the scope of OSS and network management.
DSL Forum TR-069specification has defined the CPE WAN Management Protocol (CWMP), suitable for managing home networks devices and terminals at the EML-NML interface.
Most recently the TeleManagement Forum (TMF) has developed a communications domain model that provides the basis for clarifying the distinction between OSS and BSS systems. As shown in the figure the OSS supports the traditional Resource and Resource Facing Service domains. Whereas the BSS supports the more Customer Facing domains.
The TeleManagement Forum (TMF) is an international membership organization of communications service providers and suppliers to the communications industry. While OSS is generally dominated by proprietary and custom technologies, the TMF is regarded as the most authoritative source for standards and frameworks in OSS. The TMF has been active in proving a framework and discussion forum for advancements in OSS and BSS.
The newest stage in OSS architecture work has come with the TMF's [http://www.tmforum.org/]
NGOSSprogram, which was established in 2000. This established a set of principles that an OSS integration should adopt, along with a set of models that provide standardised approaches. The models include an information model(the Shared Information/Data model, or SID), a process model(the enhanced Telecom Operation Map, or eTOM), an application model(the Telecom Applications Map), an architecture (the Technology Neutral Architecture) and a lifecycle model. The TMF describes NGOSS as an architecture that is:
*component basedalong with functioning application components upon which a Communications Service Provider business can run.
*The components interact through a common communications vehicle (using an information exchange infrastructure; e.g., EAI,
Web Services, EJB)
*The behavior can be controlled through the use of process management and/or policy management to orchestrate the functionality provided by the services offered by the components
The early focus of the TMF's NGOSS work was on building reference models to support a business stakeholder view on process, information and application interaction. Running in parallel were activities that supported an implementation stakeholder view on interface specifications to provide access to OSS capability (primarily MTNM). The MTNM work evolved into a set of Web Services providing Multi-Technology Operations System Interfaces
MTOSI. Most recently, the OSS through Java initiative (OSS/J) [http://www.ossj.org/] joined the TMF to provide NGOSS-based BSS/OSS APIs.
Considerable work remains, primarily in building out the system stakeholder reference models, which are needed to support a business process driven and SOA styled approach to using model driven development for specifying the additional implementation stakeholder interface specs (for SOA Web Services, EJB and EAI). These are required to meet the demands of Service Providers operating using the IMS architectural framework and NGN communications networks.
Loop Maintenance Operations System
Service Evaluation System
Switching Control Center System
* [http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/oss International Engineering Consortium] : an Operations Support Systems (OSSs) tutorial
* [http://www.tmforum.org/ TeleManagement Forum]
* [http://www.ossj.org/ OSS through Java initiative]
* [http://www.ossnewsreview.com/ OSS News Review]
* [http://www.pipelinepub.com/ Pipeline Magazine]
* [http://www.insidetelephony.com/telecom-oss-bss/ InsideTelephony OSS/BSS]
* [http://www.billingworld.com/ Billing & OSS World]
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