- Ice-minus bacteria
Ice-minus bacteria is a nickname given to a variant of the common
bacterium" Pseudomonas syringae" ("P. syringae"). This strain of "P. syringae" lacks the ability to produce a certain surface protein, usually found on wild-type "ice-plus" "P. syringae". The "ice-plus" protein (Ina protein, "Ice nucleation-active" protein) found on the outer bacterial cell wallacts as the nucleating centers for ice crystalscite book | last = Richard E. Lee, Jr., Gareth J. Warren, L.V. Gusta (Editors) | title = Biological Ice Nucleation and Its Applications |chapter = Chapter 4, "Biochemistry of Bacterial Ice Nuclei" by Ray Fall and Paul K. Wolber | publisher = APS PRESS (The American Phytopathological Society) | date = 1995 | location = St. Paul, Minnesota | pages = 63-83 | url = http://www.shopapspress.org/41728.html | isbn = 0890541728] . This facilitates ice formation, hence the designation "ice-plus." The ice-minus variant of "P. syringae" is a mutant, lacking the generesponsible for ice-nucleating surface protein production. This lack of surface protein provides a less favorable environment for ice formation. Both strains of "P. syringae" occur naturally, but recombinant DNA technologyhas allowed for the synthetic removal or alteration of specific genes, enabling the creation of the ice-minus strain.
To systematically create the ice-minus strain of "P. syringae", its ice-forming gene must be isolated, amplified, deactivated and reintroduced into "P. syringae" bacterium. The following steps are often used to isolate and generate ice-minus strains of "P. syringae":
# Digest "P. syringae"'s
DNAwith restriction enzymes.
# Insert the individual DNA pieces into a
plasmid. Pieces will insert randomly, allowing for different variations of recombinant DNA to be produced.
# Transform the bacterium "
Escherichia coli" ("E.coli") with the recombinant plasmid. The plasmid will be taken in by the bacteria, rendering it part of the organism's DNA.
# Identify the ice-gene from the numerous newly developed "E. coli" recombinants. Recombinant "E. coli" with the ice-gene will possess the ice-nucleating
phenotype, these will be "ice-plus."
# With the ice nucleating recombinant identified, amplify the ice gene with techniques such as polymerase chain reactions (PCR).
# Create mutant clones of the ice gene through the introduction of mutagenic agents such as UV radiation to inactivate the ice gene, creating the "ice-minus" gene.
# Repeat previous steps (insert gene into plasmid, transform "E. coli", identify recombinants) with the newly created mutant clones to identify the bacteria with the ice-minus gene. They will possess the desired ice-minus phenotype.
# Insert the ice-minus gene into normal, ice-plus "P. syringae" bacterium.
# Allow recombination to take place, rendering both ice-minus and ice-plus strains of "P. syringae".
The success of the agricultural world is heavily dependent on the weather. Cold weather conditions are directly responsible for the appearance of
froston plants and most importantly, crops. In the United States alone, it has been estimated that frost accounts for approximately $1 billion in crop damage each year. As "P. syringae" commonly inhabits plant surfaces, its ice nucleating nature incites frost development, freezing the buds of the plant and destroying the occurring crop. The introduction of an ice-minus strain of "P. syringae" to the surface of plants would incur competition between the strains. Should the ice-minus strain win out, the ice nucleate provided by "P. syringae" would no longer be present, lowering the level of frost development on plant surfaces at normal water freezing temperature (0oC). Even if the ice-minus strain does not win out, the amount of ice nucleate present from ice-plus "P. syringae" would be reduced due to competition. Decreased levels of frost generation at normal water freezing temperature would translate into a lowered quantity of crops lost due to frost damage, rendering higher crop yields overall.
Dr. Hall Hoppe of the U.S. Department of Agriculture was the first to notice a connection between bacteria and frost damageFact|date=June 2008. In
1961, Dr. Hoppe studied a corn fungusby grinding up infected leaves each season, then applying the powder to test corn for the following season to track the disease. A surprise frost occurred that year, leaving peculiar results. Only plants infected with the diseased powder incurred frost damage, leaving healthy plants unfrozen. This phenomenon would baffle scientists until graduate student Stephen Lindow of the University of Wisconsin-Madisonfound a bacterium in the dried leaf powder in the early 1970s. [http://pmb.berkeley.edu/newPMB/faculty/lindow/lindow.shtml Dr. Lindow] , now a plant pathologist at the University of California-Berkeley, found that when this particular bacterium was introduced to plants where it is originally absent, the plants became very vulnerable to frost damage. He would go on to identify the bacterium as "P. syringae", investigate "P. syringae"'s role in ice nucleation and in 1977, discover the mutant ice-minus strain. He was later successful at developing the ice-minus strain of "P. syringae" through recombinant DNA technology as well.
1983, Advanced Genetic Sciences(AGS) obtained U.S. government authorization to perform field tests with the ice-minus strain of "P. syringae", but environmental groups and protestors delayed the field tests for four years with legal challengesFact|date=June 2008. In 1987, the ice-minus strain of "P. syringae" became the first genetically modified organism (GMO) to be released into the environment Fact|date=June 2008. A strawberry field in Californiawas spayed with the ice-minus strain of "P. syringae" just before a frost in 1987. The results were promising, showing lowered frost damage to the treated plants, but the data was in suspect as environment activists destroyed some of the plants. Dr. Lindow also conducted an experiment on a crop of potato seedlings sprayed with ice-minus "P. syringae". He was successful in protecting the potato crop from frost damage with a strain of ice-minus "P. syringae".Fact|date=June 2008
At the time of Dr. Lindow's work on ice-minus "P. syringae",
genetic engineeringwas considered to be very controversial. The controversy primarily revolved around fears of introducing new organisms that may permanently disrupt the ecosystem. The fear was that the introduction of ice-minus bacteria to the environment would eliminate bacterial and plant varieties. This was true in the case of the gypsy moth's accidental introduction into the U.S. Without a predatorin the U.S., the gypsy moth is still causing overwhelming destruction to the hardwood forests of northeastern U.S.
Genetically modified organism
*Baskin, Yvonne. Testing The Future (1987). Feb. 11, 2007. [http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1004/Baskin/Baskin.html]
*“Biotechnology in microbes, plants and animals. Three snapshots.” October 4, 2002 Impact of Genetic Engineering on Nature. Feb. 11, 2007. [http://www.stanford.edu/class/bio4/ClassLinks/october4.htm]
*Boyer, Rodney. Concepts in Biochemistry, 3rd edition, pp. 407. John Wiley & Sons (2006)
*Chill Out. Feb. 11, 2007. [http://www.science-house.org/fungal/northcarolina/chillout.pdf]
*Maykuth, Andrew. “Genetic wonders to come: Some see boon, others calamity.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. Jan. 10, 1986. Feb. 11, 2007. [http://www.maykuth.com/Archives/gene86.htm]
*Parrott, Carolyn C. Recombinant DNA to Protect Crops (1993). Feb. 11, 2007. [http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/bi/1993/recombinant.html]
* [http://pseudomonas-syringae.org/ "P. syringae" genomic information from Cornell University's Pseudomonas-Plant Interaction Project]
* [http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml Genetically modified organisms and food information from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory]
* [http://www.fao.org/biotech/news_list.asp?thexpand=1&cat=131 News and information about genetically modified organisms and food from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations]
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