- Isca Augusta
Isca Augusta (or Isca Silurum) was a Roman
legionaryfortress and settlement, the remains of which lie beneath parts of the present-day villageof Caerleonon the northern outskirts of the city of Newportin South Wales.
Brythonicname "Isca" means "water" and refers to the River Usk. The suffix "Augusta" appears in the Ravenna Cosmographyand was an honourific title taken from the legion stationed there. The place is commonly referred to as "Isca Silurum" to differentiate it from Isca Dumnoniorumand because it lay in the territory of the Silurestribe. However, there is no evidence that this form was used in Roman times. The later name, " Caerleon", is derived from the Welsh for "fortress of the legion".
Isca became the headquarters of the 2nd Legion Augusta in about AD 75, when Governor
Sextus Julius Frontinusbegan the conquest of Roman Wales. They built a large "playing-card" shaped fort with initially a timber palisadewhich was later replaced in stone. The interior was fitted out with the usual array of military buildings: a headquarters building, legate's residence, tribunes' houses, hospital, large bath house, workshops, barrack blocks, granaries and an amphitheatre.
By the 120s, detachments or
vexillations of the legion were needed elsewhere in the province and Isca became more of a military base than a garrison. However, it is thought that each cohortstill maintained a presence at the fortress. When Septimus Severusseized power in the 190s, he had Isca refurbished and the legion were in residence rebuilding themselves after heavy losses on the Continent. Further restoration took place under Caracalla, when the south-west gate was rebuilt, the amphitheatre remodelled and barrack blocks re-roofed and otherwise repaired. The legion may have been called away to fight for one of the many emperors claiming power in the late 3rd century. Although most of the fort lay empty, a 'caretaker' squad are thought to have maintained the facilities and there was reoccupation and rebuilding work as late as the 270s. The main military structures are thought to have finally been demolished by the usurpers, Carausiusor Allectus, when the legion was needed to repel a potential invasion from the Continent. The stone from Isca may have been used for building defences on the south coast. There may still have been an occasional military presence as late as the early 4th century, but the fortress was probably later taken over by the people of the surrounding vicus. The basilica of the baths was used as a cattle pen.
Recent finds suggest Roman occupation of some kind as late as AD 380. [cite web|url= http://www.caerleon.net/history/dig/2008/index.html|title= Priory Field Caerleon Dig 2008 Cardiff University and UCL Dr Peter Guest and Dr Andrew Gardner|accessdate= 2008-09-08]
According to the
Gildas(followed by Bede), Roman Caerleon was the site of two early Christian martyrdoms in Britain, at the same time as that of Saint Albanthe first English martyr, who was killed in the Roman city of Verulamium(beside modern-day St Albans). He writes:
This city of the legions is identified with Caerleon, rather than Chester, because there were two medieval chapels there dedicated to each of these martyrs. They were probably executed in 304, during the religious persecutions of
Because of its rounded form, the unexcavated amphitheatre was known to locals as '
King Arthur's Round Table', but there is no known connection. An initial investigation in 1909 showed the potential for a full-scale excavation of the structure, which began in 1926 and was supervised by Victor Nash-Williams. This revealed, among other things, that the amphitheatre had been built around 90, but had twice been partially reconstructed, once in the early part of the 2nd century, and again about a hundred years later. The arena is oval in shape, with eight entrances, and the stadium is thought to have had a capacity of around six thousand [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/550110] .
archeologically excavated Roman remains of the Roman fortress can be seen at Caerleon, including:
amphitheatre, one of the most impressive in Britain
*Part of the military bath house, with a modern museum "in situ" above it
*Prysg Field Barracks, the only Roman legionary barracks visible in Europe
*The fortress wall, still standing twelve feet high in places
*All the above sites are administered by
Roman Legionary Museum, part of the National Museums and Galleries of Wales, which exhibits artifacts and finds from excavations throughout the village including Roman currency, weapons, uniform etc.
*cite book | last=Knight | first=Jeremy K | title=Caerleon Roman Fortress | date=1988 | publisher=Cadw | location=Cardiff
* [http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/archaeology/crc/index.html The Caerleon Research Committee]
* [http://www.britarch.ac.uk/communityarchaeology/wikka.php?wakka=CaerleonLegionaryFortress Caerleon Legionary Fortress page] at the Community Archaeology Forum of the Council for British Archaeology
* [http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/subjects/3016 Caerleon amphitheatre from Gathering the Jewels]
* [http://www.roman-britain.org/places/isca_silurum.htm Caerleon on the Roman Britain website]
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