Biorobotics is a term that loosely covers the fields of
cybernetics, bionicsand even genetic engineeringas a collective study.
Biorobotics is often used to refer to a real subfield of
robotics: studying how to make robots that emulate or simulate living biological organisms mechanically or even chemically. The term is also used in a reverse definition: making biological organisms as manipulatable and functional as robots, or making biological organisms as components of robots.
In the latter sense biorobotics can be referred to as a
theoreticaldiscipline of comprehensive genetic engineering in which organisms are created and designed by artificial means. The creation of life from non-living matter for example, would be biorobotics. The field is in its infancy and is sometimes known as synthetic biologyor bionanotechnology.
replicants in the film " Blade Runner" would be considered biorobotic in nature: (synthetic) organisms of living tissue and cells yet created artificially. Instead of microchips, their brain is based on ganglions/artificial neurons.
A small group of
cyberpunkand mecha anime, mangaand role-playing games have used the term bioroid sometimes generally for a partially or fully biological robot or for a breed of genetically engineered human slaves, similar to the replicantsin " Blade Runner". In 1985 the animated " Robotech" television series popularized the term when it reused the term from the 1984 Japanese series " The Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross". The 1988 adventure game" Snatcher" also used the term "bioroid". In the "Appleseed" manga, published in 1985 by Masamune Shirow, roughly one half of the utopian city Olympus's population are bioroids. Also based on Shirow's work, the animated television series ' features an early-generation bioroid character, Proto. The Realians from the Xenosagagame series could be an example of bioroids. The animated series " Phantom 2040" used the alternate term "biot". The term biot"', a portmanteau of "biological robot," was originally coined by Arthur C. Clarkein his 1972 novel " Rendezvous with Rama". The 2002 RPG Transhuman Spacehas synthesized or assembled humans, called bioroids, as a prominent part of the setting and economy.
A biological brain, grown from cultured neurons which were originally separated, has been developed as the neurological entity subsequently embodied within a robot body by
Kevin Warwickand his team at University of Reading. The brain receives input from sensors on the robot body and the resultant output from the brain provides the robot's only motor signals. The biological brain is the only brain of the robot [Xydas, D.,Norcott, D.,Warwick, K.,Whalley, B.,Nasuto, S.,Becerra, V.,Hammond, M.,Downes, J.and Marshall, S.,"Architecture for Neuronal Cell Control of a Mobile Robot", European Robotics Symposium 2008, Prague, March 2008, Springer.] .
* [http://blog.empyree.org/?2005/11/23/670-bioroides Bioroïdes] - A timeline of the popularization of the idea "(in French)"
* [http://robot.kut.ac.kr BioRobotics Lab in Korea]
Cultured neural networks
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