- Avenue (landscape)
Traditionally, an avenue is a straight road with a line of
trees or large shrubs running along each side, which is used, as its French source "venir" ("to come") indicates, to emphasize the "coming to," or "arrival" at a landscapeor architectural feature. In most cases, the trees planted in an avenue will be all of the same speciesor cultivar, so as to give uniform appearance along the full length of the avenue. The French term, "allée", is confined normally to avenues planted in parks and landscape gardens.
The avenue is one of the oldest ideas in the
history of gardens, with even earlier ritualuses that sanctified a landscape by laying a plumbline across it, a ley line. An avenue of sphinxes still leads to the tomb of the pharaoh Hatshepsut(died 1458 BCE); see the entry Sphinx. Avenues similarly defined by guardian stone lions lead to the Ming tombs. British archaeologists have adopted highly specific criteria for "avenues" within the context of British archaeology.
Baroquelandscape planning, avenues of trees that were centered upon the dwelling radiated across the landscape. See the avenues in the gardens of Het Loo. Other late 17th century Dutch landscapes, in that intensely ordered and flat terrain, fell naturally into avenues; Meindert Hobbema, in "The Avenue at Middelharnis", 1689, presents such an avenue in farming country, neatly flanked at regular intervals by rows of young trees that have been rigorously limbed up; his central vanishing pointmimics the avenue's propensity to draw the spectator forwards along it.cite web |url= http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/collection/features/potm/2006/mar/feature1.htm |title= Special Feature: The Long Road Home |author= Painting of the Month |work= National Gallery, London|quote= ]
In US and Canadian urban or
suburbansettings, "avenue" is often simply a street nameused to differentiate some streets from others, along with "way", "road", etc. Thus a community might have a "Maple Avenue" and a "Maple Street" to avoid confusion between addresses. In some cities in the United States(most notably in Manhattan, New York City), there is a convention that "avenues" run in a north-south direction, while "streets" run in an east-west direction, or vice versa.
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