Roman–Syrian War


Roman–Syrian War

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Roman-Syrian War


caption=Map of Asia Minor and the general region after the war.
date= 191-188 BC
place=Greece and Asia Minor
territory=Caria Lycia south of the Meander River, lands north of the Meander and up to the Taurus mountains to Pergamum.
result=Victory of the anti-Syrian coalition, Treaty of Apamea
casus=Seleucid Invasion of Greece
combatant1=Seleucid Empire, Aetolian League, Athamania
combatant2=Rome, Achean League, Macedon, Pergamum, Rhodes
commander1=Antiochus the Great, Hannibal
commander2=Aemilius Regillus, Scipio Asiaticus, Eumenes II of Pergamum, Philip V of Macedon
strength1=
strength2=

The Roman-Syrian War (192 BC - 188 BC), also known as War of Antiochos or Syrian War, was a military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire under Antiochus the Great. The fighting took place in Greece, the Aegean Sea and Asia Minor.

The war was the consequence of a "cold war" between both powers, which had started already in 196 BC. In this period Romans and Seleucids had tried to settle spheres of influence by making alliances with the Greek minor powers.

The fighting ended with a clear victory of the Romans. In the Treaty of Apamea the Seleucidswere forced to give up Asia Minor, which fell to roman allies. As a main result of the war the Roman Empire gained the hegemony over Greece and became the only remaining major power around the Mediterranean Sea.

The Cold War

Prelude

Antiochus III the Great, the Seleucid Emperor, first became involved with Greece when he signed an alliance with King Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC.Green, "Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age", 304] The treaty stated that Antiochus and Philip would help each other conquer the lands of the young Ptolemaic pharaoh, Ptolemy V.Green, "Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age", 304]

In 200 BC, Rome first became involved in the affairs of Greece, when two of its allies, Pergamum and Rhodes, who had been fighting Philip in the Cretan War, appealed to the Romans for help.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 31.14] ] In response to this appeal the Romans sent an army to Greece and attacked Macedon. The Second Macedonian War lasted until 196 BC, and it effectively ended when the Romans and their allies, including the Aetolian League, defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. The treaty's terms forced Philip to pay a war indemnity and becoming a Roman ally while Rome occupied some areas of Greece.

Meanwhile, Antiochus was fighting the armies of Ptolemy in Coele-Syria in the Fifth Syrian War (201 BC - 195 BC). Antiochus' army crushed the Egyptian army at the Battle of Panium in 201 BC, and by 198 BC, Coele-Syria was in Antiochus' hands.

With Coele-Syria in his hands, Antiochus concentrated on raiding Ptolemaic possessions in Cicilia, Lycia and Caria.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 33.19] ] While attacking Ptolemy's possessions in Asia Minor, Antiochus sent a fleet to occupy Ptolemy's coastal cities in the area as well as to support Philip.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 33.19] ] Rhodes, a Roman ally and the strongest naval power in the area became alarmed and sent envoys to Antiochus says that they would have to oppose him if his fleet passed Chelidonae in Cicilia because they didn't want Philip to receive aid.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 33.20] ] Antiochus ignored the threat and kept going ahead with his naval movements but the Rhodians did not act because they heard that Philip had been defeated at Cynoscephalae and was no longer a threat.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 33.20] ]

Peace was established in 195 BC with the marriage of Antiochus' daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy. Antiochus' hands were now clear of problems in Asia and he now turned his eyes towards Europe.

Outbreak of the War

Meanwhile, Hannibal, the Carthagian general that had fought against Rome in the Second Punic War, fled from Carthage to Tyre and from there he sought refuge at Antiochus' court in Ephesus were the King was deciding what actions to take against Rome.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 34.49] ]

Because of the continued Roman influence in Greece, and in spite of the philo-hellenic consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus having just declared Greece "free", the Aetolians became anti-Roman and began to claim they were not granted enough lands at the end of the Second Macedonian War. In 195 BC, when the Roman decided to invade Sparta, the Aetolians, wanting the Romans to leave Greece, offered to deal with Sparta, however, the Achean League not wanting Aetolia's power to grow, refused.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 34.24] ] The modern historian Erich Gruen has suggested that the Romans may have used the war as an excuse to station a few legions in Greece in order to prevent the Spartans and the Aetolian League from joining the Seleucid King Antiochus III if he invaded Greece.Gruen, "The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, 450]

Having defeated Sparta in 195 BC, the Roman legions under Flamininus left Greece the next year. In 192 BC, a weakened Sparta appealed to the Aetolians for miliary assistance.Smith [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104;query=id%3D%2312514;layout=;loc=] ] The Aetolians responded to the request by sending a unit of 1,000 cavalry.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 35.35] ] However, after they got there this force assassinated Nabis and tried to gain control of Sparta only to be defeated.Livy [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy34.html 35.35] ]

The military conflict

Building on anti-Roman sentiment in Greece, particularly among the city-states of the Aetolian League, Antiochus III led an army across the Hellespont planning to "liberate" it. Antiochus and the Aetolian league failed to gain the support of Philip V of Macedon and the Achaean League. The Romans responded to the invasion by sending an army to Greece which defeated Antiochus' army at Thermopylae.

This defeat proved crushing and Antiochus was forced to retreat from Greece. The Romans under the command of Scipio Asiaticus followed him across the Aegean. The combined Roman-Rhodian fleet defeated the Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal at the Battle of the Eurymedon and at the Battle of Myonessus. After some fighting in Asia Minor, the Seleucids fought against the armies of Rome and Pergamum at Magnesia. The Roman-Pergamese army won the battle and Antiochus was forced to retreat.

The Peace of Apamea

The battle was disastrous for the Seleucids and Antiochus was forced to come to terms. Amongst the terms of the Treaty of Apamea Antiochus had to pay 15,000 talents of silver as a war indemnity and he was forced to abandon his territory west of the Taurus Mountains. Rhodes gained control over Caria and Lycia, while the Pergamese gained northern Lycia and all of Antiochus' other territories in Asia Minor.

Bibliography

Ancient Literature

*Livy, translated by Henry Bettison, (1976). "Rome and the Mediterranean". London: Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044318-5.
*Polybius, translated by Frank W. Walbank, (1979). "The Rise of the Roman Empire". New York: Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044362-2.

Modern Literature

*Ernst Badian, (1959). "Rome and Antiochos the Great: A Study in Cold War". CPh 54, Page 81–99.
*John D. Grainger, (2002). "The Roman War of Antiochos the Great". Leiden and Boston.
*Peter Green, (1990). "Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age, (2nd edition)". Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-500-01485-X.
*Erich Gruen, (1984). "The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome. Los Angeles: University of California Press". ISBN 0-520-05737-6
* Bezalel Bar-Kochva, (1976). "The Seleucid Army. Organization and Tactics in the Great Campaigns". Cambridge.
* Robert M. Errington, (1989). "Rome against Philipp and Antiochos". In: A.E. Astin (Hrsg.). CAH VIII2, S. 244–289.

Citations


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