- Kupffer cell
Kupffer cells, also known as Browicz-Kupffer cells, are specialized
macrophages located in the liverthat form part of the reticuloendothelial system(aka: mononuclear phagocyte system).
The cells were first observed by
Karl Wilhelm von Kupfferin 1876. [Haubrich WS. "Kupffer of Kupffer cells". Gastroenterology 2004;127:16. PMID 15236167.] The scientist called them "sternzellen" (star cells or stellate cells) but thought falsely that they were an integral part of the endotheliumof the liver blood vessels and that they originated from it. In 1898, after several years of research, Tadeusz Browicz, a polish scientist, identified them correctly as macrophages. [Szymanska R, Schmidt-Pospula M. "Studies of liver's reticuloendothelial cells by Tadeusz Browicz and Karl Kupffer. A historical outline". Arch Hist Med (Warsz). 1979;42(3):331-6. PMID 386989.] [Stachura J, Galazka K. "History and current status of Polish gastroenterological pathology." J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;54 Suppl 3:183-92. PMID 15075472.]
Their development begins in the
bone marrowwith the genesis of promonocytesand monoblastsinto monocytes and then on to peripheral blood monocytes completing their differentiation into Kupffer cells. [Naito M, Hasegawa G, Takahashi K. "Development, differentiation, and maturation of Kupffer cells." Microsc Res Tech 1997;39:350-64. PMID 9407545.]
The red blood cell is broken down by phagocytic action and the
hemoglobinmolecule is split. The globin chains are reutilized while the iron containing portion or hemeis further broken down into iron which is reutilized and bilirubin, which is conjugated with glucuronic acidwithin hepatocytesand secreted into the bile.
Helmy et al. identified a receptor present in Kupffer cells, the
complement receptor of the immunoglobulin family(CRIg). Mice without CRIg could not clear complement system-coated pathogens. CRIg is conserved in mice and humans and is a critical component of the innate immune system. [cite journal | author = Helmy K, Katschke K, Gorgani N, Kljavin N, Elliott J, Diehl L, Scales S, Ghilardi N, van Lookeren Campagne M | title = CRIg: a macrophage complement receptor required for phagocytosis of circulating pathogens | journal = Cell | volume = 124 | issue = 5 | pages = 915–27 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16530040 | doi = 10.1016/j.cell.2005.12.039]
* - "Mammal, liver (EM, Low)"
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Kupffer cell — Kupf·fer cell ku̇p fər also Kupf·fer s cell fərz n a fixed macrophage of the walls of the liver sinusoids that is stellate with a large oval nucleus and the cytoplasm commonly packed with fragments resulting from phagocytic action Kupffer Karl… … Medical dictionary
Kupffer cell — ▪ anatomy any of the stellate (star shaped) cells in the linings of the liver sinusoids. The sinusoids are microscopic blood channels. The Kupffer cells are phagocytic, i.e., capable of ingestion of other cells and of foreign particles.… … Universalium
Kupffer cell — [ kʊpfə] noun Anatomy a phagocytic liver cell, involved in the breakdown of red blood cells. Origin early 20th cent.: named after the Bavarian anatomist Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer … English new terms dictionary
kupffer cell — … Useful english dictionary
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Kupffer's cell — noun specialized cells in the liver that destroy bacteria, foreign proteins, and worn out blood cells • Hypernyms: ↑cell • Part Holonyms: ↑liver * * * noun see kupffer cell … Useful english dictionary
Cell — The basic structural and functional unit in people and all living things. Each cell is a small container of chemicals and water wrapped in a membrane. Each cell in the human body there are 100 trillion cells in each of us contains the entire… … Medical dictionary
Kupffer cells — phagocytic cells that line the sinusoids of the liver (see macrophage). They are particularly concerned with the formation of bile and are often seen to contain fragments of red blood cells and pigment granules that are derived from the breakdown … Medical dictionary
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Kupffer — Karl W. von, German anatomist, 1829–1902. See K. cells, under cell … Medical dictionary