Eboracum was a fort and
cityin Roman Britain. Today it is known as York, located in North Yorkshire, England.The etymology of Eboracum is uncertain as the language of the indigenous population of the area was never recorded. One theory is that Eboracum is derived from the Proto-Brythonic word Eborakon which can mean "place of the yew trees" or "the field of Eburos". Efrog in Welsh, Eabhrac in Irish Gaelic, Iorc in Scottish Gaelic. The name is then thought to have been Latinised by replacing -akon with -acum. Another theory is that the language of the indigenous population was a Germanic language similar to Old English and so Eboracum is derived from *eburaz meaning a boar.
The Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD but advance beyond the
Humberdid not take place until the early 70s AD. This was because the people in the area known as the Brigantesby the Romans became a Roman client state. When their leadership changed becoming more hostile to Rome Roman General Quintus Petillius Cerialisled the Ninth Legion north from Lincoln across the Humber.cite book | last = Willis | first = Ronald | date = 1988 | title = The illustrated portrait of York | edition = 4th Ed | publisher = Robert Hale Limited | isbn = 0-7090-3468-7 | pages = 16-17] . Eboracum was founded in 71 AD when Cerialis and the Ninth Legion constructed a military fortress ( castra) on flat ground above the River Ouse near its junction with the River Foss. In the same year Cerialis was appointed Governor of Britain.cite book | last = Hall | first = Richard | title = English Heritage: Book of York | origyear = 1996 | edition = 1st Ed. | year = 1996 | publisher = B.T.Batsford Ltd | pages = 26-28 | isbn = 0-7134-7720-2]
A legion at full strength at that time numbered some 5,500 men, and provided new trading opportunities for enterprising local people, who doubtless flocked to Eboracum to take advantage of them. As a result permanent civilian settlement grew up around the fortress especially on its south-east side. Civilians also settled on the opposite side of the Ouse, initially along the main road from Eboracum to the south-west. By the later 2nd century, growth was rapid; streets were laid out, public buildings were erected and private houses spread out over terraces on the steep slopes above the river.
From its foundation the Roman fort of Eboracum covered an area of 50
acres(0.202 km²) the standard size for a legionaryfortress. The layout of the fortress also followed the standard for a legionary fortress with wooden buildings inside a square defensive boundary. [Hall, "English Heritage: Book of York", Pages 27-28] These defences originally consisting of turf rampartson a green wood foundation, were built by the Ninth Legionbetween 71 and 74 AD. Later these were replaced by a clay mound with a turf front on a new oak foundation, and eventually, wooden battlements were added which were then replaced by limestonewalls and towers. [Willis, "The illustrated Portrait of York", Pages 19-22] The original wooden camp was refurbished by Agricola in 81, before being completely rebuilt in stone between 107 and 108.
There is evidence that the Emperor
Hadrianvisited in 122 on his way north to plan his great walled frontier. He certainly brought with him the Sixth Legion to replace the existing garrison. Emperor Septimius Severusvisited York in 211 and made it his base for campaigning in Scotland, The fortress wall was probably reconstructed during his stay and at the east angle it is possible to see this work standing almost to full height. In that same year, Severus became the first of the two Roman Emperors to die in York and was succeeded by his sons, Caracallaand Geta.
In the later 3rd century, the western Empire experienced political and economic turmoil and Britain was for some time ruled by usurpers independent of
Rome. It was after crushing the last of these that Emperor Constantius Icame to York and, in 306, became the second Emperor to die there. His son Constantine was instantly proclaimed as successor by the troops based in the fortress. Although it took Constantine eighteen years to become sole ruler of the Empire, he may have retained an interest in York and the reconstruction of the south-west front of the fortress with polygonally-fronted interval towers and the two great corner towers, one of which, the 'Multangular Tower', still survives, is probably his work. In the colonia, Constantine's reign was a time of prosperity and a number of extensive stone town houses of the period have been excavated.
As a busy
portand a provincial capital Eboracum was a cosmopolitan city with residents from throughout the Roman Empire. [Hartley, Elizabeth  . Roman Life at the Yorkshire Museum, The Yorkshire Museum, ISBN 0-905807-02-2 P.14]
A range of evidence of Roman religious beliefs among the people of Eboracum have been found including
altars to Mars, Hercules, Jupiter and Fortune, while phallic amuletsare the most commonly found type of good luck charm. In terms of number of reference the most popular deitieswere the spiritual representation ("genius") of Eboracum and the Mother Goddess. There is also evidence of local or regional deities. Evidence showing the worship of eastern deities has also been found during excavations in York. For example evidence of the Mithrascult, which was popular among the military, has been found including a sculpture showing Mithras slaying a bull and a dedication to Arimanius, the god of evil in the Mithraic tradition. [cite book | last = Hall | first = Richard | title = English Heritage: Book of York | origyear = 1996 | edition = 1st Ed. | year = 1996 | publisher = B.T.Batsford Ltd | pages = 97-101 | isbn = 0-7134-7720-2] Another example is the dedication of a temple to Serapisa Hellenistic-Egyptian God by the Commander of the Sixth Legion. [Hartley, Elizabeth  . Roman Life at the Yorkshire Museum, The Yorkshire Museum, ISBN 0-905807-02-2 P.25]
There was also a
Christiancommunity in Eboracum although it is unknown when this was first formed and in archeological terms there is virtually no record of it. The first evidence of this community is a document noting the attendance of Bishop Eborius of Eboracum at the Council of Arlesin 314. [cite book | last = Hall | first = Richard | title = English Heritage: Book of York | origyear = 1996 | edition = 1st Ed. | year = 1996 | publisher = B.T.Batsford Ltd | pages = 97-101 | isbn = 0-7134-7720-2] The Episcopal seeat Eboracum was called "Eboracensis" in Latin and Bishops from the See also attended the First Council of Nicaeain 325, the Council of Sardica, and the Council of Ariminum. [ [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15733b.htm "Ancient See of York"] , New Advent (2007), retrieved on 25 October 2007]
For the Romans, York, or Eboracum, was the major military base in the north of Britain and, following the third century division of the province of
Britannia, the capital of northern Britain, Britannia Inferior. By 237 Eboracum had been made a colonia, the highest legal status a Roman city could attain, one of only four in Britain and the others were founded for retired soldiers. [Hall, "English Heritage: Book of York", Pages 31] This mark of Imperial favour was probably a recognition of York as the largest town in the north and the capital of Britannia Inferior. At around the same time Eboracum became self-governing, with a council made up of rich locals, including merchants, and veteran soldiers. [Hartley, Elizabeth  . Roman Life at the Yorkshire Museum, The Yorkshire Museum, ISBN 0-905807-02-2 P.12] In 296 Britannia Inferiorwas divided into two provinces of equal status with Eboracum becoming the provincial capital of Britannia Secunda.
militarypresence at Eboracum was the driving force behind early developments in its economy. In these early stages Eboracum operated as a command economywith workshopsgrowing up outside the fortress to supply the needs of the 5000 troops garrisoned there. Production included military pottery until the mid-third century, military tile kilnshave been found in the Aldwark-Peasholme Green area, glassworking at coppergate, metalworks and leatherworks producing military equipment in Tanner Row. [Hall, "English Heritage: Book of York", Pages 31]
Substantial remains of the headquarters building of the Roman legionary fortress were discovered under the Minster, and they are open to the public. A re-erected Roman column now stands, upside down, on nearby Deangate, where there is also a recent statue of Constantine. Other sites of excavated remains include a Roman bath, located under the Roman Bath pub in St Sampson's Square, a Roman
temple, near the foot of Lendal Bridge, and the site of a Roman bridge over the River Ouse. Some remains of the Roman city walls can be seen between Monk Bar and the Merchant Taylors' Hall, and a more substantial section can be seen between Museum Gardens and the Central Library, together with the late Roman Multangular Tower. Outside the city walls are the remains of substantial Roman cemeteries. A large number of Roman finds are now housed in the Yorkshire Museum.
History of York
* [http://www.arch.wyjs.org.uk/AdvSrv/indexRoman.asp?pg=Romanweb/Introduction.html The Romans in West Yorkshire]
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Eborācum — (a. Geogr.), Stadt der Briganter in Britannien, am Abus, römische Colonie u. Stützpunkt der Römer bei ihren Unternehmungen gegen die nördlichen Völker; hier lag die Legio VI. victrix u. hielten sich die römischen Kaiser oft auf, Severus u.… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Eboracum — Eborācum (Eburacum), lat. Name der Stadt York … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
EBORACUM — ampla Septentr. Angliae civitas, caput Brigantium, secunda totius Regni, Caerfrock, vel Caer effroc Camdeno Britannice. Vulgo Yorck, prov. Eboracensis caput, ad Urum amnem, Ouse, ubi alias Legio 6. Victrix, cum Duc. tit. Hinc Eboracenses Duces, e … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Eboracum — [i bôr′ə kəm] ancient name for YORK2, England: chief city of the Roman province of Britain … English World dictionary
Eboracum — Reste der römischen Mauer des Legionslagers Eboracum, später zur Colonia Eboracensium erhoben, war eine römische Stadt in der Provinz Britannien, an der Stelle des heutigen York. In der Stadt residierten mehrmals römische Kaiser, die die Stadt… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Eboracum — 53°57′42″N 1°4′50″O / 53.96167, 1.08056 Eboracum est une ancienne cité fortifiée romaine d Angleterre … Wikipédia en Français
Eboracum — geographical name see York … New Collegiate Dictionary
Eboracum — /eb euh ray keuhm/, n. ancient name of York, England. * * * … Universalium
Eboracum — stor. York … Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione
Eboracum — Eb•o•ra•cum [[t]ˌɛb əˈreɪ kəm[/t]] n. geg ancient name of York, England … From formal English to slang