- War artist
A war artist depicts some aspect of war through art; this might be a pictorial record or it might commemorate how "war shapes lives." War artists have explored a visual and sensory dimension of war which is often absent in written histories or other accounts of warfare.
Definition and context
A war artist creates a visual account of war by showing its impact as men and women are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating, or destroyed, as in Vasily Vereshchagin's 1871 painting, The Apotheosis of War.
The works produced by war artists illustrate and record many aspects of war, and the individual's experience of war, whether allied or enemy, service or civilian, military or political, social or cultural. The rôle of the artist and his work embraces the causes, course and consequences of conflict and it has an essentially educational purpose.
Artists record military activities in ways that cameras and the written word can not. Their art collects and distills the nested versions of war and experiences of the men and women who endured in it. The artists and their artwork also affect how subsequent generations view military conflicts. For example, Australian war artists who grew up between the two world wars were influenced by the artwork which depicted the First World War; and there was a precedent and format for them to follow.
Official war artists have been appointed by governments for information or propaganda purposes and to record events on the battlefield; but there are many other types of war artist. These can include combatants who are artists and choose to record their experiences, non-combatants who are witness to war, and prisoners of war who may voluntarily record the conditions or be appointed war artist by senior officers.
Some examples and their background
Artist-correspondents for newspapers, etc.
William Simpson was an artist-correspondent who sent artwork from the front back to London during the Crimean War. Alfred Waud was an American civil war pictorial newspaper. Ogata Gekkō and Tsuguharu Foujita crated woodblock prints for Japanese publications.
Artists who were not officially appointed
Artists who created iconic works
Emmanuel Leutze's 1851 studio painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware is historically wrong in many ways and Leutze was born decades after the event his painting depicts; but this work has become one of the icons of popular culture.
The American panorama created by artists whose work focuses on war began with a visual account of the American Revolutionary War. The war artist or "combat artist" captures instantaneous action and conflates earlier moments of the same scene within one compelling image. Artists are unlike the objective camera lens which records only a single instant and no more.
In 1917, the American military designated "official war artists" who were sent to Europe to record the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces. In World War II, the Navy Combat Art Program ensured that active duty artists developed a record of all phases of the war and all major naval operations.
The official war artist continued to be supported in some, but not all military engagements. Teams of soldier-artists during the Vietnam War created pictorial accounts and interpretations for the annals of army military history. Since 1992, the Army Staff Artist Program was attached to the United States Army Center of Military History as a permanent part of the Museum Division's Collections Branch.
The majority of Combat artists(in the 1970s) were selected for this work by George Gray, chairman of NACAL, Navy Air Cooperation and Liaison committee. Some of their paintings will be selected for the Navy Combat Art Museum in the capital by Charles Lawrence, director. (Hickok, 1978) In January, 1978 The U.S. Navy chose a unique seascape specialist team and asked Patricia Yaps and Wayne Dean, both of Milford, Ct. to capture Search and Air Rescue(SAR)missions off of Key West, Fla. They were based at the Boca Chica Naval Airstation there. As reported by both Andree Hickok of The Sunday Post and Virginia Adams of The News-Times, "They were two of 78 combat artitis that year who donated their times to photograph, (sketch), and later paint Navy functions ranging from a regatta of tall ships, to a mock amphibious assault on the New England Coast." 
- Selected artists
A select list of representative American artists includes:
- Ralph Earl
- Emmanuel Leutze
- John Trumbull
- William B.T. Trego
- Alonzo Chappel
- Edwin Forbes
- Gilbert Gaul
- Winslow Homer
- Thomas Nast
- Keith Rocco
- Julian Scott
- Xanthus Russell Smith
- Alfred Waud
- William Waud
- Howard Chandler Christy Newspaper
- William Glackens Newspaper
- Henry Reuterdahl Newspaper
- Walter Russell Newspaper
World War I
- William James Aylward
- Walter Jack Duncan
- Harvey Thomas Dunn
- Kerr Eby Marines
- George Matthews Harding
- Wallace Morgan
- Ernest Clifford Peixotto
- John Singer Sargent
- J. Andre Smith.
- Harry Everett Townsend, Army.
- Claggett Wilson Army
World War II
- Edward Reep, 1918- .
- Standish Backus, 1910–1989
- McClelland Barclay, 1891–1942.
- George Biddle, 1885–1973
- Aaron Bohrod, 1907–1992.
- Howard Brodie, 1915–2010 .
- Jack Coggins, 1914–2006 .
- Raymond Creekmore, 1905–1984
- Olin Dows.
- Edward Dugmore, 1915–1996.
- William Franklin Draper, 1912-2003.
- Nathan Glick Army Air Force
- Mitchel Jamieson, 1915–1976
- John Cullen Murphy, 1919–2004.
- Henry Varnum Poor, 1887–1970
- Dwight Shepler, –1974.
- Mitchell Siporin, 1910–1976
Soldier Artist Participants in the U. S. Army Vietnam Combat Artists Program
- CAT I, 15 Aug - 15 Dec 1966, Roger A. Blum (Stillwell, KS), Robert C. Knight (Newark, NJ), Ronald E. Pepin (East Hartford, CT), Paul Rickert (Philadelphia, PA), Felix R. Sanchez (Fort Madison, IA), John O. Wehrle (Dallas, TX), and supervisor, Frank M. Sherman.
- CAT II, 15 Oct 1966 - 15 Feb 1967, Augustine G. Acuna (Monterey, CA), Alexander A. Bogdanovich (Chicago, IL), Theodore E. Drendel (Naperville, IL), David M. Lavender (Houston, TX), Gary W. Porter (El Cajon, CA), and supervisor, Carolyn M. O'Brien.
- CAT III, 16 Feb - 17 June 1967, Michael R. Crook (Sierra Madre, CA), Dennis O. McGee (Castro Valley, CA), Robert T. Myers (White Sands Missile Range, NM), Kenneth J. Scowcroft (Manassas, VA), Stephen H. Sheldon (Los Angeles, CA), and supervisor, C. Bruce Smyser.
- CAT IV, 15 Aug - 31 Dec 1967, Samuel E. Alexander (Philadelphia, MS), Daniel T. Lopez (Fresno, CA), Burdell Moody (Mesa, AZ), James R. Pollock (Pollock, SD), Ronald A. Wilson (Alhambra, CA), and technical supervisor, Frank M. Thomas.
- CAT V, 1 Nov 1967 - 15 March 1968, Warren W. Buchanan (Kansas City, MO), Philip V. Garner (Dearborn, MI), Phillip W. Jones (Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro, NC]]), Don R. Schol (Denton, TX), John R. Strong (Kanehoe, HI), and technical supervisor, Frank M. Thomas.
- CAT VI, 1 Feb - 15 June 1968, Robert T. Coleman (Grand Rapids, MI), David N. Fairrington (Oakland, CA), John D. Kurtz IV (Wilmington, DE), Kenneth T. McDaniel (Paris, TN), Michael P. Pala (Bridgeport, CT).
- CAT VII, 15 Aug - 31 Dec 1968, Brian H. Clark (Huntington, NY), William E. Flaherty Jr. (Louisville, KY), William C. Harrington (Terre Haute, IN), Barry W. Johnston (Huntsville, AL), Stephen H. Randall (Des Moines, IA), and supervisor, Fitzallen N. Yow.
- CAT VIII, 1 Feb - 15 June 1969, Edward J. Bowen (Carona Del Mar, CA), James R. Drake (Colorado Springs, CO), Roman Rakowsky (Cleveland, OH), Victory V. Reynolds (Idaho Falls, ID), Thomas B. Schubert (Chicago, IL), and supervisor, Fred B. Engel.
- CAT IX, 1 Sept 1969 - 14 Jan 1970, David E. Graves (Lawrence, KS), James S. Hardy (Coronado, CA), William R. Hoettels (San Antonio, TX), Bruce N. Rigby (Dekalb, IL), Craig L. Stewart (Laurel, MD), and supervisor, Edward C. Williams.
- Kristopher Battles, Iraq and Afghanistan.
- Henry Casselli
- Michael D. Fay, Iraq and Afghanistan.
The artists whose work depicts war have encompassed all the conflicts in which Australians have been called to combat. The Australian tradition of "official war artists" started with the First World War. Artists were granted permission to accompany the Australian Imperial Force to record the activities of its soldiers. During the Second World War, the Australian War Museum, later called the Australian War Memorial, engaged artists. At the same time, the Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force appointed official war artist-soldiers from within their ranks. These embedded war artists have also depicted the activities of Australian forces in Korea, Vietnam, East Timor, Afghanistan and Iraq.
- Selected artists
A select list of representative Australian artists includes:
Second Boer War
First World War
- George Bell, 1878–1966.
- Charles Bryant, 1883–1937.
- Will Dyson, 1880–1938.
- A. Henry Fullwood, 1863–1930.
- George Lambert ARA, 1873–1930.
- Fred Leist, 1878–1945.
- John Longstaff, 1862–1941.
- Louis Frederick McCubbin, 1890-1952.
- Harold Septimus Power, 1877–1951.
- James Quinn, 1869–1951.
- Arthur Streeton, 1867–1943.
Second World War
- Stella Bowen, 1893–1947.
- Colin Colahan, 1897-1987.
- William Dargie CBE, 1912–2003.
- William Dobell OBE, 1899–1970.
- Russell Drysdale AC, 1912–1981.
- Richard Eurich, OBE, RA, 1903–1992.
- Murray Griffin, 1903–1992.
- Ivor HeleCBE, 1912–1993.
- Nora Heysen AM, 1911–2003.
- Alan Moore, 1915– .
- Sydney Nolan OM, AC, 1917–1992.
- William Edwin Pidgeon, 1909-1981.
- Grace Cossington Smith AO, 1892–1984.
- Rick Amor, 1948– , Peacekeeping in East Timor.
- Peter Churcher, 1964– , War on Terrorism.
- George Gittoes AM, 1949– .
- Shaun Gladwell, 1972– , War in Afghanistan.
- Ivor Hele, 1912–1993, Korean War
- Ken McFadyen, 1939–1997, Vietnam War
- Lewis Miller, 1959– , War in Iraq.
- Frank Norton, 1916–1983, Korean War
- Wendy Sharpe, 1960– , Peacekeeping in East Timor
- Conway Bown, 1966– , Australian Army War Artist 
- Alfred Basel
- Roman Zenzinger
British participation in foreign wars has been the subject of paintings and other works created by Britain's artists whose work portrays war. Artwork like the 1688 painting, The Fleet at Sea, by Willem van de Velde the Younger depict the Royal Navy in readiness for battle. The Ministry of Defence (MoD) Art Collection includes many paintings showing battle scenes, particularly naval battles. Military art and portraiture has evolved along with other aspects of war. The "official war artists" of the First World War created a unique account of that conflict; and the British War Artists Scheme (WAS) expanded the number of official artists and enlarged the scope of their activities during the Second War.
Significant themes in the chronicle of twentieth century wars have been developed by non-military, non-"official," civilian artists. For example, society portraitist Arabella Dorman's paintings of wounded Iraq War veterans inspired her to spend two weeks with three regiments in different frontline areas: the Green Jackets at Basra Palace, the Queen's Own Gurkhas at Shaibah logistics base, 10 miles south-west of Basra, and the Queen's Royal Lancers in the Maysaan desert. In the field, Dorman drew quick charcoal portraits of the men she met. Returning to England, the sketches she made helped her use art to "evoke the emotions and psychological impact of war" rather than depicting the "physical horror" of war.
- Selected artists
A select list of representative British artists includes:
- Denis Dighton, 1792-1827.
- Robert Ker Porter, 1777-1842.
- John Christian Schetky,1778-1874.
- John Henry Frederick Bacon, 1868-1914.
- René Bull, 1872–1942
- Charles Edwin Fripp, 1854-1906.
- Godfrey Douglas Giles, 1857–1941,
- Ernest Prater, 1864–1950.
- Melton Prior, 1845-1910.
- Frederic Villiers, 1851–1922
- William Barnes Wollen, 1857–1936
First World War
- Muirhead Bone, 1888-1953.
- Eric Kennington RA, 1888–1960.
- John Hodgson Lobley RA, 1878–1954. 
- John Nash CBE RA, 1893–1977.
- Sir William Orpen KBE RA RHA, 1878–1931;
Second World War
- Edward Ardizzone CBE RA, 1900–1979.
- Edward Bawden RA, 1903–1989.
- Henry Carr RA, 1894–1970.
- Jack Bridger Chalker, 1918– .
- Bernard Hailstone, 1910–1987.
- Thomas Hennell, 1903-1945.
- Laura Knight DBE RA, 1877–1970.
- Philip Meninsky, 1919-2007.
- Ashley George Old, 1913-2001.
- Cuthbert Orde, 1888-1968.
- John Piper 1903-1992
- Roland Vivian Pitchforth, 1911-1999.
- Eric Ravilious, 1903–1942.
- Albert Richards, 1919-1945 
- Ronald Searle CBE RDI, 1920– .
- Ruskin Spear RA, 1911–1990.
- Graham Sutherland OM, 1903–1980.
- Carel Weight CBE RA, 1908–1997,
First World War
- Alfred Bastien, 1873—1955.
Representative works by Canada's artists whose work illustrates and records war are gathered into the extensive collection of the Canadian War Museum. A few First World War paintings were exhibited in the Canadian Senate Chamber, and artists studied these works as a way of preparing to create new artworks in the conflict in Europe which expanded after 1939.
“ "The war art commissions brought intense focus to the observation of Canada's role in international conflict .... A driving need for a strong national identity urged First and Second World War artists toward symbolism. While these vivid images are of a now distant past, they continue to communicate their messages to us, and so never lose their relevance." ”
In the Second World War, Canada expanded its an official art program; and Canadian war artists were a kind of journalist who lived the lives of soldiers. The work of other "non-official," civilian artists became part of the record of this period. Canada supported "official war artists" in both the First World War and the Second World War; however, no official artists were designated during the Korean War.
Among Canada's embedded artist-journalist teams was Richard Johnson, who was sent by the National Post to Afghanistan in 2007; and his drawings of Canadian troops were published and posted online as part of a serial "Kandahar Journal".
- Selected artists
A select list of representative Canadian artists includes:
First World War
- John William Beatty, 1869–1941.
- Alexander Young Jackson CC CMG , 1882–1974.
- Arthur Lismer CC, 1885-1969.
- Frederick Varley, 1881-1969.
Second World War
- Alan Brockman Beddoe OC OBE HFHS FHSC, 1893–1975.
- Molly Lamb Bobak CM ONB, 1922– .
- David Alexander Colville PC CC ONS, 1920– .
- Charles Fraser Comfort OC, 1900–1994.
- William Abernethy Ogilvie CM MBE, 1901–1989
- Jack Shadbolt OC OBC, 1909-1998.
- Donald Kenneth Anderson, RCAF: Official War Artist (1920-2009)
- Edward Zuber, 1932– .
The French government assigned a purpose to war art and the work of war artists.
During the First World War, the work of artists depicting aspects of the military conflict were put on display in official war art exhibitions.
In 1916, the Ministry of Beaux-Arts and the Ministry of War sponsored the Salon des Armées to show the work of the artists who had been mobilized. This one exhibition realized 60,000 francs. These proceeds supported not only needy artists at home but also the disabled.
- Hippolyte Bellangé
- Nicolas Toussaint Charlet
- Edouard Detaille
- Antoine-Jean Gros
- Constantin Guys
- Eugène Louis Lami
- Louis-François, Baron Lejeune
- Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
- Alphonse-Marie de Neuville
- Paul Philippoteaux
- Paul Alexandre Protais
- Denis Auguste Marie Raffet
- Carle Vernet
- Horace Vernet
- Antoine Watteau
- Adolphe Yvon
- Emmanuel Leutze
- Adolf Menzel
- Georg Bleibtreu
- Wilhelm Camphausen
- Emil Hünten
- Carl Röchling
- Anton von Werner
First World War
Second World War
- Kubota Beisen, 1852–1906.
- Toshihide Migita, 1862–1925.
- Ogata Gekkō, 1859–1920.
- Tsuguharu Foujita, 1886–1968.
- Toyohara Chikanobu, 1838–1912.
- Utagawa Yoshiiku, 1833–1904.
- Kim Seong-hwan, 1932- .
War artists have been appointed by the government in order to supplement the record of New Zealand’s military history. The title of "war artist" changed to "army artist" when Ion Brown was appointed after the two world wars.
Conservators at the National Art Gallery considered the collection to be of historic rather than artistic worth; and few were displayed. New Zealand's National Collection of War Art encompasses the work of artists who were working on commission for the Government as "official war artists." while others created artworks for their own reasons.
- Selected artists
A select list of representative New Zealand artists includes:
First World War
Second World War
- Russell Clark, 1905-1966.
- James Boswell, 1906-1971.
- John McIndoe, 1898- .
- Peter McIntyre OBE, 1910–1995.
- Graham Braddock
- Ion Brown, Bosnia and Croatia
- Matthew Gauldie, Solomon Islands and Afghanistan
- Neville Lewis (World War II)
- ^ Imperial War Museum (IWM), header phrase, "war shapes lives"
- ^ Australian War Memorial (AWM): Australian official war artists
- ^ Canadian War Museum (CWM), "Australia, Britain and Canada in the Second World War," 2005.
- ^ IWM, About the Imperial War Museum
- ^ U.S. Naval Historical Center (NHHC), "World War II Navy Art: A Vision of History,", 2001
- ^ Reid, John B. (1977). Australian Artists at War, Vol. 2, p. 5.
- ^ National Archives (UK), "'The Art of War,' Learn About the Art."
- ^ Gauldie, Matt. "History of the NZ Army Artist"
- ^ a b c Kino, Carol. "With Sketchpads and Guns, Semper Fi"; "Marine Art," New York Times. July 13, 2010.
- ^ Harrington, Peter. "The First True War Artist," MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 9, No. 1, Autumn 1996, pp. 100–109.
- ^ a b Bell, Steve. "Ronald Searle: a life in pictures,"The Guardian (London). March 9, 2010; Grove, Valerie. "Aged 90, Ronald Searle recalls the bad girls of St Trinian's,"The Times (London). February 20, 2010.
- ^ a b NHHC, Navy Combat Art Program
- ^ a b United States Army Center of Military History (CMH), Army Art Program History.
- ^ U.S. Army Vietnam Combat Art Program
- ^ Oline Cogdill, Official Combat Artists; They 'Capture' the Navy, People Today, March 11, 1978
- ^ Andree Hickok, 2 Combat artists capture life and death on canvas, The Sunday Post Closeup F-1, July 2, 1978
- ^ Virginia Adams, Navy Draft Patricia YAps as combat artist, The News-Times, July 10, 1978
- ^ Rocco, Keith et al. (2004). The Soldier's View: The Civil War Art of Keith Rocco.
- ^ a b c d e CMH, artists, p. 1.
- ^ a b c CMH, artists, p. 2.
- ^ PBS. They Drew Fire: Combat Artists of World War II,[http://www.pbs.org/theydrewfire/artists/reep.html Edward Reep 1st broadcast, May 2000.
- ^ NHHC, McClelland Barclay, Naval Art Collection.
- ^ a b c d Brown University Library, American war artists
- ^ PBS. They Drew Fire: Combat Artists of World War II, Howard Brodie. 1st broadcast, May 2000.
- ^ CMH, Olin Dows
- ^ NHHC, William Franklin Draper, Naval Art Collection; PBS. They Drew Fire, William Draper.
- ^ Perricelli, Lynne Moss. "Drawing: Henry Casselli: Drawing From the Inside Out," American Artist. 7 Mar 2008.
- ^ Wilkins, Lola. "Interpreting the war: Australia's Second World War art." CWM, 2005.
- ^ a b Strauss, David Levi. "George Gittoes with David Levi Strauss," The Brooklyn Rail (New York). July 8, 2010; Order of Australia, George Gittoes, AM, excerpt of citation, "For service to art and international relations as an artist and photographer portraying the effects on the environment of war, international disasters and heavy industry".
- ^ AWM: Australia and the Boer War, 1899–1902; The incident for which Captain Howse was awarded the VC in Vredefort, July 1900 by William Dargie (1968, oil on paper on board, 25.5 x 35.5 cm), AWM ART29246
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j AWM, First World War, official artists
- ^ Gray, Anne. (1986). "McCubbin, Louis Frederick (1890 - 1952)," Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 10, pp. 243-244; excerpt, "Appointed an official war artist under the Australian Records Section scheme to the 3rd Division, he visited scenes of battles with Wallace Anderson and Charles Web Gilbert after the war to collect data for proposed dioramas.
- ^ a b c d e f AWM: Second World War, official artists
- ^ Colahan, Colin - Australian War Memorial; An article and images of Colahan's war art compiled by Garry Kinnane., Journal of the Australian War Memorial, http://www.awm.gov.au/journal/j28/j28-kinn.asp, retrieved 2011-08-31
- ^ CWM, William Dobell
- ^ CWM, Russell Drysdale
- ^ Richard Eurich, The Official Website of Richard Eurich R.A., http://www.richardeurich.co.uk/frame.html, retrieved 2011-0 8-11
- ^ CWM, Sydney Nolan
- ^ CWM, Grace Cossington Smith
- ^ a b c d e f g h AWM: Conflicts 1945 to today, official artists
- ^ Defence, Dept of. Media Release "The Creation of the Army's Official Art Collection" 
- ^ a b Ministry of Defence (MoD), Battles
- ^ Tolson, Roger. "A Common Cause: Britain's War Artists Scheme." CWM, 2005.
- ^ Harrison, David. "War artist Arabella Dorman paints Iraq," Telegraph (London). May 2, 2009.
- ^ National Maritime Museum (NMM), The Fall of Nelson, Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 by Denis Dighton, c. 1825.
- ^ National Portrait Gallery(NPG), Robert Ker Porter
- ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB), Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters (1817 - 1894)
- ^ Library of Congress (LOC), Simpson, William, 1823-1899
- ^ National Portrait Gallery, Expansion and Empire
- ^ Artnet, Bacon, 1868-1914
- ^ EasyArt: Charles Edwin Fripp; excerpt, "Fripp also held a commission in the Artists Rifles for 13 years ...."
- ^ British Sporting Artists Trust (BSAT), Godfrey Douglas Giles
- ^ WorldCat Identities: Prater, Ernest
- ^ Brighton and Hove Museums, Melton Prior; Lee, Sidney. (2006). Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), Second Supplement, Vol. 3, p. 136. at Google Books
- ^ a b c d MoD, War artists
- ^ IWM, "Art highlights from the First World War," Eric Kennington; also a war artist in World War II.
- ^ "John Hodgson Lobley, 1878-1954". BBC in partnership with The Public Catalogue Foundation. http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/yourpaintings/artists/john-hodgson-lobley/paintings/slideshow.
- ^ "Witness - Highlights of First World War Art". Imperial War Museum. http://www.iwm.org.uk/upload/pdf/Witness.pdf.
- ^ IWM, "Art highlights from the First World War," John Nash, 1893–1977; also a war artist in World War II.
- ^ IWM, "Art highlights from the First World War," William Orpen; also a war artist in World War II.
- ^ CWM, Edward Ardizzone
- ^ CWM, Edward Bawden
- ^ CWM, Henry Carr
- ^ CWM, Laura Knight
- ^ IWM, Philip Meninsky
- ^ IWM, POW Thailand (Stanley Gimson) by Ashley George Old, 1944
- ^ RAF Museum
- ^ MoD, Art Collection
- ^ Albert Richards (1919 − 1945)
- ^ CWM, Ruskin Spear
- ^ CWM, Graham Sutherland
- ^ CWM, Carel Weight
- ^ a b c "Contemporary War Artists: Introduction". Imperial War Museum. http://collections.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.909.
- ^ "Contemporary War Artists: Peter Howson: Bosnia". Imperial War Museum. http://collections.iwm.org.uk/server.php?show=ConWebDoc.912.
- ^ "Contemporary War Artists: John Keane: The Gulf War". Imperial War Museum. http://collections.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.911.
- ^ "Women at war: The female British artists who were written out of history". Independent. 8 April 2011. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/features/women-at-war-the-female-british-artists-who-were-written-out-of-history-2264670.html.
- ^ "Contemporary War Artists: Linda Kitson: The Falklands War". Imperial War Museum. http://collections.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.910.
- ^ CWM, Alfred Bastien
- ^ a b Brandon, Laura. "'Doing Justice to History:' Canada's Second World War Official Art Program." CWM, 2005.
- ^ a b c d e f g Art Gallery of Ontario, "Canvas of War: Masterpieces from the Canadian War Museum," October 2001-January 2002.
- ^ "North Korea: The Forgotten War," CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Company). July 18, 2003.
- ^ [http://network.nationalpost.com/NP/blogs/kandaharjournal/about.aspx
- ^ Johnson, Richard (2007). "The Missing Pieces". National Post (Toronto). http://network.nationalpost.com/NP/blogs/kandaharjournal/archive/2007/08/05/the-missing-pieces.aspx.
- ^ Library and Archives Canada (LAC), Alan Brockman Beddoe
- ^ LAC, Molly Lamb Bobak
- ^ LAC, David Alexander Colville
- ^ LAC, Charles Fraser Comfort
- ^ The Art of War," Canadian Army Journal, Vol. 12.3. Winter 2010. pp. 102-103.
- ^ a b c Library of Congress (LOC), Salon des Armées, réservé aux artistes du front. Au profit des oeuvres de guerre. Jardin des Tuileries by Henri Dangon, color film slide; summary description
- ^ McCloskey, Barbara. (2005). Artists of World War II, p. 50.
- ^ McCloskey, p. 50; Yenne, William P. German War Art, 1939-1945.
- ^ a b WW2Talk, German Official War Artists, citing German War Art 1939-45 by William Yenne.
- ^ "Contemporary Conflist >> Women War Artists". Imperial War Museum London. http://london.iwm.org.uk/server/show/nav.24678.
- ^ "Women War Artists: Focus on Frauke Eigen". Imperial War Museum channel on YouTube]]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gx68n23HUg8.
- ^ Diósy, Arthur. (1900). The New Far East, p. xv. at Google Books
- ^ Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric et al. (2005). "Migita Toshihide" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 628.
- ^ Nussbaum, "Ogata Gekkō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 737.
- ^ Nussbaum, "Fujita Tsuguharu" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 200; McCloskey, p. 117.
- ^ Okamoto, Shumpei. (1983). Impressions of the Front: Woodcuts of the Sino Japanese War, 1894-95, pp. 21, 27.
- ^ Complutense University of Madrid, Biblioteca Histórica Marqués de Valdecilla. Exposición "Flores de Edo: samuráis, artistas y geishas" 4 November 2004 - 10 January 2005.
- ^ Salmon, Andrew. "A Cartoonist at War: 'Gobau's' Korea, 1950," The Asia-Pacific Journal, July 13, 2009; "A teenage cartoonist’s diary of horrors," JoongAng Ilbo. July 10, 1010.
- ^ Archives New Zealand (Archives NZ), War Art.
- ^ a b c d New Zealand Army (NZ Army), NZ Army Artist, Matt Gauldie.
- ^ Archives NZ, What is War Art.
- ^ Archives NZ, War Art, Artist biographies
- ^ Archives NZ, George Edmund Butler, retrieved 2011-05-03
- ^ Archives NZ, Russell Clark
- ^ Archives NZ, James Boswell
- ^ Archives NZ, John McIndoe
- ^ Archives NZ, "Peter McIntyre's war art online
- ^ http://www.ionbrown.com/profile.php
- ^ [http://www.army.mil.nz/culture-and-history/nz-army-culture/army-artist/default.htm
- ^ Fisher, David. "Feature: Capturing the Moment," New Zealand Listener (June 28-July 4, 2008) Vol. 214, No. 3555.
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- Johnson, Peter (1978). Front-Line Artists. London: Cassell. 10-ISBN 030430011X/13-ISBN 9780304300112; OCLC 4412441
- Jones, James (1975). WW II: a Chronicle of Soldiering. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. 1617592
- Lanker, Brian and Nicole Newnham. (2000). They Drew Fire: Combat Artists of World War II. New York: TV Books. 10-ISBN 1575000857/13-ISBN 9781575000855; OCLC 43245885
- Reid, John B. (1977). Australian Artists at War: Compiled from the Australian War Memorial Collection. Volume 1. 1885-1925; Vol. 2 1940-1970. South Melbourne, Victoria: Sun Books. 10-ISBN 0725102543/13-ISBN 9780725102548; OCLC 4035199
- Oliver, Dean Frederick, and Laura Brandon (2000). Canvas of War: Painting the Canadian Experience, 1914 to 1945. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. 10-ISBN1550547720/13-ISBN 9781550547726; OCLC 43283109
- Tippett, Maria. (1984). Art at the Service of War: Canada, Art, and the Great War. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 10-ISBN 0802025412/13-ISBN 9780802025418; OCLC 13858984
- Gilkey, Gordon. War Art of the Third Reich. Bennington, Vermont: International Graphics Corporation, 1982). 10-ISBN 0865560188/13-ISBN 9780865560185; OCLC 223704492
- Weber, John Paul. (1979). The German War Artists. Columbia, South Carolina: Cerberus. 10-ISBN 0933590008/13-ISBN 9780933590007; OCLC 5727293
- New Zealand
- Haworth, Jennifer. (2007). The Art of War: New Zealand War Artists in the Field 1939-1945. Christchurch, New Zealand: Hazard Press. 13-ISBN 9781877393242/10-ISBN 187739324X; OCLC 174078159
- South Africa
- Carter, Albert Charles Robinson. (1900). The Work of War Artists in South Africa. London: "The Art Journal" Office. OCLC 25938498
- United Kingdom
- Gough, Paul. (2010). A Terrible Beauty: British Artists in the First World War. Bristol: Sansom and Company. 13-ISBN 9781906593001/10-ISBN 1906593000; OCLC 559763485
- Harries, Meirion and Suzie Harries. (1983). The War Artists: British Official War Art of the Twentieth Century. London: Michael Joseph. 10-ISBN 071812314X/13-ISBN 9780718123147; OCLC 9888782
- Harrington, Peter. (1983). British Artists and War: The Face of Battle in Paintings and Prints, 1700-1914. London: Greenhill. 10-ISBN 1853671576/13-ISBN 9781853671579; OCLC 28708501
- Haycock, David Boyd. (2009). A Crisis of Brilliance: Five Young British Artists and the Great War. London: Old Street Publishing. 13-ISBN 9781905847846/10-ISBN 190584784X; OCLC 318876179
- Hichberger, J.W.M. (1988). Images of the Army: The Military in British Art 1815-1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 10-ISBN 0719025753/13-ISBN 9780719025754; OCLC 17295891
- Sillars, Stuart (1987). Art and Survival in First World War Britain. New York: St. Martins Press. 10-ISBN 031200544X/13-ISBN 9780312005443; OCLC 14932245
- Holme, Charles. (1918). The War Depicted by Distinguished British Artists. London: The Studio. OCLC 5081170
- United States
- Cornebise, Alfred. (1991). Art from the trenches: America's Uniformed Artists in World War I. College Station: Texas A & M University Press. 10-ISBN 0890963495/13-ISBN 9780890963494; OCLC 22892632
- Harrington, Peter, and Frederic A. Sharf. (1988). A Splendid Little War; The Spanish-American War, 1898; The Artists' Perspective. London: Greenhill. 10-ISBN 1853673161/13-ISBN 9781853673160; OCLC 260112479
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