- Kingdom of Armenia
Infobox Former Country
native_name = Մեծ Հայք
conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Armenia
common_name = Kingdom of Armenia
continent = Europe
region = Caucasus
status = Empire
year_start = 190 BC
year_end = 428
life_span = 190 BC – AD 428
date_end = AD 428
p1 = Satrapy of Armenia
s1 = Roman Empire
flag_s1 = Vexilloid_of_the_Roman_Empire.svg
s2 = Sassanid Empire
image_map_caption = Kingdom of
Armeniaat its greatest extent under the Artaxiad Dynastyafter the conquests of Tigranes the Great, 80 BC.
capital = Tigranakert
common_languages = Armenian
The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from
190 BCto AD 387and a client state of the Roman and Persian empires until 428, stretching from the Caspian to the Mediterranean seas. ["Time Almanac", page 724 by Editors of Time Magazine] [The New Review, page 208. Edited by Archibald Grove, William Ernest Henley]
The predecessor of the Kingdom was the Satrapy of Armenia ("Armina" in the Old Persian, "Harminuya" in the Elamite and "Urashtu" ("Urartu") in the Bablylonian parts of
Behistun Inscriptionof Darius the Great) part of the Achaemenid Empire, which later became an independent Kingdom under the Orontid Dynastywith Macedonian influence.
After the destruction of the
Seleucid Empire, a Hellenistic Greek successor state of Alexander the Great's short-lived empire, a Hellenistic Armenian state was founded in 190 BC by Artaxias IFact|date=April 2008. At its zenith, from 95 to 66 BC, Armenia extended its rule over parts of the Caucasus and the area that is now eastern Turkey, Syriaand LebanonFact|date=April 2008. For a time, Armenia was one of the most powerful states in the Roman East. It came under the Roman sphere of influencein 66 BC, after the battle of Tigranocertaand the final defeat of Armenia's allied Mithridates VI of Pontus. Mark Antonyinvaded and defeated the kingdom in 34 BC, but Romans lost hegemony at time of the Final war of the Roman Republicin 32-30 BC. In 20 BC, Augustusnegotiated a truce with the Parthians, making Armenia a buffer zone between the two major powers.
Subsequently, Armenia was often a focus of contention between Rome and Persia, with both major powers supporting opposing sovereigns and usurpers. The
Parthians forced Armenia into submission from 37 to 47, when the Romans retook control of the kingdom.
Nero, the Romans fought a campaign (55–63) against the Parthian Empire, which had invaded the Kingdom of Armenia, allied to the Romans. After gaining (60) and losing (62) Armenia, the Romans sent XV "Apollinaris" from Pannoniato Cn. Domitius Corbulo, "legatus" of Syria. Corbulo, with the legions XV "Apollinaris", III "Gallica", V "Macedonica", X "Fretensis" and XXII, entered (63) into the territories of Vologases I of Parthia, who returned the Armenian kingdom to Tiridates.
Another campaign was led by Emperor
Lucius Verusin 162-165, after Vologases IV of Parthiahad invaded Armenia and installed his chief general on its throne. To counter the Parthian threat, Verus set out for the east. His army won significant victories and retook the capital. Sohaemus, a Roman citizen of Armenian heritage, was installed as the new client king. But a result of an epidemic within the Roman forces, Parthians retook most of their lost territory in 166 and forced Sohaemus to retreat to Syria, аnd in Armenia Arsakid’s dynasty was restored.
After the fall of the
Arsacid Dynastyin Persia, there succeeded the Sassanian Dynasty which aspired to establish control over Armenia. The Sassanid Persians occupied Armenia in 252. In 287 Tiridetes III the Great, was established king of Armenia by the Roman armies. He soon accepted Christianity. The traditional date is in 301, earlier than Constantine the Great.
In 387 the kingdom was split between the
East Roman Empireand the Persians. Western Armenia quickly became a province of the Roman Empireunder the name of Armenia Minor; Eastern Armenia remained a kingdom within Persia until 428, when the local nobility overthrew the king, and the Sassanids installed a governor in his place.
By the second century BC the population of Greater Armenia spoke Armenian, implying that today’s Armenians are the direct descendants of those speakers. [Patrick Donabedian, “The History of Karabagh from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century,” in Levon Chorbajian, Patrick Donabedian and
Claude Mutafian,] [The Caucasian Knot: The History and Geo-Politics of Nagorno-Karabagh (London and New Jersey: Zed Books, 1994), p. 53.] [Armenia and Azerbaijan:thinking a way out of Karabakh David D. Laitin and Ronald Grigor Suny] [Greek Geographer, Strabo, ]
*M. Chahin, "The Kingdom of Armenia" (1987, reissued 1991)
Vahan Kurkjian, "Tigran the Great" (1958)
* Ashkharbek Kalantar, "Armenia: From the Stone Age to the Middle Ages," Civilisations du Proche Orient, Se´rie 1, Vol. 2, Recherches et Publications, Neuchâtel, Paris, 1994;ISBN 978-2-940032-01-3
* Ashkharbek Kalantar, "The Mediaeval Inscriptions of Vanstan, Armenia," Civilisations du Proche-Orient: Series 2 - Philologie - CDPOP 2, Vol. 2, Recherches et Publications, Neuchâtel, Paris, 1999;ISBN 978-2-940032-11-2
* Ashkharbek Kalantar, "Materials on Armenian and Urartian History" (with a contribution by Mirjo Salvini), Civilisations du Proche-Orient: Series 4 - Hors Série - CPOHS 3, Neuchâtel, Paris, 2004;ISBN 978-2-940032-14-3
* [http://www.armenianhighland.com Armenian History]
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