Hisar, India


Hisar, India

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Hisar | type = city | latd = 29.5 | longd = 75.45
locator_position = right | state_name = Haryana
district = Hisar
leader_title =
leader_name =
altitude = 215
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 256,810| population_density =
area_magnitude= 3787 km²
area_total =
area_telephone = 01662
postal_code = 125001
posta_code (2) = 125005vehicle_code_range = HR 20
sex_ratio = 1:1.1
unlocode =
website = www.hisar.nic.in
footnotes =

Hisar (Hindi: ‍हिसार),(Punjabi: ਅੰਬਾਲਾ), previously spelled as Hissar, is a city in the state of Haryana, in northwestern India, and it is also headquarters of Hisar District. Hisar was founded as Hissar-e-Firoza by Firoz Shah Tughlak on the demolished ruins of an existing prosperous Hindu and Jain city of Iksaru.

The city is mainly known for

# Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, one of Asia's largest agriculture universities.
# Haryana School of Business, one of the best B-Schools in northern India.
# Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology (formerly Guru Jambheshwar University) [http://www.gju.ernet.in] , (NAAC 'A' Grade University).
# National Research Centre on Equines (NRCE) [http://www.nrce.nic.in] , Sirsa Road, Hisar - 125 001 (Haryana) - a premier institute for research and development in equine sector -the only one in India.
# Department of Printing Technology, GJU. (Indias first govt. run institute providing Bachelors Degrees in Printing Technology. Also to start Post-Graduate Course in Printing Technology).
# Stainless steel manufacturing plants (Hisar is known as Steel City ).
# Various Medicine Factories at Industrial Sector.
# Regional Vocational Training Institute, Hissar http://www.dget.gov.in/rvtihisar/welcome.html
# Shri Hanuman Temple situated at Kaajla Dham aprox. 15 K.M. from main city.
# Deer Park for Children situated at Dhansu Road.
# Cattle Feeding Plant situated at Chandigarh Road 5 km Stone.
# Tractor Training Corporation for learning about Tractor technology.
# Asia's Largest automobile repair and spare parts market in terms of radius and area.
# National Research CEntre for Equines, Hissar. http://www.nrce.nic.in
# Military cantonment strategically located right in between Delhi and Bhatinda cantonment (which in itself is the Largest in Asia and 3rd largest in the world). A very important Tank division).
# Nearby remains of the ancient Agroha town.
# Hansi, where famous [https://www.vedamsbooks.com/no27331.htm Hansi bronzes] were discovered in 1982.
# All India Radio Hissar http://www.allindiaradio.org/address/hissar.htm
# HARSAC Haryana Space Applications Centre of Department of Science and Technology, Haryana is situated in the Agriculture University Campus.
# Gujri Mahal (Palace), built by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, for his wife Gujri. A secret underground tunnel ran from this palace to Delhi (165 km) and was used by Zafar's army to bring Arms and ammunition to the city without drawing attention of the East India Company.
#NATIONAL INSTITUTE on pig breeding and research located on Sirsa road.
#NATIONAL INSTITUTE on buffalo breeding and research located on Sirsa road.
#CENTRAL STATE FARMS on Sirsa road for agricultural research.
#CENTRAL LIVESTOCK FARM on Barwala road.
#CENTRAL SHEEP BREEDING farm on Barwala road.
#1200MW thermal power plant on Barwala road (under construction)
#India's largest GI (galvanized iron) pipe manufacturing city.
#Important Railway junction connected to Punjab, Rajasthan and Delhi.
#Largest number of autorikshaws in Haryana as local transport.

Hisar is located at 29°5’5” north latitude and 75°45’55” east longitude. It is situated one hundred sixty four kilometers northwest of Delhi on National Highway number ten.

History

Since the Aryan migration through current times Hisar is dominated by the Jats race. Jats, like the citizens of ancient Roman alternated between farming and fighting for their lands in this part of the world for centuries. This fierce race had been the buffer by default shielding Hindus from foreign Islamic invasions from the west. Jats have cultivated and protected the lands in and between 'Punjab region' and 'doab' (two rivers Yamuna and Ganga - this region today includes New Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Pakistani Punjab, Pakistani Sindh). Research conducted during the British rule identified Jats as "an integral and vital part of the history of India. In the Punjab region and present day Haryana, Jats had long cultivated the lands and ardently protected the inhabitants ('Chattis Kaum' - thirty six communities) against the Islamic invasions from time to time". The city of Hisar was no different, although founded by a Muslim ruler, Firozshah Tughlaq in 1354 A.D the city was predominantly Hindu. The word ‘Hisar’ is an Arabic word, which means ‘Fort’. The city, which we know today as ‘Hisar’, was originally called ‘Hisar Firoza (also Hisar-e-Firoza) or in other words the ‘Fort of Firoz’. But as the days rolled by, the very word ‘Firoza’ was dropped from its original name.

It was in these lands that the very first evidence of the presence of man was discovered with the excavation of Agroha, Banawali and Kunal. All of these were the pre-Harappan settlements, bringing for us the very first images of prehistoric times. The presence of the pillar in the Hisar fort belonging to the time of Emperor Ashoka (234 BC) was originally from Agroha. The discovery of coins of the Kushan Kings tells tales of ancient India.

The construction work of the city of Hisar was started in the year 1354 A.D. under the personal supervision of Firozshah himself who stayed here for a sufficient time. The boundary wall of Hisar Firoza was built up of stones brought from the hills of Narsai. The fort city was also surrounded by a big ditch dug round the wall. A large and deep tank was constructed inside the fort, and the water used to replenish the ditch. Inside the fort a fine palace, having a complex of different buildings was built. Well laid out gardens added to the beauty of the palace. The initial stage of the city, it was reported, was completed after the incessant work of two and a half years.

The nobles and Amirs were also directed by the Sultan to get the residences built here. The buildings were constructed with lime and burnt bricks. The fort-city had four gates which were subsequently named as the Delhi Gate and Mori Gate to the east, the Nagori Gate to the south and Talaqi Gate to the west. These gates were completely razed in mid-eighties by then chief minister Bansi Lal to widen and modernize the roads.

While constructing the palace, popularly known as ‘Gujari Mahal’ for his beloved, Firozshah also built a new city around it. The Gujari Mahal still stands in its austere majesty. This palace is a complex of different buildings, including the royal residence of the sultan Firozshah, Shahi Darwaza, Diwan-e-Aam, Baradari with three tehkhanas, a hamam, a mosque and a pillar. The style of architecture of the Gujari Mahal is dignified. The palace has beautifully carved stone pillars.

Most of the material used for the constructing the Gujari Mahal complex including the nearby mosque was from Hindu or Jain temples desecrated and destroyed by Firozshah's army. The elaborate fingurines of dancers with musical instruments carved in stone can still be seen laid in the pillars and walls of the mosque.

In 1408 Hisar felt into the hands of the rebels, but was recovered by the royal army under the Emperor Mahmud Tughlaq in person. In 1411 the tract of Hansi came into the hands of Khizar Khan, and he ascended to the throne of Delhi in 1414 as the first Sultan of the Sayyad Dynasty. In 1420 the fief of Hisar was conferred on Mahmud Hassan as reward for good services. During the feeble dynasty of the Lodhis (1451-1526) Hisar continued to form a part of Haryana, and was granted as a fief to Muhabbat Khan in the reign of Bahlol Lodi (1451-89)

When Babur invaded India in 1524-26, Hisar was an important strategic center of Ibrahim Lodi’s empire. Before the battle of Panipat in 1526, on reaching the Ghaggar, Babur learnt that the troops from Hisar, led by Hamid Khan, were advancing towards him. He then dispatched prince Humayun with an army sufficient to succeed in defeating the enemy. Babur handed over the city of Hisar to Humayun as a reward for his success in his first military expedition. Humayun ruled over India twice first from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. During his first reign a mosque known as Jama Masjid was built here by Amir Muhammad in 1535.

When Mohd. Gouri Won the second war of Panipat from Prithvi Raj Chauhan, he went back to his country Afghanistan from Hisar. At that time hisar is one of the most important place to take rest for one hour at least.

During Akbar’s reign (1556-1605) Hisar became once more a place of considerable importance. It was made the headquarters of the revenue division known as a sirkar. As some of the Mughal Princes who were attached to Hisar, subsequently became the Emperors, the city of Hisar was then known in the history of India as the Duke of Wellington of the Mughal Era.

The last noteworthy actor in the history of the tract of Hisar before the advent of the British power was George Thomas (1756-1802). He was an independent mercenary who became ruler of a large tract of Haryana, including Hisar and Hansi, for a few years from 1797 to 1802.He got the area on a platter given that by that time it stood ravaged variously by sikh misls who in turn had got into conflict with each other of quite serious nature as also the political vacuum having arisen due to internecine disagreements within the Jat and Maratha rulers as also the intra household conflicts of the said kingdoms. The Jahaz Pul and the Jahaz Kothi situated to the east of the city of Hisar, still remind us of this 'Irish Soldier Of Fortune'. Thomas used the Jahaz Kothi, which was once a temple and afterwards converted into a mosque, as a residence. He was disposed of by the Britishers shortly afterwards. The area was subsequently offered to the king of Jind (a Jat sikh of sidhu clan) who declined to accept it on grounds of it not being feasibly maintainable revenuewise.

Hisar gained importance in early sixties when the Agriculture University was set up as an extension of the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Ever since, the government's positive policies have played a vital role in the economic development of the city. The industrial and agricultural policy of the government has attracted large number of farmers and entrepreneurs and has resulted into the industrialization in and around the city.

Geography

Hisar is located at coord|29.17|N|75.72|E| [ [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/10/Hisar.html Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Hisar] ] . It has an average elevation of 212 metres (695 feet).

The city of Hisar is one of the important and fast growing urban centers of Haryana. It has grown to a vital position on the urban map of Haryana. It has risen because of its location, which is such that for any development away from the G.T. Road Hisar draws one's attention. . People from Punjab and Rajasthan come here for medical treatment, for the purchase of good quality seeds, cows, buffaloes, bullocks and sheep etc. and also to get good education.

Climate

Very hot summers and very cold winters. The maximum day temperature during the summer varies between 40 to 48 degrees Celsius. During winter it ranges between 1.5 degrees to 4 degrees Celsius. Hot winds, locally known as Loo, are strong and frequent from May to July. Normally the southwesterly current of the summer monsoon brings rain during the July to September period. Intermittent dust storms are also common.In the winter some shower of rain come due to western air come from pakistan.

Administrative set-up of District Hisar

Hisar continued to be the District Headquarters of the largest district in the state till its reorganization; some parts of it were transferred to Jind in 1966 when Jind was made a new district. Tehsil Bhiwani and Loharu estate were transferred to the Bhiwani District when Bhiwani was carved out in 1974. It was further bifurcated when the Sirsa become a new district, made entirely out of Hisar District. Now Fatehabad has also been carved out of this district.

At present Hisar district consists of four tehsils and three sub-tehsils. The tehsils are Hisar, Hansi, Narnaund and Adampur and the sub-tehsils are Barwala, Uklana and Bass.

Hisar is a divisional headquarters of the Divisional Commissioner and also the headquarters of the Police Range. It is also a battalion Headquarters of B.S.F. 3rd Bn. H.A.P. and commando force. In order to bring all the departments under one roof, a five storied building of District Administrative Complex has been completed and offices shifted in 1980. It adjoins the new Judiciary Complex, which is also made functional. This administrative and judiciary complex is the largest in Haryana, at a district headquarters which may be one of the largest in the country. It has also slowly become a major hub of PT centres in India for managememt coaching.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census [GR|India] , Hisar had a population of 256,810. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Hisar has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76%, and female literacy is 64%. In Hisar, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. There is a large population of Sikhs in Hisar because it is adjoining with state of Punjab.

References

3. " Hisar City. Places and Personalities " by MM Juneja 2004

4. " History of Hisar " by MM Juneja 1989

5. " Hissar-i-Firuza " by Mehrdad and Natalie Shokoohy 1987

6. Official Website http://hisar.nic.in/


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