Salsify


Salsify

Taxobox
name = Goatsbeards


image_width = 250px
image_caption = Purple Salsify, "Tragopogon porrifolius"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Asterales
familia = Asteraceae
tribus = Cichorieae
genus = "Tragopogon"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = about 45, including:
"Tragopogon coloratus"
"Tragopogon crocifolius"
"Tragopogon cupani"
"Tragopogon dubius"
"Tragopogon floccosus"
"Tragopogon gracilis"
"Tragopogon mirabilis"
"Tragopogon mirus"
"Tragopogon miscellus"
"Tragopogon porrifolius"
"Tragopogon pratensis"
"Tragopogon X crantzii"
"Tragopogon X neohybridus"
: "See also Aruncus, which is also known as "goatsbeard"."

The Goatsbeards or Salsifies are the genus "Tragopogon" of flowering plants within the family Asteraceae. They include the vegetable called salsify as well as a number of common wild flowers, some of which are usually regarded as weeds.

Goatsbeards are forbs growing as biennial or perennial plants. They have a strong taproot and milky sap. They generally have few branches, and those there are tend to be upright. Their leaves are somewhat grass-like. Flower colour varies within the genus, with some yellow species, and some bronze or purple. Seeds are borne in a globe like that of a dandelion but larger, and are dispersed by the wind.

The goatsbeards are natives of Europe and Asia, but several species have been introduced into North America and Australia and have spread widely there.

Some of the more common species of "Tragopogon" are known, in the regions where they are most common, by the common names "goat's beard", "goatsbeard", "salsify" or "common salsify", without further qualification. These names are therefore inherently ambiguous, and best avoided, or reserved for the genus collectively. In the species list below, the first common name given is the one that seems to be most widely used for that species and is not in significant use for any other species.

The vegetable called salsify is usually the root of Purple Salsify, "Tragopogon porrifolius"; the root is described as having the taste of oysters (hence the alternative common name "Oyster Plant" for some species in this genus), but more insipid with a touch of sweetness. The young shoots of Purple Salsify can also be eaten. Other species are also used in the same way, including the Black or Spanish Salsify, "Scorzonera hispanica", which is closely related though not a member of the genus "Tragopogon".

The rise of new species

Goatsbeard are one example where hybrid speciation has been observed. In the early 1900s, humans introduced three species of goatsbeard into North America. These species, the Western Salsify ("T. dubius"), the Meadow Salsify ("T. pratensis"), and the Oyster Plant ("T. porrifolius"), are now common weeds in urban wastelands. In the 1950s, botanists found two new species in the regions of Idaho and Washington, where the three already known species overlapped. One new species, "Tragopogon miscellus", is a tetraploid hybrid of "T. dubius" and "T. pratensis". The other species, "Tragopogon mirus", is also an allopolyploid, but its ancestors were "T. dubius" and "T. porrifolius". These new species are usually referred to as "the Ownbey hybrids" after the botanist who first described them. The "T. mirus" population grows mainly by reproduction of its own members, but additional episodes of hybridization continue to add to the "T. mirus" population.

ome species of Goatsbeard

*"Tragopogon coloratus"
*"Tragopogon crocifolius"
*"Tragopogon cupani"
*Western Salsify, Western Goat's Beard, Wild Oysterplant, Yellow Salsify, Yellow Goat's Beard, Meadow Goat's Beard, Goat's Beard, Goatsbeard, Common Salsify, or Salsify, "Tragopogon dubius"
*Woolly Goatsbeard, "Tragopogon floccosus"
*"Tragopogon gracilis"
*Ontario Goatsbeard, "Tragopogon mirabilis"
*Remarkable Goatsbeard "Tragopogon mirus"
*Hybrid Goat's-beard or Moscow Salsify, "Tragopogon miscellus"
*Purple Salsify, Oyster Plant, Common Salsify, Goatsbeard or Salsify, "Tragopogon porrifolius"
*Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon or Meadow Salsify, "Tragopogon pratensis"
*Crantz's Salsify, "Tragopogon X crantzii"
*Newhybrid Salsify, "Tragopogon X neohybridus"

External links

* [http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1938 Jepson Manual treatment of the genus]

References

*Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Pires, J. C., Kovarik, A., Tate, J. A., & Mavrodiev, E. (2004). Recent and recurrent polyploidy in Tragopogon (Asteraceae): cytogenetic, genomic and genetic comparisons. "Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 82", 485-501.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Salsify — Sal si*fy (?; 277), n. [F. salsifis.] (Bot.) See {Oyster plant} (a), under {Oyster}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • salsify — biennial plant, 1670s, from Fr. salsifis, earlier sercifi, sassify (16c.), probably from It. erba salsifica, from O.It. salsifica, of uncertain origin, perhaps from L. sal salt + fricare to rub …   Etymology dictionary

  • salsify — [sal′sə fē΄, sal′səfī΄] n. [Fr salsifis < It sassefrica < ?] a purple flowered plant (Tragopogon porrifolius) of the composite family, with long, white, edible, fleshy roots having an oysterlike flavor; oyster plant …   English World dictionary

  • salsify — /sal seuh fee/, n., pl. salsifies. a purple flowered, composite plant, Tragopogon porrifolius, whose root has an oyster like flavor and is used as a culinary vegetable. Also called oyster plant, vegetable oyster. [1690 1700; < F salsifis, var. of …   Universalium

  • salsify — Goat s beard Goat s beard, goatsbeard goatsbeard . (Bot.), A weedy European annual with yellow flowers, of the genus {Tragopogon}; so named from the long silky beard of the seeds. One species is the {salsify} or {oyster plant}; it is naturalized… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • salsify — n. (Botany) European plant which has leaves that resemble grass and purple flowers and a long root; root of the salsify plant that is eaten as vegetable …   English contemporary dictionary

  • salsify — [ salsɪfi] noun 1》 an edible plant of the daisy family, with a long root like that of a parsnip. [Tragopogon porrifolius.] 2》 the root of the salsify used as a vegetable. Origin C17: from Fr. salsifis, from obs. Ital. salsefica, of unknown… …   English new terms dictionary

  • salsify — valgomasis pūtelis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Astrinių šeimos daržovinis, dekoratyvinis augalas (Tragopogon porrifolius), paplitęs Šiaurės Afrikoje, pietų Europoje ir pietvakarių Azijoje. atitikmenys: lot. Tragopogon porrifolius angl.… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • salsify — gelteklė statusas T sritis augalininkystė atitikmenys: lot. Scorzonera angl. salsify rus. козелец …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • salsify — n. (pl. ies) 1 a European plant, Tragopogon porrifolius, with long cylindrical fleshy roots. 2 this root used as a vegetable. Phrases and idioms: black salsify scorzonera. Etymology: F salsifis f. obs. It. salsefica, of unkn. orig …   Useful english dictionary


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