- Robert Zoellick
name = Robert Bruce Zoellick
birth_date = birth date and age|1953|07|25
birth_place = Naperville,
residence = Chevy Chase,
nationality = American
office = 11th President of the
World Bank Group
salary = $302,470 USD
July 1, 2007
George W. Bush
successor = Incumbent
office2 = 14th
United States Deputy Secretary of State
February 22, 2005
July 7, 2006
George W. Bush
office3 = 13th
United States Trade Representative
January 20, 2001
February 22, 2005
George W. Bush
spouse = Mrs. Sherry Zoellick
children = None
website = [http://www.worldbankgroup.org/ www.worldbankgroup.org]
Robert Bruce Zoellick (IPA2|zʌlɪk) (born
July 25, 1953) is the eleventh presidentof the World Bank, a position he has held since July 1, 2007. [World Bank press release. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:21385723~menuPK:34463~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html] He was previously a managing director of Goldman Sachs, [Reuters (2006). [http://today.reuters.com/investing/financeArticle.aspx?type=marketsNews&storyID=2006-06-19T165432Z_01_WEN9706_RTRIDST_0_FINANCIAL-ZOELLICK-GOLDMAN-URGENT.XML Goldman says Zoellick to be vice chairman, intl] . Retrieved June 20, 2006.] United StatesDeputy Secretary of State (resigning on July 7, 2006) and U.S. Trade Representative, from February 7, 2001until February 22, 2005.
George W. Bushnominated Zoellick on May 30, 2007to replace Paul Wolfowitzas President of the World Bank. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6701865.stm BBC NEWS | Business | US nominates new World Bank chief ] ] On June 25, 2007, Zoellick was approved by the World Bank's executive board. [http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:21385723~menuPK:51062075~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html "Press Release Regarding the Selection of Mr. Robert B. Zoellick as President of the World Bank"] , " World Bank Group", June 25, 2007, accessed June 26, 2007.]
Zoellick was born in Naperville,
Illinois, where he was raised, and has German ancestry.cite news|last=Becker|first=Elizabeth|coauthors=Edmund L. Andrews|title=INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS; Performing a Free Trade Juggling Act, Offstage|pages=|publisher=The New York Times|date= 2003-02-08|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9506E4D7123BF93BA35751C0A9659C8B63&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=print|accessdate=2007-05-30] [ [http://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,485569,00.html Designierter Weltbank-Chef Zoellick: Bushs stiller Idealist - Wirtschaft - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Nachrichten ] ] [ [http://www.ftd.de/koepfe/:Zoellick%20Pr%E4sident%20Weltbank/206038.html FTD.de - Köpfe - Nachrichten - Zoellick wird Präsident der Weltbank ] ] He graduated in 1971 from Naperville Central High School. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1975 from Swarthmore Collegeand received his J.D. from Harvard Law Schooland a Master of Public Policydegree from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Governmentin 1981. [http://www.results.gov/leadership/bio_474.html results.gov : Resources For The President's Team ] ] [http://www.ustr.gov/about-ustr/ambassador/zoellick.html] Dead link|date=March 2008] In 1992, he received the Knight Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany for his eminent achievements in the course of German Unification.In 2002, Zoellick was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Lettersfrom Saint Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Indiana. On May 30, 2007, President George W. Bushnominated Zoellick to become president of the World Bank, with Paul Wolfowitzformally stepping down on June 30.
Judicial clerkship (1982–1983)
Upon graduation from
Harvard Law SchoolZoellick served as a law clerkfor Judge Patricia Waldon the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
Government service (1985–1992)
Zoellick served in various positions at the Department of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988. He held positions including Counselor to Secretary
James Baker, Executive Secretary of the Department, and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Financial Institutions Policy.
George H. W. Bush's presidency, Zoellick served with Baker, by then Secretary of State, as Under Secretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs, as well as Counselor to the Department (Under Secretary rank). In August 1992, Zoellick was appointed White HouseDeputy Chief of Staff and Assistant to the President. Zoellick was also appointed Bush's personal representative for the G7Economic Summits in 1991 and 1992.
Business and academia (1993–2001)
After leaving government service, Zoellick served from 1993-1997 as an Executive Vice President of Fannie Mae. [http://www.results.gov/leadership/bio_474.html] [http://www.ustdrc.gov/members/zoellick.html] Afterwards, Zoellick was appointed as the
John M. OlinProfessor of National Security at the U.S. Naval Academy (1997–1998), Research Scholar at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairsat the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and Senior International Advisor to Goldman Sachs. [http://www.ustdrc.gov/members/zoellick.html]
Zoellick signed the
January 26, 1998letter [http://www.newamericancentury.org/iraqclintonletter.htm Letter to President Clinton on Iraq ] ] to President Bill Clintonfrom PNAC that advocated war against Iraq.
During 1999 Zoellick was, for a short period, the head of the
Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS) [ [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB925949376503339161.html?mod=googlewsj Free Preview - WSJ.com ] ]
In the 2000 U.S. presidential election campaign, Zoellick served as a foreign policy advisor to George W. Bush as part of a group, led by
Condoleezza Rice, that called itself The Vulcans.
U.S. Trade Representative (2001–2005)
Zoellick was named U.S. Trade Representative at the beginning of the younger Bush's first term; he was a member of the Executive Office, with the rank of Ambassador. According to the U.S. Trade Representative website, Zoellick completed negotiations to bring China and
Taiwaninto the World Trade Organization(WTO); developed a strategy to launch new global trade negotiations at the WTO meeting in Doha, Qatar; shepherded Congressional action on the JordanFree Trade Agreement and the VietnamTrade Agreement; and worked with Congress to pass the Trade Act of 2002, which included new Trade Promotion Authority. [ [http://www.ustr.gov/Who_We_Are/Bios/Biography_of_Ambassador_Robert_B._Zoellick.html] Dead link|date=March 2008] He also heavily promoted the Central American Free Trade Agreementover the objections of labor, environmental, and human rightsgroups. [ [http://0canadiandimension.com/articles/2006/11/07/719/ Canadian Dimension / Articles / In Nicaragua, a Chavez Wave? (Nikolas Kozloff) ] ]
Zoellick played a key role in the U.S.-W.T.O. dispute against the
European Unionover genetically modified foods. The move sought to force genetically modified crops and food on the E.U., which would not otherwise accept them, or be slow to do so. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EUY/is_9_9/ai_98655475 Zoellick says U.S. losing patience with EU over GM food moratorium - Robert Zoellick, genetically modified foods | Food & Drink Weekly | Find Articles at BNET.com ] ] .
Deputy Secretary of State (2005–2006)
January 7, 2005, Bush nominated Zoellick to be Deputy Secretary of State. [ [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/01/20050107-6.html President Nominates Ambassador Zoellick as Deputy Secretary of State ] ] Zoellick assumed the office on February 22, 2005. The " New York Times" reported on May 25, 2006that Zoellick could soon announce his departure. Zoellick agreed to serve as Deputy Secretary of State for not less than one year. He was seen as a major architect of the Bush administration's policies regarding China.
September 21, 2005, Zoellick created a major stir on both sides of the Pacific by giving a remarkably candid speech to the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations. In the speech, he not only introduced the notion of China as a "stakeholder" in the international community but sought to allay fears in the US of ceding dominance to China. The full text of his speech can be found here. [http://www.nbr.org/publications/analysis/pdf/vol16no4.pdf]
In addition, Zoellick chartered a new direction in the Darfur peace process. [Times Online (2006). [http://business.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,13129-2232840,00.html Zoellick quits State Department for Goldman] . Retrieved June 20, 2006.] During a trip to a
Darfur refugee campin 2005, he wore a bracelet with the motto, "Not on our watch." Zoellick was seen by many as the administration's strongest voice on Darfur. His resignation catalyzed groups, such as the Genocide Intervention Network, to praise his record on human rights issues. [http://www.genocideintervention.net/network/pressroom/pressreleases/2006/06/19/385]
President of the World Bank (2007-)
Zoellick officially took office as President of the World Bank on
July 1, 2007. His first term is set to expire in 2012.
Zoellick also serves or has served as a board member for a number of private and public organizations: Alliance Capital, Said Holdings, and the Precursor Group; and as a member of the advisory boards of
Enron[ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1758345.stm BBC News | BUSINESS | Regulators probe Enron stock selloff ] ] and Viventures, a venture fund; and a director of the Aspen Institute's Strategy Group. He has also served on the board of the German Marshall Fundand on the World Wildlife Fund Advisory Council, and was a member of Secretary William Cohen's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee.Fact|date=May 2007
He is a member of the
Council on Foreign Relationsand the Trilateral Commission.Fact|date=May 2007He also attended the annual invitation-only conferences of the Bilderberg Groupin 1991, 2003, 2006 and 2007. [ [http://www.bilderberg.org/2007.htm#participant Bilderberg Conference 2007 - 31st May to 3rd June 2007, Ritz-Carlton, Istanbul, Turkey ] ]
Tom Barry, the policy director of the
International Relations Center, has written that Zoellick "regards free tradephilosophy and free trade agreements as instruments of U.S. national interests. When the principles of free trade affect U.S. short-term interests or even the interests of political constituencies, Zoellick is more a mercantilist and unilateralist than free trader or multilateralist." [ [http://www.counterpunch.org/barry01142005.html Tom Barry: Robert Zoellick: a Bush Family Man ] ] Gavan McCormackhas written that Zoellick used his perch as U.S. trade representative to advocate for Wall Street's policy goals abroad, as during a 2004 intervention in a key privatizationissue in Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's re-election campaign. McCormack has written , "The office of the U.S. Trade Representative has played an active part in drafting the Japan Postprivatization law. An October 2004 letter from Robert Zoellick to Japan’s Finance Minister Takenaka Heizo, tabled in the Diet on August 2, 2005, included a handwritten note from Zoellick commending Takenaka. Challenged to explain this apparent U.S. government intervention in a domestic matter, Koizumi merely expressed his satisfaction that Takenaka had been befriended by such an important figure… It is hard to overestimate the scale of the opportunity offered to U.S. and global finance capital by the privatization of the Postal Savings System." [http://www.newleftreview.org/NLR26901.shtml]
In a January 2000 "
Foreign Affairs" essay entitled "Campaign 2000: A Republican Foreign Policy," he was one of the first of those now associated with Bush's foreign policy to invoke the notion of " evil," writing: " [T] here is still evil in the world — people who hate America and the ideas for which it stands. Today, we face enemies who are hard at work to develop nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, along with the missiles to deliver them. The United States must remain vigilant and have the strength to defeat its enemies. People driven by enmity or by a need to dominate will not respond to reason or goodwill. They will manipulate civilized rules for uncivilized ends." The same essay praises the " idealism" of Theodore Rooseveltand Woodrow Wilson. Two years earlier, Zoellick was one of the signatories (who also included Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, Richard Perle, Elliott Abrams, Zalmay Khalilzad, John R. Bolton, Richard Armitage, and Bill Kristol) of a January 26, 1998letter to President Bill Clintondrafted by the Project for the New American Centurycalling for "removing [Saddam Hussein|Saddam [Hussein] 's regime from power."
An article written in December 2002 by
Oxfamhead of research, Kevin Watkins, titled "Trade Hypocrisy: The Problem with Robert Zoellick", [http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization-trade_economy_justice/article_860.jsp] observed:
:Another area of trade policy in which the Bush administration exercises global leadership, superbly captured by the Zoellick manifesto, can be summarized in a single word, `hypocrisy'. Like the British colonialists that attracted the ire of the Boston tea party fraternity, the United States is a good old-fashioned mercantilist power, combining protectionism at home with a commitment to free trade overseas.
While in the position of Deputy Secretary of State, Zoellick visited
Sudanfour times. He supported expanding a United Nationsforce in the Darfur region to replace African Unionsoldiers. He was involved in negotiating a peace accord between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Army, signed in Abuja, Nigeriain May 2006.
Zoellick is considered an influential advocate of US-German relations. Fluent in German, he possesses considerable knowledge of Germany, the country of his family background.
Tokyo International Conference on African Development(TICAD-IV), 2008.
* [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/biog/42449.htm State Department biography]
* [http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,,contentMDK:21381925~pagePK:51123644~piPK:329829~theSitePK:29708,00.html World Bank biography]
* [http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=20&ItemID=10448 Zoellick in Zmag]
* [http://www.asiasociety.org/speeches/zoellick04.html "China and America: Power and Responsibility" - An address by Zoellick to the Asia Society Annual Dinner in New York, on February 25, 2004]
* [http://www.asiaing.com/whither-china-from-membership-to-responsibility.html Whither China: From Membership to Responsibility?] - Remarks to National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, New York City. September 21, 2005
* [http://www.newsmeat.com/washington_political_donations/Robert_Zoellick.php Robert Zoellick's list of federal campaign contributions]
* [http://unjobs.org/authors/robert-zoellick Zoellick reports, clippings and sources]
NAME=Zoellick, Robert Bruce
SHORT DESCRIPTION=US politician and President of the
World Bank Group
DATE OF BIRTH=
25 July 1953
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=
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