- ACT (examination)
The ACT is a standardized achievement
examinationfor college admissions in the United States produced by ACT, Inc.cite web |url=http://www.act.org/aboutact/history.html |title=About ACT: History |accessdate=October 25 |accessyear=2006 Name changed in 1996. ] It was first administered in Fall1959 by Everett Franklin Lindquistas a competitor to the College Board's Scholastic Aptitude Test, now the SATReasoning Test. ["ACT Assessment," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.] Some students who perform poorly on the SAT find that they perform better on the ACT and vice versa. [cite book |coauthors= Geoff Martz, Kim Magliore, and Theodore Silver |title= Cracking The ACT |edition= 2007 edition |publisher= The Princeton Review|isbn= 9780375765858|pages=Pages 11-12|chapter= Chapter 1] The ACT test has historically consisted of 4 tests: English, Math, Reading, and Science reasoning. In February 2005, an optional writing test was added to the ACT, mirroring changes to the SAT that took place later in March of the same year. All four-year colleges and universities in the U.S. accept the ACT [cite news |first= Mary Beth |last=Marklein |title= Most four-year U.S. colleges now accept ACT test|url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2007-03-18-life-cover-acts_N.htm |format=html |publisher=USA TODAY |date= |accessdate=2007-03-18 |language= English] but different institutions place different emphases on standardized tests such as the ACT, compared to other factors of evaluation such as class rank, G.P.A., and extracurricular activities.
ACT, Inc., was originally known as the American College Testing Program, Inc., but changed its name to "ACT Inc.", the letters not standing for anything, in 1996. In 2002 the company was restructured to include "Education" and "Workforce Development" divisions, each overseen by its own advisory board. Each state also has its own state organization, and the entire company is overseen by a
board of directorsmade up of 14 members. When high school students become sophomores, they take the PLAN test to help decide if they will want to take the ACT the following year.
In 2005 the company established ACT International. This organization is composed of ACT Education Solutions, Limited, and ACT Business Solutions, B.V. "ACT Education Solutions" is directed toward helping non-native speakers learn English in preparation for studying at an English-speaking educational institution. "ACT Business Solutions" attempts to help employers assess their employees' level of English proficiency through use of the
ACT, Inc. says that the ACT assessment measures high school students' general educational development and their capability to complete college-level work with the multiple-choice tests covering four skill areas: English, mathematics, reading, and science. The optional Writing Test measures skill in planning and writing a short essay. [ [http://www.act.org/aap/ The Test] . (URL accessed June 05, 2007).] Specifically, ACT states that its scores provide an indicator of "college readiness", and that scores in each of the subtests correspond to skills in entry-level college courses in English, algebra, social science, humanities, and biology. [ [http://www.actstudent.org/pdf/uyar.pdf 9681 Using Your Results ] ]
To develop the test, ACT incorporates the objectives for instruction for middle and high schools throughout the United States, reviews approved textbooks for subjects taught in Grades 7-12, and surveys educators on which knowledge skills are relevant to success in postsecondary education. ACT publishes a technical manual that summarizes studies conducted of its validity in predicting freshman GPA, equating different high school GPAs, and measuring educational achievement. [ [http://www.act.org/aap/pdf/ACT_Technical_Manual.pdf Microsoft Word - ACT Technical Manual.doc ] ]
Colleges use The ACT and the SAT Reasoning Test because there are substantial differences in funding, curricula, grading, and difficulty among U.S. secondary schools due to American
federalism, local control, and the prevalence of private, distance, and home schooled students. ACT/SAT scores are used to supplement the secondary school record and help admission officers put local data — such as course work, grades, and class rank — in a national perspective.
In addition, some states have used the ACT to assess the performance of schools, and require all high school students to take the ACT, regardless of whether they are college bound.
Coloradoand Illinoishave incorporated the ACT as part of their mandatory testing program since 2001. Michiganhas required the ACT since 2007, Kentuckywill require all high school juniors to take the ACT beginning in 2008 and Wyomingwill require all high school juniors to take either the ACT or the ACT WorkKeysexams. [ [http://www.act.org/news/releases/2007/ndr.html ACT Press Release : 2007 ACT College Readiness Report News Release ] ]
The ACT is more widely used in the
Midwestern and Southern United States, while the SAT is more popular on the east and west coasts, although recently the ACT has been gaining more use on the East Coast.cite journal
last = Honawar
first = Vaishali
coauthors = Alyson Klein
date = August 30, 2006
title = ACT Scores Improve; More on East Coast Taking the SAT's Rival
journal = Education Week
volume = 26
issue = 1
pages = 16
issn = 0277-4232
url = http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=13&hid=3&sid=9abe575c-3a5a-4263-a87e-c4de433025c4%40SRCSM1
format = "fee required"
accessdate = 2007-07-06
quote = ] Use of the ACT by colleges has risen as a result of various criticisms of the effectiveness and fairness of the SAT.
The required portion of the ACT is divided into four
multiple choice subjecttests: English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning. Subject test scores range from 1 to 36; all scores are natural numbers. The English, mathematics, and reading tests also have subscores ranging from 1 to 18. (The subject score is not the sum of the subscores.) The "composite score" is the average of all four tests. In addition, students taking the writing test receive a writing score ranging from 2 to 12, a "combined English/writing score" ranging from 1 to 36 (based on the writing score and English score), and one to four comments on the essay from the essay scorers. The writing score does not affect the composite score. Sometimes the test includes an experimental section that may be a short version of any of the four major sections.
The first section is the 45-minute English test covering
usage/mechanics and rhetorical skills. The 75-question test consists of a few passages with various sections underlined on one side of the page and options to correct the underlined portions on the other side of the page. There are also a few questions about the order of sentences in a paragraph and paragraphs in a passage and the author's tone in a section of text.
The second section is the 60-minute, 60-question math test with 14 covering
pre-algebra, 10 elementary algebra, 9 intermediate algebra, 14 plane geometry, 9 coordinate geometry, and 4 elementary trigonometry. [cite book |coauthors= Geoff Martz, Kim Magliore, and Theodore Silver |title= Cracking The ACT |edition= 2007 edition |publisher= The Princeton Review|isbn= 9780375765858 |pages= Page 94 |chapter= Chapter 10] Calculators are permitted in this section only. The calculator requirements are stricter than the SAT's in that computer algebra systems are not allowed; however, the ACT permits calculators with paper tapes, that make noise, that have wireless capabilities, and that have power cords with certified "modifications" (disabling the mentioned features), which the SAT does not allow. [cite web |url=http://www.actstudent.org/faq/answers/calculator.html |title=ACT FAQ: Can I use a calculator? |accessdate=September 8 |accessyear=2007 |publisher=ACT Inc.] Also, this is the only section that has five instead of four answer choices.
The 35-minute, 40-question reading section measures reading comprehension in four passages (taken and edited from
books and magazines) one representing prose fiction(short stories and novels), another representing social science( history, economics, psychology, political science, and anthropology), a third representing humanities( art, music, architecture, dance), and the last representing natural science( biology, chemistry, physics, and the physical sciences), in that order. [cite book |coauthors= Geoff Martz, Kim Magliore, and Theodore Silver |title= Cracking The ACT |edition= 2007 edition |publisher= The Princeton Review|isbn= 9780375765858|pages=Pages 239|chapter= Chapter 17]
The science reasoning test is a 35-minute, 40-question test. There are seven passages each followed by five to seven questions. There are three Data Representation passages with 5 questions following each passage, 3 Research Summary passage with six questions each, and one Conflicting Viewpoints passage with 7 questions. [cite book |coauthors= Geoff Martz, Kim Magliore, and Theodore Silver |title= Cracking The ACT |edition= 2007 edition |publisher=
The Princeton Review|isbn= 9780375765858|pages=Pages 307|chapter= Chapter 20]
The optional writing section, which is always administered at the end of the test, is 30 minutes long. All essays must be in response to a given prompt. The prompts are about a social issue applicable to high school students. No particular essay structure is required. Two trained readers assign each essay a score between 1 and 6, where a score of 0 is reserved for essays that are blank, off-topic, non-English, not written with no. 2 pencil, or considered illegible after several attempts at reading. The scores are summed to produce a final score from 2 to 12 (or 0). If the two readers' scores differ by more than one point, then a senior third reader decides.
Although the writing section is optional, several schools do require an essay score and will factor it in the admissions decision [cite web |first= Brian |last=Cavner |url=http://acceptedtocollege.com/tests/satoract/ |title=Comparison Between the SAT and ACT: Requirements differences between the two college admissions standardized tests |accessdate=February 3 |accessyear=2008 ] .
The chart below summarizes each section and the average test score based on graduating high school seniors in 2006. [cite web |url=http://www.actstudent.org/testprep/descriptions/index.html |title=ACT Test Prep:Description of the ACT Assessment |accessdate=June 29 |accessyear=2007 |publisher=ACT Inc.] cite web |url=http://www.act.org/news/data/06/pdf/National2006.pdf |title=ACT High School Profile Report: The Graduating Class of 2006: National |accessdate=June 29 |accessyear=2007 |format=
The ACT is offered four to six times a
year, depending on the state, in the United States, in September, October, December, February, April and June and is always on a Saturday.
Candidates may choose either the ACT assessment, ($31), or the ACT assessment plus writing, ($46).
Candidates whose religious beliefs prevent them from taking the test on a Saturday may request to take the test on the following Sunday. Such requests must be made at the time of registration and are subject to denial.
Students with verifiable disabilities, including physical and learning disabilities, are eligible to take the exam with accommodations. The standard time increase for students requiring additional time due to learning disabilities is 50%. [cite web |url=http://www.act.org/aap/disab/index.html |title=ACT Services for Students with Disabilities. accessdate=September 8 |accessyear=2007 |publisher=ACT Inc.] Scores are sent to the student, his or her high school, and up to six colleges. [cite web |url=http://www.actstudent.org/scores/reporting.html |title=ACT Score Information: ACT Score Report Descriptions |accessdate=June 29 |accessyear=2007 |publisher=ACT Inc.]
Outside the US
In some countries outside the US, the ACT might give a different version. This test might be reused. In some cases the ACT reuses again and again the same test throughout a whole school year. That has ended up that sometimes the same students gets the same tests on different dates. Even though this is highly unusual, the ACT has failed to react when it happens. For example, in Chile in 2007 an unknown number of students got 30+ score by retaking the same test with the same questions multiple times without any score penalty. Still, the ACT has not reacted.Fact|date=August 2008
core cumulative percentages and comparison with SAT
Of the graduating high school class of 2007, there were 1,300,599 students who took the ACT; this comprises 42% of the graduating class. [cite web |url=http://www.act.org/news/data/07/states.html |title=ACT National and State Scores for 2007: 2006 Average ACT Scores by State |accessdate = June 29 |accessyear=2007 |publisher=ACT Inc. ] The average composite score was a 21.1. Of 2006 test-takers, 517,563 (or 42.9%) were males, 646,688 (or 53.6%) were females, and 42,204 (or 3.5%) did not report a gender. Nationwide, 314 students who reported that they would graduate in 2007 received the highest ACT composite score of 36. [ [http://www.act.org/news/data/07/pdf/two.pdf] . (URL accessed November 26, 2007).] Males on average scored one fifth (.2) of a point higher on the ACT than females.
Although there is no official conversion chart, the College Board, which administers the SAT, released an unofficial chart based on results from 103,525 test takers who took both tests between October 1994 and December 1996 [http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/highered/ra/sat/satACT_concordance.pdf here] ; however, both tests have changed since then. Several colleges and test-prep companies have also issued their own charts. The following is based on the
The Princeton Reviewconversion chart. [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20060317161104/http://www.princetonreview.com/college/testprep/testprep.asp?TPRPAGE=864&type=ACT-LEARN] . (URL accessed April 10, 2008).] The cumulative percentage are based on the published 2007 ACT distribution. [ [http://www.act.org/news/data/07/pdf/National2007.pdf percentile rankings for 2007 ACT] ] . Note that ACT percentiles are calculated as the percent scoring the same or lower not as is sometimes the case just those who score lower. Note that these values are approximations; yet the distributions have retained a good degree of stability over the history of these exams.Fact|date=April 2008
List of admissions tests
* [http://www.actstudent.org ACT Test Taker's Site]
* [http://www.act.org/ ACT Corporate Site]
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