Lancaster, Pennsylvania


Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Lancaster
—  City  —
City of Lancaster
Skyline of Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Downtown Lancaster, dominated by the new Lancaster County Convention Center and Marriott Hotel, as well as the W. W. Griest Building and the Lancaster County Court House.
Flag of Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Flag
Seal of Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Seal
Nickname(s): The Red Rose City
Lancaster city's location in Lancaster County
Location in Lancaster County
Lancaster city's location in Pennsylvania
Location in Pennsylvania
Coordinates (Penn Square): 40°2′23″N 76°18′16″W / 40.03972°N 76.30444°W / 40.03972; -76.30444Coordinates: 40°2′23″N 76°18′16″W / 40.03972°N 76.30444°W / 40.03972; -76.30444
Country United States
State Pennsylvania
County Lancaster
Founded 1730
Incorporated (borough) 1742
Incorporated (city) 1818
Founder James Hamilton
Named for Lancaster, Lancashire, England
Seat Lancaster County
Government
 - Type Strong mayor – council
 - Mayor Rick Gray (D) (D)
 - City Council
Area
 - City 7.4 sq mi (19.2 km2)
 - Land 7.39 sq mi (19.1 km2)
 - Water 0.01 sq mi (0 km2)
 - Metro 802 sq mi (2,077.2 km2)
Elevation 368 ft (112 m)
Population (2010)
 - City 59,322
 - Rank 8th in Pennsylvania
 - Density 8,016.5/sq mi (3,095.2/km2)
 Urban 59,322
 Metro 494,486
Demonym Lancastrians
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP Codes 17573, 17601–17608, 17611, 17622, 17699
Area code(s) 717
Website cityoflancasterpa.com

Lancaster (Pennsylvania Dutch: Lengeschder) is a city in the south-central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the county seat of Lancaster County and one of the older inland cities in the United States, (along with Springfield, Massachusetts and several other settlements.) [1]. With a population of 59,322,[2] it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities.[3] The Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766,[4] making it 101st among US metropolitan areas.[4]

Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nation's 15th president, and to congressman and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens.

The city's primary industries include healthcare, tourism, manufacturing, and professional services, and it is home to the Park City Center shopping mall. A controversial citywide video surveillance system includes the most outdoor cameras per capita of any US city.

Locally, Lancaster is pronounced English pronunciation: /ˈlæŋkɨstər/ lank-iss-tər, rather than the wider American pronunciation /ˈlæn.kæstər/ lan-kast-ər. This is most likely due to the British influence over the area.

Contents

History

Originally called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright. Its symbol, the red rose, is from the House of Lancaster.[5] Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn, and was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734. It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818.[6] During the American Revolution, it was briefly the capital of the colonies on September 27, 1777, when the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, which had been captured by the British. After meeting one day, they moved still farther away, to York, Pennsylvania. Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg.[7]

In 1737, the Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England. The prison remains in use, and was used for public hangings until 1912.[8]

The first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, which makes up part of the present-day U.S. Route 30. Opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, and was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon MacAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word, "macadam", in lieu of pavement or asphalt.[9] This name is a reference to the paving process named by MacAdam.

The city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancaster's most popular attractions. Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney. Stevens gained notoriety as a Radical Republican and for his abolitionism. The Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first fully functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had local schools named after them.

After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. Two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster: the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle. The Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River, which runs through the city.[10]

In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott. During his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition.[11]

In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful "five and dime" store in the city of Lancaster. The F. W. Woolworth Company is succeeded by Foot Locker.[10]

Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000.[12]

Geography

Lancaster is located at 40°02'23" North, 76°18'16" West (40.039860, -76.304366),[13] and is 368 feet (112 m) above sea level.

The city is located about 34 miles (55 km) southeast of Harrisburg, 70 miles (110 km) west of Philadelphia, 55 miles (89 km) north-northeast of Baltimore and 87 miles (140 km) north of Washington, D.C.

The nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville (4.0 miles), Willow Street (4.8 miles), East Petersburg (5.3 miles), Lititz (7.9 miles), Landisville (8.6 miles), Mountville (8.8 miles), Rothsville (8.9 miles), and Leola (8.9 miles).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles (19 km2), of which, 7.4 square miles (19 km2) of it is land and 0.14% is water.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1800 4,292
1810 5,405 25.9%
1820 6,633 22.7%
1830 7,704 16.1%
1840 8,417 9.3%
1850 12,369 47.0%
1860 17,603 42.3%
1870 20,233 14.9%
1880 25,769 27.4%
1890 32,011 24.2%
1900 41,459 29.5%
1910 47,227 13.9%
1920 53,150 12.5%
1930 59,949 12.8%
1940 61,345 2.3%
1950 63,774 4.0%
1960 61,055 −4.3%
1970 57,690 −5.5%
1980 54,725 −5.1%
1990 55,551 1.5%
2000 56,348 1.4%
2010 59,322 5.3%

As of the 2010 census, the city was 55.2% White, 16.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, and 5.8% were two or more races. 39.3% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry.[14]

As of the census[15] of 2000, there were 56,348 people, 20,933 households, and 12,162 families residing in the city. The population density was 7,616.5 people per square mile (2,940.0/km²). There were 23,024 housing units at an average density of 3,112.1 per square mile (1,201.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 61.55% White, 14.09% African American, 0.44% Native American, 2.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 17.44% from other races, and 3.94% from two or more races. 30.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

In 2000, 24.34% of Lancaster residents were of Puerto Rican ancestry. The city has the highest concentration of Puerto Ricans in Pennsylvania. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "Spanish Rose." Lancaster celebrates its Hispanic heritage once every year with the Puerto Rican Festival.[16]

There were 20,933 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.4% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.23.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 13.9% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,770, and the median income for a family was $34,623. Males had a median income of $27,833 versus $21,862 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,955. 21.2% of the population and 17.9% of families were below the poverty line. 29.2% of those under the age of 18 and 12.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Poverty in Lancaster is twice the state's average, and public school records list more than 900 children as homeless.[17]


Schools

There are 23 Elementary, 10 Middle, and 3 High Schools within 5 School districts.

Middle

High

Economy

Lancaster suffers from high unemployment, especially in the southeastern quadrant.[18] In 1999, this area, which includes census tracts 8, 9, 15, and 16, had unemployment rates of 10.9%, 10.1%, 3.5%, and 9.0% respectively, while the rate for the rest of the county was 4.9%. The Lancaster County Workforce Investment Board sees a persistent problem in underemployment: "People are working but surviving just on the edge of poverty." Outside the city, however, employment has increased 18% by adding 34,900 jobs between the years 1999 and 2002.

Lancaster City has been in the process of recreating itself recently with an explosion of specialty shops, boutiques, bars, clubs, and reinvestment in downtown institutions and locations.

Lancaster streetscape.

Central to those plans was the building of the Lancaster County Convention Center Authority. The convention center opened June 24, 2009.[19] The building of the center was a source of great debate within the community.

There are also plans to convert an area of unused polluted industrial grounds (i.e., Brownfields), which were once occupied by Armstrong World Industries, into playing fields for Franklin & Marshall College. This action is expected to take up most of the former industrial site. The Northwest Corridor will be developed with funds from Lancaster General Hospital. The hospital plans to create a mixed-use development which will add several city blocks to Lancaster’s grid. F&M's former president, John Fry, orchestrated the construction of new dormitories and apartments for Franklin & Marshall students along Harrisburg Pike.

Another Brownfields site is Burle Business Park, the City's only commercial and industrial park. Devoted to adaptive re-use, this facility originally opened in 1942 as a U.S. Navy electronics research, development and manufacturing plant that was operated by RCA. The Navy facility was purchased after World War II by RCA. Burle Business Park was originally occupied by Burle Industries, the successor company to the RCA New Products Division following the 1986 acquisition of RCA by General Electric Company (GE). The GE acquisition of RCA resulted in the divestiture of this facility and the electronic business, but GE retained certain environmental liabilities that were subdivided into a separate parcel. Burle Industries is a major manufacturer of vacuum tube products, including photomultiplier tubes, power tubes, and imaging tubes. and is the largest U.S. manufacturer of photomultiplier tubes. Burle Industries has completed a voluntary clean-up under the Pennsylvania Land Recycling Program ("Act 2").[20]

Shopping

In addition to Lancaster's plethora of urban boutiques and shops, there is the Park City Center within the City of Lancaster, Lancaster County, the largest enclosed shopping center in South Central Pennsylvania. The mall includes an excess of 150 stores and is anchored by The Bon-Ton, Boscov's, JCPenney, Kohl's, and Sears. Park City opened in September 1971.[21]

Built in 1889, the Lancaster Central Market is the oldest continuously operated farmers market in the United States, and many tourists come to purchase the handmade Amish goods that are not commonly found elsewhere.[22] Central Market is also the center of the city's growing 'green' movement, allowing people to purchase organic and/or locally grown foods. Central Market is listed with the National Register of Historic Places, and its towers are of the Romanesque Revival style. The market underwent renovations beginning in July 2010, during which certain sections were closed off; though it remained in operation during this time.[23]

Lancaster also has two outlet shopping centers, both of which are located in East Lampeter township on U.S. Route 30. Named the Tanger Outlets and Rockvale Outlets, each of these locations contains over 100 stores.[24]

Top employers

According to Lancaster's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[25] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Lancaster General Hospital 7,123
2 RR Donnelley 2,723
3 County of Lancaster 2,110
4 Armstrong World Industries 1,654
5 School District of Lancaster 1,643
6 Dart Container 1,582
7 Turkey Hill 1,400

Crime

Crime in Lancaster City has shortened since 2006.[26] Gang activity in Lancaster is common,[27] however, organized crime exists in Lancaster City. This includes the Bloods , Cripss, Mara Salvatrucha, Latin Kings[28] and smaller neighborhood gangs. Various small crimes such as attempted homicides and robberies occur monthly[29] and some could possibly be gang related. Route 222 in Lancaster has been used to move drugs between Reading, Pennsylvania and Lancaster City.[30]

Well known active gangs in Lancaster City include the Black Dragons, the Cash Money Boys, the Bloods, the Crips, the Gangster Disciples, Hells Angels, Pagans, Strong Arm Motorcycle Club, the Outlaws Motorcycle Club, the International Posse, the Latin Kings, Mara Salvatrucha, Riders for Life, the 50 Million Soldiers, and Vatos Locos.[31]

Local criminals and others from througout Lancaster County, such as murderers, drug dealers, arms dealers, and auto thieves, go to Lancaster County Prison, a large facility on East King Street. Lancaster County Prison was originally built in 1737 and was used for public hangings until 1912.

A youth correctional center, not identified as a jail or prison, is called Manos House. It brings in 16 to 20 year-old criminals and rehabilitates them from past offenses to the law. It is located on North Prince Street in Lancaster City.

Green Roofs

Lancaster has one of the highest rates of green roof space per capita in the US. With the recent addition to the roof of Tellus360 on East King Street, Lancaster now has 70,000 sq ft (6,500 m2) of green roofs for a city with a downtown population of 65,000. The owners of the store blogged the entire process of building the green roof on their website.

Government

Lancaster operates under a Mayor / Council form of Government. The City has a full range of services including Public Safety, Health, Housing, Parks, Streets & Highways, Water operations and Sewer operations.[32]
Rick Gray is the 43rd mayor of Lancaster city
The City Council is composed of seven members: President Louise B. Williams, Patricia A. Coller, Joseph R. Morales, Nelson M. Polite, Sr., Tim J. Roschel, Todd E. Smith, and Jose E. Urdaneta.

Fire Department

The city of Lancaster is protected 24/7, 365 by the 72 professional firefighters of the City of Lancaster Bureau of Fire and Rescue. The Bureau of Fire and Rescue operates out of 3 Fire Stations, located throughout the city, as well as a storage facility. The Bureau also operates a fire apparatus fleet of 3 Engines, 2 Trucks, and a Shift Commander, as well as numerous special, support, and reserve units. The Bureau responds to, on average, approximately 3,250 emergency calls annually. The current Fire Chief is Tim Gregg.[33]

As of Spring, 2011, due to budget cuts, the department plans to reduce personnel on duty from four platoons to three platoons, as well as rotating the an Engine and a Truck out of service for each day, reducing the total day-to-day number of fire apparatus on-duty from 3 Engines and 2 Trucks to 2 Engines and 1 Truck.[34]

Fire Station Locations and Apparatus

  • Fire Station # 1 – 425 W. King St. – Downtown
    • Rescue Engine 1
    • Truck 2(Quint)
    • Shift Commander
    • Deputy Chief
    • Utility 1
    • Utility 2
  • Fire Station # 3 – 333 E. King St. – East End
    • Rescue Engine 3
    • Engine 6(Reserve)
    • Truck 1(Quint)
    • Command Van
  • Fire Station # 6 – 843 Fremont St. – Cabbage Hill
    • Engine 2(Foam Unit)
  • Fire Headquarters – 100 S. Queen St., Suite 103 – Downtown
  • Storage Facility(Ex. Fire Station # 4) – New Holland Ave. and Fountain Ave. – Sixth Ward
    • Rescue Engine 5(Reserve)
    • Maintenance Vehicle
    • Foam Trailer

Police Department

The city of Lancaster is protected by the City of Lancaster Bureau of Police. Founded in 1865, the Bureau of Police is located at 39 W. Chestnut St. in Downtown Lancaster, and consists of approximately 147 sworn officers and 46 civilian employees. The Bureau of Police operates out of twelve sectors, or districts, and operates in four Divisions, including Patrol, Criminal Investigative, Administrative Services, and Contracted Services. The Bureau also remains the largest law enforcement agency in Lancaster County. The current Chief of Police is Keith R. Sadler.[35][36]

Politics

Lancaster tends to be a Democratic Party stronghold. Registered Democrats hold a 13,000 voter registration advantage over registered Republicans, as of June 2009.[37] U.S. presidential candidate Barack Obama easily won the city of Lancaster, receiving 76% of the vote during the 2008 presidential election.[38]

Federally, Lancaster is part of Pennsylvania's 16th congressional district, represented by Republican Joe Pitts, elected in 1996.

The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Bob Casey, elected in 2006. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Republican Pat Toomey, elected in 2010. The Governor of Pennsylvania is Republican Tom Corbett, elected in 2010. Additionally, the city of Lancaster is the headquarters of the Constitution Party, the largest third party in the United States.

Lancaster was home to Democrat James Buchanan, the fifteenth president of the United States. Buchanan arrived in Lancaster in 1809 to practice law. He took up residence near the courthouse on N. Duke Street. In 1848 he purchased Wheatland, a Federal style mansion in the suburbs. He was elected President in 1856.[39]

Security Camera Controversy

Not long after a police officer was wounded in a February 17, 2000 daytime shootout near the center of Lancaster's Penn Square, community residents, law enforcement, and elected officials sought viable solutions to rising crime. Addressing issues of public safety was a goal when the Lancaster County Crime Commission convened in August 2000. Public meetings and discussions were held over a two-year period. Among the seventeen recommendations in the Crime Commission's 2003 report was the recommendation to explore the feasibility of a civilian-driven system of security cameras to support law enforcement and first responders. Lancaster's citizens expressed a desire to avoid a government- or police-operated system of cameras. The Lancaster Community Safety Coalition (LCSC) was registered with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a nonprofit in 2004 to carry out the implementation and operation of a video surveillance system.[40] Paid LCSC staff are background checked by the FBI and trained to monitor the network of 164 closed-circuit TV cameras in the city of Lancaster.

In 2009, the LCSC's expansion from a 70 to a 165 camera network attracted national attention, including a front page Los Angeles Times article called "Lancaster, Pa., keeps a close eye on itself".[17][41] The article quoted city police chief Keith Sadler as saying "Years ago, there's no way we could do this...It brings to mind Big Brother, George Orwell and 1984. It's just funny how Americans have softened on these issues."[17]

Prior to the publication of the Los Angeles Times article, there had been little public outcry in response to the expanding CCTV camera system, which had contributed to the resolution or prevention of several crimes.[42] However, the national attention led to an immediate backlash by a small but vocal group of "mobilized opponents aimed at turning off the cameras, possibly for good."[40] MSNBC commentator Keith Olbermann used the story in his 'Worst Person in the World' segment, "calling out the 'citizen patriots of Lancaster, Pennsylvania' and criticizing them for spying on each other",[41] and the surveillance system was also featured on ABC's "Nightline" and "CBS Evening News".[40]

Although public opinion was initially mixed among Lancaster residents, statistical and anecdotal data suggest that the network of cameras is achieving the desired effect. In the fall of 2010, the Lancaster Community Safety Coalition was among several factors credited for a 13.7% drop in Lancaster's violent crime rate according to the FBI's Unified Crime Report (UCR). Property crime dropped 7.1% during the same period. Neighboring cities have not experienced similar reductions in crime.[43] Although in the year 2010, cameras only helped solve 28 of the 6,653 crimes committed in the city in the year 2010. Although the year of 2009 received a reduction in violent crimes of over 13% and recorded 465 violent offenses, the following year of 2010 saw a rise in violent offenses. Violent offenses jumped from 465 in 2009 to 511 in 2010. Lancaster Community Safety Coalition had a success rate of preventing and helping police catch a suspect in .037% of crimes committed and Lancaster is seeing far more unsolved homicides since the installation of the cameras.

Neighborhoods

  • Cabbage Hill/The Hill (Named for the large amount of cabbage used by those of German heritage who lived in this area[44])
  • Conestoga Township (Home of the Conestoga Wagon)
  • Downtown/Center City
  • Downtown Investment District
  • East End
  • Gallery Row/Arts District[45]
  • Grandview Heights
  • Manor Township
  • North Side
  • Northeast Side
  • Northwest Corridor
  • Penn Square
  • Sixth Ward
  • South Side
  • Southeast Side
  • Southwest Side
  • Uptown
  • West End
  • Woodward Hill

Transportation

The Route 16 bus leaving Millersville inbound to Lancaster.

The Red Rose Transit Authority (RRTA) provides local bus transit to Lancaster City as well as surrounding areas in Lancaster County. RRTA is headquartered outside the City of Lancaster.

Bieber Trailways (formerly Capitol Trailways) provides intercity bus transit from the Lancaster Train and Bus Station to King of Prussia, Philadelphia, and New York City to the east, and York and Harrisburg to the west.

Amtrak also serves the Lancaster Train and Bus Station, located on the northernmost edge of the city at 53 East McGovern Avenue. The Pennsylvanian, with service between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, as well as the Keystone Service, which runs from Harrisburg to New York, both serve Lancaster.[46] The city is served by the Lancaster Airport, located six miles (10 km) north of downtown and just south of Lititz.

Lancaster is also a hub for automobile traffic, with so many major roadways passing through or around the city, including US-30, US-222, PA-283, PA-72, and PA-272.

Historical landmarks

Many of Lancaster's landmarks were relevant places in local, state, and national history.

  • Central Market (Lancaster)- built in 1889, is the oldest, continuously-run farmers market in the United States.
  • Hamilton Watch Complex- former factory and headquarters of the Hamilton Watch Company, which introduced the world's first battery-powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500 in 1957.[47]

Art and museums

The city of Lancaster hosts several museums that preserve its important contributions to society. The Demuth Museum is located in the former home of a well-known Lancaster painter named Charles Demuth. Additional art museums include the Lancaster Museum of Art and the Philips Museum of Art on the campus of Franklin & Marshall College. Art students at the state-of-the-art Pennsylvania College of Art and Design present their works at the academy's gallery that is open to the public. Another newly constructed museum, completed in 2007, is the Lancaster County Quilts and Textile Museum that celebrates the hand-sewn quilts and other textile items produced by the region's Amish and Mennonite communities. Lancaster also possesses two other museums that pay homage to its unique Pennsylvania Dutch heritage with the Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society Museum and the Heritage Center Museum. Children can have a hands-on experience with educational learning at the Hands-on House, also known as Children's Museum of Lancaster. Nature and geology-minded visitors can view the more earthly exhibits of the Louise Arnold Tanger Arboretum and the North Museum of Natural History and Science. Upon completion, the Lancaster County Convention Center will incorporate the Stevens and Smith Historic Site, a museum that will include the preserved home of Thaddeus Stevens and his confidante Lydia Hamilton Smith. In addition to its exhibits, the underground portion of the site will feature a recently discovered Underground Railroad feature: a converted water cistern utilized in the nineteenth century to hide runaway slaves escaping to freedom. In the surrounding county, the Landis Valley Museum in Manheim Township, Lancaster County contains exhibits that illustrate Lancaster County's history and culture. LancasterARTS, a non-profit organization, started in 2002 to promote local arts in Lancaster.[48]

Sports

Club League Venue Established Championships
Lancaster Barnstormers ALPB Baseball Clipper Magazine Stadium 2005 1

Baseball

Clipper Magazine Stadium

After 44 years without professional baseball, the Lancaster Barnstormers arrived to fill the void left by the departed Red Roses. The Barnstormers are named after the barnstorming baseball players who played exhibition games in the surrounding county, as well as a reference to the county's many farms. The Barnstormers continue a couple of traditions of the old Red Roses, as their official colors are red, navy blue, and khaki, the same colors used by the Red Roses. More importantly, the Barnstormers continue the old "War of the Roses" rivalry between Lancaster and the nearby city of York, contending with the York Revolution.

The city of Lancaster is the hometown of Major League alumnus, Tom Herr. Herr played for the Philadelphia Phillies, the New York Mets, the San Francisco Giants, and finally with the St. Louis Cardinals. After his time in the Majors, he coached the Black Knights baseball team of Hempfield High School for several years. Herr joined the Lancaster Barnstormers for their inaugural season in 2005 as the manager. After a dismal 2005 season, he led the Barnstormers to their first-ever championship in 2006, against the Bridgeport Bluefish. Two of Tom's sons, Aaron and Jordan, both play professional baseball on Major League-affiliated clubs. Aaron is a member of the Louisville Bats, the AAA-level affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds. Jordan joined his hometown Barnstormers for the 2008 season in lieu of completing his senior year at the University of Pittsburgh. Following the completion of the Barnstormers' 2008 season, Jordan piqued the interest of the Chicago White Sox, who allocated him to their Rookie-level Great Falls Voyagers.

Basketball

Professional basketball briefly returned to Lancaster in 2009 with the Liberty. The team participated in the now-defunct Global Professional Basketball League 2.[49]

Bicycling

The Lancaster Bicycle Club hosts an annual Covered Bridge Metric Century bicycle race. In 2010, more than 2,500 riders participated.[50] The 2011 ride is scheduled for August 21.[51]

The city of Lancaster hosted the Tom Bamford Lancaster Classic, an international, professional bicycle racing event held each June since 1992. It was part of the 2006–2007 UCI America Tour and the 2007 USA Cycling Professional Tour.

Golf

Professional golf is well-represented by the Professional Golf Association's Jim Furyk. He placed 4th in the 1998 and 2003 Masters tournament, won the 2003 U.S. Open, placed 4th in the 1997, 1998, and 2006 British Open, and placed 6th in the 1997 PGA championship. Furyk also won the Vardon Trophy in 2006. He is an alumnus of Manheim Township High School, located in the immediate suburb of Manheim Township.

The 2015 U.S. Women's Open will be held at the Lancaster Country Club.[52]

Soccer

The Women's Premier Soccer League added the Lancaster Inferno in the 2008 season. The WPSL is a FIFA-recognized Division IV league, and is also included in the fourth tier of the American soccer pyramid. The Inferno is owned by the Pennsylvania Classics organization and play their home games at the Hempfield High School stadium in Landisville. The Inferno's colors are orange, black, and white.

A Lancaster native named Julian Valentin plays for FC Tampa Bay of USSF Division 2 Professional League. He is also a member of the Under-20 United States men's national soccer team, and played in the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Valentin made his professional debut on October 26, 2008 versus FC Dallas.

Amateur sports in Lancaster

Lancaster's suburban area hosts several amateur sports teams. Ice hockey is represented by the Central Penn Panthers, a member of the junior-level Atlantic Metropolitan Hockey League, and the Lancaster Firebirds, a youth amateur ice hockey organization of the USA Hockey's Atlantic District.[53] American football is represented by the Lancaster Lightning, a member of the semi-professional North American Football League, that plays in nearby Kinzers. A close cousin of American football, rugby, is represented by the Roses Rugby Football Club of the Mid Atlantic Rugby Football Union, of which the Roses RFC are the 2005 champion. Roller derby is represented by the Dutchland Derby Rollers, an all-female roller derby team which plays to raise money for various charities,[54] currently ranked #23 in the world by Derby News Network.[55]

Historical Lancaster teams

All of Lancaster's defunct teams either were members of a professional baseball or basketball league. The most well-known of the city's former teams were the Lancaster Red Roses of the Eastern Professional Baseball League that played from 1906 to 1909, and from 1940 to their last season in 1961. The Red Roses were known as the Lancaster Maroons from 1896 to 1899 and the Lancaster Red Sox in 1932.

The most well-known of Lancaster's former basketball teams were the Lancaster Red Roses of the Continental Basketball Association from 1946 to 1949, and from 1953 to 1955. The Continental Basketball Association later hosted another Lancaster team called the Lightning from 1981–1985. The Lightning later moved to Rockford, Illinois, where they played until the 2007 season. The most recent basketball team to play in Lancaster was the Storm of the Eastern Basketball Alliance from 1997 to 2000. This team won the league championship in 1999.

Inventions

Hamilton pocketwatch
  • The first battery-powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company.
  • Peeps, an Easter confection shaped as marshmallow chicks covered with yellow sugar, were invented by the Rodda Candy Company of Lancaster in the 1920s. In 1953, Rodda was purchased by Sam Born, the Russian immigrant who invented ice cream "jimmies", and production was moved to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

Education

Education in Lancaster is provided by many private and public institutions. The School District of Lancaster runs the city's public schools. The local high school campuses are McCaskey and McCaskey East. Established in 1836, it is the second oldest school district in Pennsylvania.[56] Lancaster Catholic High School has a long history in the county; it was founded in 1926. It currently falls under the jurisdiction of the diocese of Harrisburg. With a P-12 enrollment of more than 500 students, Lancaster Country Day School is one of the region's largest independent nonsectarian schools. Founded in 1908 as the Shippen School for Girls, the school became coeducational and relocated from downtown Lancaster to its Hamilton Road address in 1949.

Lancaster area hosts several colleges and universities including: Consolidated School of Business, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster General College of Nursing & Health Sciences, Lancaster Theological Seminary, Lancaster Bible College, Pennsylvania College of Art and Design, Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology, Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Central Pennsylvania College,and the Harrisburg Area Community College.

Media

Print

  • Intelligencer Journal, the county's predominant newspaper
  • La Voz Hispana, the city's Spanish-language edition
  • Sunday News, the county's weekly edition
  • Fly Magazine, Lancaster City's Downtown Guide

See also: List of newspapers in Pennsylvania in the 18th-century: Lancaster

TV

TV stations
call letters channel network location Owner
WGAL 8 / 58 NBC Lancaster Hearst Corporation
WGAL – DT HD 8.2 TH!S Movie Network Lancaster Hearst Corporation

Local businesses

The businesses that are based in the vicinity of Lancaster include: Armstrong World Industries, Auntie Anne's, Fulton Bank, Fulton Financial Corporation, Herley Industries, Isaac's Restaurant & Deli, Kunzler & Company, Inc., Lancaster Brewing Company, Lancaster Laboratories, MapQuest,[57] Opening Day Partners, Y&S Candies division of The Hershey Company, and the Lancaster Caramel Company (the original parent company of the Hershey Company).

Sister cities

See also

References

  1. ^ "History of the City of Lancaster". City of Lancaster. http://www.co.lancaster.pa.us/lancastercity/cwp/browse.asp?a=3&bc=0&c=42722. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "The Most Populous Counties and the Most Populous Cities and Townships in 2010 in Pennsylvania" (xls). US Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/news/xls/cb11cn74_pa_2010redistr.xls. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  3. ^ "GCT-T1-R. Population Estimates (geographies ranked by estimate)". Pennsylvania – Place and County Subdivision. US Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?-ds_name=PEP_2009_EST&-mt_name=PEP_2009_EST_GCTT1R_ST9S&-geo_id=04000US42. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 23, 2010. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/files/2009/CBSA-EST2009-alldata.csv. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  5. ^ History of Lancaster
  6. ^ "Lancaster County History". PHMC. http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/BAH/dam/counties/browse.asp?catid=36. Retrieved August 1, 2006. 
  7. ^ City of Lancaster, PA
  8. ^ Lancaster County Prison overview
  9. ^ Pennsylvanian use of the term, "macadam"
  10. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica's page on Lancaster, PA
  11. ^ Lewis and Clark Expo timeline
  12. ^ http://www.ncl.org/aac/past_winners/past_winners.html
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  14. ^ USAToday.com [1]
  15. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  16. ^ "Puerto Rican Festival". Lancaster Online. http://local.lancasteronline.com/4/25832. Retrieved September 18, 2006. 
  17. ^ a b c Lancaster, Pa., keeps a close eye on itself
  18. ^ "Workforce Profile for Lancaster City". Jobs 4 Lancaster. Archived from the original on May 28, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060528222700/http://www.jobs4lancaster.com/documents/AWorkforceProfileofLancasterCity.doc. Retrieved May 9, 2006. 
  19. ^ "Opening of Convention Center". LancasterPA.net. http://www.lancasterconventioncenter.com/press_release.asp. Retrieved Jan 18, 2010. 
  20. ^ PADEP, appendices of Act 2 annual reports
  21. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=f891HxR6y9MC&printsec=frontcover&dq=lancaster+pa+park+city+mall+david+schuyler&source=bl&ots=9dfAU3FSJf&sig=yHax60fFprgCJNJGmpk8jTglWtE&hl=en&ei=C5nQTL2xCoKClAeWvZGMBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22park%20city%22&f=false
  22. ^ "History of Central Market". LancasterPA.net. Archived from the original on February 11, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060211180054/http://www.lancasterpa.net/photo_tour/historic_buildings/central_market.htm. Retrieved May 30, 2006. 
  23. ^ "Behind The Scenes At Central Market". WGAL-TV News Broadcast (Video). 5 November 2010. http://www.wgal.com/video/25643609/detail.html?taf=lan. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  24. ^ Fodor's Philadelphia and the Pennsylvania Dutch Country. Fodor's. 2007. pp. 234. ISBN 978-1400018222. http://books.google.com/books?id=oE4dRZVxHtMC&lpg=PA234&dq=lancaster%20outlets&pg=PA234#v=onepage&q=lancaster%20outlets&f=false. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  25. ^ City of Lancaster CAFR
  26. ^ http://lancasterpa.areaconnect.com/crime1.htm - LancasterPA.com
  27. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-9313023.html - Highbeam.com - Crime in Lancaster
  28. ^ http://www.chacha.com/question/is-there-a-latin-king-chapter-in-lancaster-pennsylvania - ChaCha Answers: Is there a Latin Kings chapter in Lancaster, Pennsylvania?
  29. ^ http://lancasteronline.com/section/local/tag_Crime_1-Crime.html - Crime - LancasterOnline.com
  30. ^ http://www.city-data.com/forum/pennsylvania/37026-gangs-lancaster-county-unsafe-areas.html CityData.com
  31. ^ Brett Lovelace LancasterOnline.com - "Gangs along Rt. 222 focus of talk at F&M" 14 November 2006
  32. ^ http://www.lancastercityliving.org/index.php?pID=31
  33. ^ http://www.iaff319.org/index.cfm?Section=10&PageNum=78
  34. ^ http://www.iaff319.org/
  35. ^ http://www.lancasterpolice.com/about/chiefs_message.htm
  36. ^ http://www.lancasterpolice.com/about/history.htm
  37. ^ Harris, Bernard (2009-06-26). "It's official: Smithgall running for mayor again". Lancaster New Era. http://articles.lancasteronline.com/local/4/239278. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  38. ^ "Smithgall 'probably' running for mayor again". Lancaster New Era. 2009-05-21. http://articles.lancasteronline.com/local/4/237871. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  39. ^ Donovan, Sandra (2005). James Buchanan. Lerner Publications. pp. 21. ISBN 978-0822513995. http://books.google.com/books?id=1zmOnLFwbaQC&lpg=PA21&dq=%22James%20Buchanan%22%20Lancaster&pg=PA21#v=onepage&q=%22James%20Buchanan%22%20Lancaster&f=false. 
  40. ^ a b c Lancaster's candid cameras: Who funds them and what the controversial videos show
  41. ^ a b Keeping watch on the city's cameras
  42. ^ [2]
  43. ^ A Decline In Crime
  44. ^ http://www.lancastercityliving.org/index.php?pID=18
  45. ^ http://www.lancasterarts.com/index.php?pID=105
  46. ^ http://www.amtrak.com/servlet/ContentServer?c=am2Station&pagename=am%2Fam2Station%2FStation_Page&cid=1229726268117 amtrak.com
  47. ^ [3]
  48. ^ http://www.lancasterarts.com/index.php
  49. ^ "Lancaster City". cityoflancasterpa.com. http://www.cityoflancasterpa.com/lancastercity/cwp/browse.asp?a=3&bc=0&c=42722. Retrieved May 18, 2009. 
  50. ^ http://www.lancasterbikeclub.org/cbm10.php
  51. ^ http://www.lancasterbikeclub.org/cbm11.php
  52. ^ Lancaster Country Club to host the U.S. Women's Open
  53. ^ Lancaster Firebirds
  54. ^ Dutchland Rollers
  55. ^ Derby News Network
  56. ^ Lancaster: Education and Research
  57. ^ Reclaimed Wood Furniture, Irish Antiques and Eco Gifts

Further reading

External links

Preceded by
Philadelphia
Capital of the United States of America
1777
Succeeded by
York

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