- Las Californias
The Californias (Spanish:"Las Californias") was the name given by the Spanish to the area, which today is primarily the three
statesof Baja Californiaand Baja California Surin Mexicoand Californiain the United States. Administratively, it was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The inland part of the Californias was not precisely defined and at times was understood to include the present states of Nevadaand Arizonaand portions of New Mexicoand Utah. To the east it was bordered by the "Gobernaciones" ( provinces) of Sonora, which included the settlements in Arizona, and Nuevo México. Most of the colonization of the Californias was done first by Jesuit missionaries, who set out, with the aid of Spanish soldiers stationed in a system of presidios, to convert and to politically and socially reorganize the Native communities of the region. Once the missions and the Native communities organized around them were successfully established, secular settlements of Hispanicpeoples from other parts of northern New Spain were created. This process was first carried out during the seventeenth century in the Baja California peninsula, and was repeated in the late eighteenth century in the area that is today the State of California. In 1776the Californias became part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas. In 1786an independent intendancy was set up for the Californias to administer government and military finances, but the office was merged with the governorship a few years later. In 1804the crown established two governments for the region, one called Baja California, and another for the remaining areas in the mainland to the north, called Alta California. As part of the Provincias Internas, the Californias fell under the jurisdiction of the Audiencia of Guadalajara in judicial matters.
First explorations and early history
The first recorded Europeans to sight the California
regionsailed in "La Concepción" in 1533under the pilot navigator Fortún Jiménez in an expedition organized by Hernán Cortés. They reached La Paz, where they tried to establish a small colony. In 1555Cortés himself participated in a second expedition, which explored the Sea of Cortez. [Mathes, W. Michael. [http://www.angelfire.com/bc3/domingosaiza/Wmathes/DrWmichaelIV.html "An Historical Survey of the Missions".] (La Paz: Aristos, 1977). Retrieved on 2008-08-09.] At the time of Cortés's' expeditions, the region was occupied by a wide variety of Native American peoples. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo's expedition, commisioned by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza was the next to reach the area, sailing via the Pacific Oceanin 1542 following the coast of the Baja California peninsulato a point beyond 40° North latitude. He named the discovered territory "Nueva California" (New California) as opposed to "Vieja California" (Old California), which were the coasts of which had already been sailed and explored.
The first, secular
Hispaniccity in the Californias was Loreto, which became the first capitalof the territory.
Colonization, carried out primarily through the establishment of missions, began during the seventeenth century and ended shortly after the independence of Mexico in 1821. For almost the first century, the missionizing effort, carried out by the
Society of Jesus, concentrated on Baja Califonia exclusively. The first mission in Baja California, the short-lived Misión San Bruno, was established in 1683, but the first successful mission was established in 1697in Loreto.
The second half of the 18th century brought about changes in policy for several reasons. First foreign powers, especially Russia, became interested in Alta California and began to make inroads into the area. At the same time the administration of the area was revitalized by the political reforms carried out under
José de Gálvez, who was first a "visitador" to the Viceroyalty of New Spainand later Minister of the Indies. Finally, another drastic change came when the crown ordered all Jesuits expelled from all Spanish territories in 1767. The Dominicans were selected to take over the missions in Baja California. Around this time plans to bring Alta California firmly into Spanish control through a new missionary effort were finalized. The Franciscans were chosen by the authorities carry out this plan in 1769. The exact border between the Orders' territories in the Californias was established in 1773by Francisco Palóuon a line close to the present United States-Mexico border. It ended at the Pacific coast in the area of Playas de Rosarito, about 25 km south of the current international border. (The first border was at Punta El Descanso, today occupied by the Centro Histórico y Cultural Calafia. It was later moved in 1778 to the Rosarito Creek.) Direction of the Franciscan, Alta California missions fell first to Junípero Serra, and after his departure in 1773, to Palóu.
Gálvez's plans also included secular settlements. Much as had happened in the previous century in Baja California, first a system of
presidios were established in Alta California to protect the missionaries. Two decades later secular towns were also established to bring in Hispanicsettlers into the area and to provide food, material and a place for retirement for the presidio soldiers. The first town in Alta California was San José de Guadalupe in 1777, followed by Nuestra Señora, la Reina de los Ángeles in 1781. Other towns soon formed around the presidios.
Political division and permanent separation
As Alta California developed and gained a larger Hispanic population, the need for a separate government became apparent. In
1804the two areas were separted and Baja Californiaand Alta Californiagiven separate governors. With Mexican independence the two provinces became territories, not states as most other areas of the country did, due to their small populations in the new republic established in 1824.
Two decades later, as a result of the
Mexican–American Warand the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Mexicopermanently lost Alta California. The new areas acquired by the United States continued to be administered as territories, but by the early 20th century all had become states. Mexico reorganized the Territory of Baja California into two territories in 1931, North Territory of Baja California and South Territory of Baja California. By the 20th century each territory would become a state, Baja Californiain 1953and Baja California Surin 1974.
The current captitals of each state are
Sacramento, California; Mexicali, Baja California; and La Paz, Baja California Sur.
Timeline of the Californias
1533- First European landing in Baja California by Fortún Jiménez.
28 September 1542- First European landing in Alta California by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo.
4 November 1595- Sebastián Rodríguez Cermeñoclaims the coast for Spain.
1697- Missions erected in Baja California, region made part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
1768- Spanish settlement begins in Alta California
3 June 1770- Governorship established for Las Californias.
1786- Intendancy of Las Californias established.
1804- Separate administrations for Alta Californiaand Baja California.
11 April 1822- Both provinces part of independent Mexicoas the territories of Baja and Alta California.
Governors of the Californias
* 1768 -
9 July 1770 Gaspar de Portolá(b. 1723 - d. 1786)
9 July 1770- 23 March 1774 Pedro Fages(b. 1730 - d. 1796?)
23 March 1774- 3 February 1777Fernando José Rivera y Moncada (b. 1724 - d. 1781)
3 February 1777- 7 September 1782 Felipe de Neve(b. 1728 - d. 1784)
7 September 1782- 17 April 1791 Pedro Fages(s.a.)
17 April 1791- 9 April 1792José Antonio de Roméu, conde de Riverra Gigado (b. 1842 - d. 1792)
9 April 1792- Nov 1794 José Joaquín de Arrillaga(First time)(b. 1750 - d. 1814) (acting)
* Nov 1794 -
16 January 1800 Diego de Borica(b. 1742 - d. 1800)
16 January 1800- 11 March 1802Pedro de Alberni (acting) (b. 1747 - d. 1802)
11 March 1802- 1804 José Joaquín de Arrillaga (Second time) (s.a.)
ources and references
* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/ WorldStatesmen — see each present country]
History of California
Spanish missions in Baja California
Spanish missions in California
List of pre-statehood governors of California
List of governors in the Viceroyalty of New Spain
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